Week 2 Notes: August 24-28
Week 2 Notes: August 24-28 RCO 252-01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rosa Angeles on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RCO 252-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Ms. Margaret Hood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
RCO 25201 Introductory Concepts in Biology Professor Ms Margaret Hood Notes By Rosa Angeles August 24th 2015 Dependent Variable gt Y AXIS Independent Variable gt XAXIS In a lab you can control everything in a eld study you can39t Independent Variable affects Dependent Variable Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass weight All matter is composed of elements substance that cannot be broken down by chem rx contains 1 type of atom 90 of the body is made up of C N O and H An element39s properties depend on the structure of its atoms Atoms are the smallest unit of an element that still retains the chemical amp physical properties of the element Protons Electrons Neutrons Atomic Number gt of Protons Mass Number gt Protons Neutrons Organic molecules contain Carbon Protons amp Neutrons are in the nucleus Electrons gt Shells 1St Shell 2 Electrons 2nd Shell 8 Electrons Atomic Number is basically same as mass number average isotopes Isotopes are the same type of atom with varying number of neutrons Thyroid gland needs Iodine Compound is a substance consisting of two or more elements combined in a xed ratio Energy Shell energy level is discrete distance from nucleus where electrons have different states of potential energy More potential energy gt Electrons farther away from nucleus Ionic Bond is when atoms are attracted to each other by opposite charges August 26th 2015 Atoms like to be stable Charged atom is an Ion usually gainsloses electrons Covalent Bond occurs when atoms share a pair of electrons mostly water molecules Molecule is two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond Molecules are a type of compound Oxygen 02 is an electron hog it keeps electrons closer partially negative Polar Covalent gt Not sharing equally H20 Nonpolar Covalent gt Shares equally 02 Electronegativity is the attraction of a particular kind of atom for the electrons of a covalent bond The more electronegative an atom is the more strongly it pulls shared electrons towards itself Hydrogen Bonds form when a hydrogen atom covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom Hydrogen Bonds are the weakest Covalent Bonds are the strongest Hydrogen Bonds occur between the hydrogen atom in one water molecule and an oxygen atom in a different molecule Water is the most abundant molecule in living organisms Water is 607 0 of total body weight Hydrogen is partially positive August 28th 2015 Water is liquid at room temperature Water has high heat of evaporation The temperature of liquid water rises and falls slowly helps stabilize temperature Closest thing to universal solvent because polar Water molecules cohesive and adhesive sticky Frozen water is less dense than liquid ice oats Water sticks by hydrogen bonds Water forms 4 bonds when frozen Buffers minimize changes in concentrations of H and OH Buffers can accept H ions from solutions when in excess and they can donate H ions when depleted Buffers maintain a stable pH Human blood 74 pH Death results when pH changed as low as 7 or as high as 78 If hydrogen ion H increases in a persons blood the blood pH will decrease and become more acidic Acid Precipitation is rain snow or fog with a pH lower or more acidic than 56 Carbon is the backbone of biological molecules 7 595 of a cell is water most of the rest if formed from organic molecules molecules that contain carbon 4 general groups of Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins and Nucleic Acids A polymer is a long molecule made of identical or similar building block molecules held together by covalent bonds A monomer is a small building block molecule used to make polymers Condensation Reaction Dehydration Reaction two molecules are covalently bonded to one another through the loss of a water molecule Hydrolysis Reaction are bonds between molecules are broken by the addition of a water molecule Carbohydrates serve as shortterm energy storage Monosaccharides Simple sugar single sugar Glucose Fructose and Galactose Disaccharide Made by joining only two monosaccharides together Polysaccharides Made up of many monosaccharides Starch Stored carbohydrates in plant cells Glycogen Stored carbohydrates in animal cells Cellulose Found in plant cell walls serves as dietary fiber in humans
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