HUMAN PRBLM SOLVING
HUMAN PRBLM SOLVING Psych 143P
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Adriana Bernier on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 143P at University of California - Irvine taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/201845/psych-143p-university-of-california-irvine in Cognitive Sciences at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Problem Solving and the Brain Behavioral Studies of Insight Metcalfe s experiment from earlier Ss studied insight problems eg algebra as well as noninsight problems At 15 seconds intervals ss rated how close they felt to solving the problem Only for insight problems ss suddenly increased warmness ratings before solving problem Perhaps insight is special But how do we really know what really happens during insight Promise of Brain Imaging Studies Difficult to link behavioral data to internal e eg do warmness ratings really show that insight occurs rapidly With brain imaging techniques we can get converging evidence for a special insight process Does insight occur suddenly in the brain as behavioral data suggests JungBeeman et al 2004 Studied neural correlates of aha moment using fMRl and EEG JungBeeman et al Compound Remote Associate Problems Example pine crab sauce Question what word can form a familiar compound word or phrase with the each of these words Solution apple pineapple crabappe applesauce Example Problems nn correct I39ESPOI39ISES within 15 00 Answer 1 highdistricthouse 55 7 2 pikecoatsignal 33 7 3 0 ice mailhat 32 7 4 yclipwall 32 7 5 wiseworkmwer 13 7 6 babyspringcap 13 7 7 breakbeancake 12 7 8 landhandhouse 3 7 fM RI Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures cerebral blood ow related to neural activity in different areas Results are usually based on the difference in baseline condition MRI scan Experimental Setup 5 iess bu s v s pies biman Wnen hentheyteit an thosawed W D biem nsiemuiinv Pmbi s ensenine V ri hlt I 2 w ml 2m I mt luste ii I Measure eiein iespense neie Areas showing greater fMRI signal for insight than noninsight solutions EEG ERP EEG Eectroencephaography Eiectrudes piaced atthe scaip measuring enanges in vuitage Hightempurairesuiutiun puur spatiai resuiutiun e guud m measure Wnen preeesses are initiated as apprised m Wnere Fyamnle nf FFG m iiaii EEG Results Measure high oscillations in gamma band gt 30Hz For insight problems gamma frequencies 03 seconds were observed before the a U quot 1 I7 1 solution response l39imc L39C nan EEG Results Animation oftne last half second from yo 5 to yo 2 thlng e uericy eiectncai activity at tne scaio prior to tne button press indicating suoiects nad solved a problem Witn insignt Supp Mm Brain Studies of Moral Reasoning The Trolley Dilemma Atroiiey i5 running out of controi down a track in path are 5 peopie who have Form Wiiiie track nateiy you can ip a 5mm which adthetroiieydowna ifferen Unfonunateiy there i5 a singie the switch ifyou do nothing thetroiiey WiH mu oniy 0 Save Me What justi es yourjudgment Save as many as you canquot The good of 39 quot the fewquot Act so that you provide the maximum bene t to the maximum number ofpeoplequot The footbridge dilemma similar to trolley dilemma A runawaytrolleythreatens to kill ve people You are standing on a footbridge over the tracks next to a large stranger If you push the stranger onto the tracks killing him his body will prevent the train from reac ing the others saving them Do you push Most people answer yes to the trolley question no to the footbridge question r a to save ve is that it would be using the one as a mere means for the bene t of others Variant oftrolley dilemma As oerore a trolley ls hurtllrlg ooyyh a track towards hye thls man the trolley Would l torheo thatway make lts Way to the othertrack aho klll the hye ople l asn tforthe presence orthe large Wally rlloolhg the SWltch would hot saye the hye Shoolo you fllp the Switch The Surgeon s Dilemma You are a surgeon with six patients Five of them need major organ transplants which you could easily do if you had access to transplant organs The sixth an ideal donor for all the relevant organs has a cold Should you kill one person to save five Philosophers have puzzled over why people believe it is morally acceptable to sacrifice one life for five in one case but unacceptable in the Difficult to find a unifying set of principles that explains what is morally acceptable The psychology of moral reasoning Prescriptive question what is right and wrong 9 PhilosophyEthics Descriptive question what are happens during moral reasoning 9 psychology Traditional view eg Kant moral judgment is primarily a matter offormal reasoning Recent insights Haidt moral thinking is highly intuitive and emotional and only appears to be a product f care Jl reasoning because of people s a er thefact rationalizations of theirthinking Perhaps the thought of pushing somebody to eath is more emotionally salient Hypothesis Greene et al d erences in response Trolley dilemma impersonal moral dilemma Footbridge dilemma personal moral dilemma requires active personal involvement Recent Brain Imaging Insights Greene et al performed brain imaging experiments to reveal differences in the way the emotional circuits in brain are activated during moral reasoning llRl Results um unnamed W WW mnmnl y m zxswiieu mm mm l i i quotmummy in umle mm 1 munquot Wm WM want a My W4 Mm mm Wu man mm Trolley dilemma impersonal moral dilemma 9 activated memory areas Footbridge dilemma personal moral dilemma requires active personal involvement 9 activated brain areas associated with emotion Behavioral Results Mean reaction time in ms Anpvupl iate39 lnzbbmpnate39 Response Footbridge dilemma activates immediate emotional response A few subjects still say appropriate These response times should be slow because the response is incongruent with the immediate emotional response
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