Week 3 Notes: August 31-September 4
Week 3 Notes: August 31-September 4 RCO 252-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rosa Angeles on Friday September 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RCO 252-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Ms. Margaret Hood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views.
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Date Created: 09/11/15
RCO 25201 Introductory Concepts in Biology Professor Ms Margaret Hood Notes By Rosa Angeles August 315 2015 Fat Triglyceride is made up of one glycerol molecule plus 3 fatty acid molecules Used for longterm energy storage helps insulate against heat loss and forms a protective cushion around major organs Hydrophobic gt do not like water Monomer of Carbohydrates gt Monosaccharides Monomer of Proteins gt Amino Acids Saturated fats are usually of animal origin amp solid at room temperature lard amp butter Unsaturated fats are usually of plant origin amp liquid at room temperature peanut oil Unsaturated fats have a kink they are a doublebonded carbon chain Phospholipids are a primary component of cellular membranes Phospholipids are ambivalent towards water and made up of glycerol 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group Cells are dynamic not static Steroid is a type of lipid molecule having a complex of 4 carbon rings like Cholesterol Estrogen and Testosterone Proteins are macromolecules with amino acid subunits Primary Structure gt Linear sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds polypeptide chain Secondary Structure gt Folds into alpha helix or beta pleated sheet with hydrogen bonds Tertiary Structure gt Final 3dimensional shape Quaternary Structure gt Gets bonds formed between R group R group can be positive or neg or partially Fever breaks bonds and proteins change shape change shape break bonds won39t function death Not all proteins will have Quaternary Structure DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid gt Stores genetic info in cell amp codes for order in which amino acids are to be joined doublestranded helix Nucleotide gt Phosphate sugar deoxyribose and a base Bases gt Adenine A Thymine T Cytosine C and Guanine G A amp T C amp G September 2nd 20 15 DNA has blueprints made of sequence of nucleotides that tells cell what sequence to put amino acids in The primary structure of all proteins are encoded by information contained in the genes DNA is found in nucleus RNA Ribonucleic Acid gt Single stranded no helix Nucleotide gt Phosphate sugar ribose and a base Bases gt Adenine A Uracil U Cytosine C and Guanine G A amp U C amp G ATP Adenosine Triphosphate gt Nucleotide that is a high enery carrying molecule in all cells may be cashed in for energy when needed Also known as energy currency When you break off a phosphate you create energy Cellular respiration makes ATP Transcription gt DNA to RNA Translation gt RNA to Protein Cells are the unit structure and function for all living organisms Cell theory gt A cell is the basic unit of life all living things are made up of cells and new cells arise only from preexisting cells Cells need a large surface area relative to the volume so most are relatively small and are microscopic more efficient when small Cells are all shapes depending on type Hemoglobin is not a cell it is part of a cell Micrograph gt microscope Plasma Membrane gt Phospholipid bilayer that is selectively permeable Is like a fence Cholesterol keeps membrane uid Keeps a cell intact and allows gases amp nonpolar molecules to pass through small Ions and polar molecules need assistance to cross through large Some plasma membrane proteins form channels while others are carriers involved in the passage of molecules Ions and polar molecules need a protein channel carriers September 4th 20 15 Nonpolar gt Noncharged Polar gt Charged Passive Transport gt Diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment doesn39t require ATP 3 Types of passive transport Diffusion Osmosis and Facilitated Diffusion Like canoe going downstream Diffusion gt Random movement of molecules from the area of higher concentration to the area of lower concentration Concentration is the of molecules in given area Diffusion is for any molecules Osmosis gt Diffusion of H20 across a selectively permeable membrane Osmosis is only water Hypotonic Solutions less solutes gt Cause cells to swell amp burst due to an intake of H20 Hypertonic Solutions more solutes gt Cause cells to shrink due to loss of H20 Isotonic Solutions gt Equal amounts of solute and solvent no net gain or loss of H20 Water vs Red blood cells Hypo vs Hyper An IV is water and saline isotonic solution Facilitated Diffusion gt Some molecules are transported by means of protein carriers within the membrane no energy required because is moving from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration Facilitated Diffusion needs a protein carrier regular diffusion does not Active mechanisms for transport gt requires the use of cellular energy ATP 3 Types of active mechanisms Active Transport Endocytosis amp Exocytosis Active Transport gt need protein carrier Active transport needs ATP and a protein carrier vs facilitated diffusion just needs proteins Endocytosis gt The cellular uptake of macromolecules and particulate substances by localized regions of the plasma membrane that surround the substance ad pinch off to form an intracellular vesicle Like a white blood cell taking in a toxic substance Exocytosis gt The cellular secretion of macromolecules by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane Like pancreas releasing insulin Chromatin Chromosomes gt Determines seX of the individual amp hereditary characteristics Chromosomes are DNA condensed around protein Nucleolus gt Where ribosomes are assembled in nucleus Nuclear Envelope gt Double membrane that separates the nuclear materials from the cytoplasm and is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum Nuclear envelope is the membrane of nucleus Nuclear pores gt Entrance of proteins and eXit of ribosomes and mRNA
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