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Psy2012 Week 8 of notes

by: Lauren Carstens

Psy2012 Week 8 of notes PSY2012

Marketplace > Florida State University > PSY2012 > Psy2012 Week 8 of notes
Lauren Carstens
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We finished the chapter on learning and began memory this week. Enjoy Spring Break!
Melissa Shepard
Class Notes
Psychology, Week 8, chapter 6, Chapter 8, learning, memory
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Carstens on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at Florida State University taught by Melissa Shepard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.


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Date Created: 03/04/16
Psychology Chapter 6: Learning Learning  A relatively permanent change in thought or behavior that results from experience o Does not count reflex  Major Types of Learning o Conditioning  Classical (Pavlovian) conditioning  Involves making associations with involuntary (reflexive) responses  Ivan Pavlov noticed that his dogs showed a physiological response to cues associated with food o Salivating when eating food  automatic response o Later they began salivating before eating and just when they saw the food o Before conditioning, the bell does not cause any response so it is considered a neutral stimulus o During conditioning, the bell is presented with the food which leads to salivation o After conditioning, the bell is presented alone and the dog still salivates  Unconditioned stimulus: Stimulus that elicits an automatic response o Dog food o An unconditioned stimulus will always trigger an unconditioned response (“Unconditioned” = “Unlearned”)  Unconditioned response: Automatic response to a stimulus that does not need to be learned o Salivating  Conditioned Stimulus: Initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response due to association with an unconditioned stimulus o Bell o A conditioned stimulus triggers a conditioned response (conditional upon associative learning)  Conditioned Response: Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus o Salivating with the bell  Processes of Conditioning o Acquisition  The initial learning of an association between a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus  The key requirement for successful acquisition is timing  The conditioned stimulus should come about 500 ms before the unconditioned stimulus o Extinction  Repeated presentation of the CS without the UCS will eventually eliminate the response to the CS  If you stop giving food with the bell forever, the dog will eventually stop salivating with only the bell  Suppresses learning until spontaneous recovery o Spontaneous Recovery  Happens when the CS briefly regains its power to elicit the response o Generalization and Discrimination  How general can you say the conditioned stimulus is?  Will the dog also salivate with similar sounds besides the bell?  Will Albert be afraid of other small white objects other than animals?  Stimulus generalization: Tendency to respond to stimuli that are similar to the CS  Stimulus discrimination: Ability to distinguish between the CS and other stimuli  Operant conditioning  Involves increasing or decreasing the likelihood of a voluntary (deliberate) response  Learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behavior o Giving an allowance for kids doing chores increases the likelihood that they’ll do the chores o Learning depends on rewards and punishments  Thorndike o Ex: Putting a cat into a box with a lever to let them out  The cats know the reward is to get out and get food so they learned to get out o When you provide rewards, the likelihood of the behavior increases and when you provide punishments, the likelihood of the behavior decreases  Law of Effect  How operant conditioning works for humans o Positive Reinforcement: When the frequency of the behavior is increased because you give the person or animal something pleasurable  Ice cream and puppies are positive reinforcers o Negative Reinforcement: When the frequency of a behavior is increased because you take away something that is aversive  Seat belt sound is a negative reinforcement because it’s annoying and it goes away when you put your seat belt on  Studying:  Positive: You study and get good grades  Negative: You study and decrease anxiety o Positive Punishment: When the behavior is decreased by giving an aversive response to the behavior  Punishment in class decreases bad behavior  Giving speeding tickets decrease bad driving  If you stop talking back, your parents will stop spanking you o Negative Punishment: When the behavior is decreased by taking away something pleasurable  When you talk back and your parents put you in a time out or take away your phone  How to figure out an operant conditioning problem: o 1. Identify the target behavior that will be affected  Ex: Babies smiling and laughing o 2. Determine whether you want the target behavior to increase or decrease  Ex: You want the babies smiling to increase  reinforcement o 3. Determine whether a stimulus was added or taken away to produce a change in behavior  Ex: Adding your smiling and clapping Positive  Schedules of Reinforcement (Not Punishment) o How often reinforcement is delivered o Continuous reinforcement: when a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs  When Skinner gave a pellet to a rat every time the rat pressed a lever  Fastest way to make something learn something o Partial reinforcement: when a behavior is reinforced only some times  When Skinner ran out of pellets and decided to only give one to the rat some of the times  Schedules vary across two dimensions  On what basis is reinforcement given? o Ratio (based on # of responses) o Interval (based on time that has passed)  How consistently is reinforcement given? o Fixed (regular)  Giving a reward always after a fixed amount of behavior is done o Variable (irregular)  Giving a reward on an irregular basis  Four types of partial reinforcement  Fixed Ratio (FR): Reinforcement is provided following a regular number of responses o Store’s punch cards: You know the number of times you need to buy something and your reward is based on your response (you have to keep buying) instead of based on time  Variable Ratio (VR): Reinforcement is provided after a specific number of responses on average, with the number varying randomly o When the reward is provided will vary o Slot machines: A have to keep playing the slots, but you don’t know when you will get rewarded o People respond the most times when they are on a variable ratio schedule  Fixed Interval (FI): Reinforcement is provided for