Week 3 Organic Chemistry
Week 3 Organic Chemistry CHEM 333 001
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CHEM 321 001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 333 001 at University of South Carolina taught by John Lavigne in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
Wednesday 99 Chapter 2 Functional Groups C and H atoms Alkane Alkene Alkyl Groupsaliphatic long carbon chains 0 Alkynes linear or cyclic Prefixes of Ca rbons Meth Eth Prop Pent Hep Deca PWNQP PWF E Other prefixes Isopropyl CHX molecules where Xhalogens Alkyl halide Aryl halide Br Electronegativity of the halogens gt Electronegativity of C H so we end up with dipoles 9 polar molecules C5Br539 gt Trends Dipole o Mqr qelectron density charge rbond length distance Down Column of Periodic Table q decrease r increase CF CCl CBr CI No trend because they are all similar Atoms getting bigger because of adding a shell Across row of Periodic Table q increase r decrease CC CN CO CF q increases gets bigger r decreases smaller bond length Molecular Dipole Mqr units debye CH3CI18 CH2C215 CHCI31O CCI4O Why does CCI4 0 Because it cancels out Trends Understand Explainbe able to do this Predict RCH 9 alkyl RX 9alkyl halide ROH 9 alcohol Alcohol Hydroxyl Groups HM Carbon atom is bonded to Oxygen so you can write backwards HOC suffix o to identify hydroxyl groups OH 9 ethanol ethyl alcohol 1hydroxy ethane ethanol above has 1 carbon which makes it primary 1 gt OH 9 Isopropyl alcohol 2 hydroxy propane has 2 carbons so its secondary 2 OH 9 tbutyl alcohol 2 hydroxy2 methyl propane has 3 carbo s so its tertiary 3 Review 0 HOCAlcohol XCAlkyl halide can be primary secondary tertiary These are carbon atoms bound to heteroatoms XC examples NCI Br W F 1 2 3 alkyl chloride alkyl bromide alkyl fluoride But with species such as aryl alcohol or aryl iodide there is no 1 2 3 ie aromatic HOHHOCCOC ether 9 immiscible in water RAD ether A0 diethyl ether 0 ethy methyl ether l o methy tbutyl ether MTBE which is a gas additive to boost octane Friday 911 Alkyl alkane alkene alkyne aliphatic Aryl aromatic benzene phenyl Alkyl halide Halogens RX Alcohol ROH Ether RoR39 Need to memorize functional groups in chapter 2 CO carbonylcarbon oxygen double bonds Aldehydes o RCHO where RH in formaldehyde 0 oxygen here has 2 one pairs Formaldehyde Ketones I I o RCOR where R is an alkyl group that may be the same or different from R 0 oxygen has 2 one pairs R Aldehydes and ketones have a trigonal planar arrangement of groups around the carbonyl atom o Sp2 hybridized Carboxylic Acids esters and amides These all contain carbonyl group that is bonded to O or N atom Carboxylic acids 0 Have carbonyl group bonded to hydroxyl group 0 General form 0 ICI R O H Functional Group 0 ll o H there are more examples of these such as benzoic acid and acetic acid Esters 0 General formula 0 RcozR o Carbonyl group is bonded to alkoxyl OR group 0 Citrus smell Amides page 72 Formulas RCONHZ an unsubstituted amide RCONHR39 an Nsubstituted amide RCONR39Rquot an N N disubstituted amide Carbonyl group is bonded to a N atom that bears a H andor alkyl groups 0 N and NN mean substitutes are attached to N atom Peptide bond in proteins 0 O O O Electronegativity of O gt electronegativity of N Intermolecular Interaction Electrostaticionicreactionanion 0 Hydrogen Bonding o H atom on heteroatom Table 23 KNOW THIS TABLEFUNCTIONAL GROUPS
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