producing the response at least once following a specified time interval o Getting the mail: The mail comes every day (it’s not dependent on how many times you check) and it comes at the same time every day (based on how much time has passed)  Variable Interval (VI): Reinforcement is provided for producing the response at least once during n average times interval, with the interval varying randomly o The reward is provided based on a time interval, but the time interval varying o Checking Facebook: You don’t know when something interesting might occur so the schedule will vary and checking more often will not cause something interesting to occur (it’s based on time elapsed) o Cognitive Learning  Latent learning  Learning that is not directly observable  Not all learning requires obvious rewards or punishments  Ex: Group 1 rats got food every day for 22 days (Made more errors than group 2, but still a lot less than group 3) th Group 2: Rats got food at the end of 11 day (number of errors decreased very quickly starting the 11 day) Group 3 never received any food (Number of errors stayed pretty constant because they were not getting reinforced)  Ex: Reading your textbook: As you read your textbook, you don’t directly know how well you are learning  Observational learning (social learning)  Learning occurs by watching other people’s behavior and observing the resulting consequences  Modeling: Imitation of specific behaviors  Main point: Observational learning suggests that people can learn consequences of behaviors (reinforcements/ punishments) from watching others without having direct experience with them  Ex: A child watched a model just sit and play with toys and then watched her attack the toys aggressively  After the first model, the kid had little aggressive behavior and after the second, she had very high aggressive behavior  Insight learning  Learning from an “ah-ha” moment  Not based on trial or error Psychology Chapter 7: Memory Introduction to Memory  Memory is the retention of information over time o Persistence of learning  Long term potentiation: the gradual strengthening of the connections among neurons from repetitive stimulation o Repetition and review strengthens neural connections 3 Stage Processing Model for Information Processing  3 kinds of memory o Sensory memory  Extremely brief storage of sensory input (a few milliseconds)  Two types  Iconic memory o Visual information o Ex: Looking at a picture and closing your eyes and briefly remembering it  Echoic memory o Auditory information  Most sensory input is lost and never enters short-term memory  Sperling’s Experiment (1960)  A picture of 9 numbers in a 3x3 is flashed for 15 milliseconds and people are asked to report what numbers they saw  Most people could only recall 4 numbers o Iconic memory fades very quickly o Short-term/Working memory  Memory that came from sensory memory  Functions of working memory  1. Brief memory for material that you are currently processing o While you are trying to remember something that was said to you, it is in short-term memory  2. Keeps information active and accessible to you o When you are trying to make sure you remember something, your short term memory is active o When you access long-term memory for the present time  3. Helps coordinate ongoing mental activities o Driving: Your short term memory helps you process everything that is going on and apply your long-term memory  Capacity of working memory  The capacity of working memory is typically limited to 7 (+/- 2) items  Rehearsal: Repetition strategy that maintains information in working memory  If you don’t rehearse information, it will fade/decay much quicker  Chunking: A strategy in which you organize information into meaningful subgroups  Increases the amount of information that can fit in working memory  X/IBM/CIA/FBI/CBS/MTV  Phone numbers o Long-Term Memory  Contains memory for experiences and knowledge collected over a lifetime  Has a very large capacity  Memories are distributed across parts of the brain  Karl Lashley’s maze experiment with rats  Will fade over time until you no longer have that memory (gradual process)  To make them stay and not fade away, use them in your short term memory  Two types:  Explicit Memory “declarative memory”: Memories we retrieve intentionally and which we have conscious awareness o Semantic: Factual information (Jeopardy questions) o Episodic: Events from one’s life and personal experiences  Implicit Memory “non-declarative memory”: Retrieval independent of conscious reflection; can be retrieved without consciousness o Procedural: motor skills and habits (eating) o Priming: Familiarity with stimulus leads to better memory o Conditioning: One stimulus comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus o Habituation: Responding less strongly to repeated stimuli Three Stages of Memory  Encoding stage: There will be stimuli in our environment that you have to pay attention to (paying attention) o What factors influence encoding?  The value of attention (if you don’t pay attention, you won’t remember it because you probably did not encode it)  Rehearsal  Effortful processing  Encoding processes differ from one another o Visual Processing o Acoustic Processing o Semantic Processing  Storage: Keeping information (repeating a phone number to try and store the information)  Retrieval: Recalling information (Getting Info out) o Recall: Generating previously remembered information (an essay test, trying to think of all 7 dwarves on your own) o Recognition: Selecting previously remembered information from an array of options (a multiple-choice test, looking at a list of dwarves and picking which ones are the real ones) o Relearning: Faster learning of previously learned information; works even without awareness (restudying everything for a final) Levels of Processing  Craik and Lockhart, 1972 3 groups of people experiment o Visual group: What something looks like  Is the word capital letters? -TABLE o Acoustic: What something sounds like?  Does the word rhyme with MAT? -STAR o Semantic: What something means  Does the word refer to a plant? -CACTUS  Their prediction: meaningful information-processing generally leads to more permanent retention Is there a relationship between the encoding environment and the retrieval environment?  Encoding specificity principle o Recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context o If you study in a similar environment to where you will take the exam, your recall will be better o Also, if people learn information in a specific mood, they will be able to recall it better when in the same mood


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