INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY
INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY Psy Beh 9
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Review for Midterm 1 Intro to Psych Chapter 4 l N E 5 U 0 gt1 00 O H O H H H N H L H 5 Every nongenetic in uence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us in an aspect of our A temperament B gender schema C environment D personal space Identical twins originate from the fertilization of A a single egg cell by a single sperm cell B two egg cells by a single sperm cell C a single egg cell by two sperm cells D two egg cells by two sperm cells Identical twins are most likely to share a similar prenatal environment if they share the same A placenta B reproductive capacity C norms D gender schemas Twin studies suggest that Alzheimer39s disease is in uenced by A testosterone B gender schemas C heredity D gender typing The nucleus of your body cells contains A DNA molecules B chromosomes C genes D all of these elements The best reason to be cautious about attributing all the personality similarities of separated twins to genetic factors is that A B C D home environments have less impact on personality than does peer in uence adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes infant temperaments have a strong impact on personality development adopted children39s personalities are highly similar to those of their adoptive parents Adoptive parents are most likely to in uence the A political attitudes B gender identity of their adopted children C extraversion D temperament When male and female student research assistants at Florida State University sexually propositioned an attractive person of the opposite sex their invitations were accepted by A half or more of the men but virtually no women B a sizable minority of men but virtually no women C half or more of the men and a sizable minority of women D a sizable minority of both men and women Unused neural connections in the brain are reduced through a process of A mutation B heritability C collectivism D pruning Children39s English accents are more likely to be in uenced by their A peers than by their parents C X chromosome than by their Y chromosome B temperament than by their gender D biological race than by their social environment Even though many chairs in the library study area are unoccupied Wang chooses to sit right next to Annest Annest is most likely to feel uncomfortable because Wang has violated her A gender schema B personal space C temperament D gender identity Compared with Asian parents North American parents today place A more emphasis on obedience and less emphasis on family loyalty B less emphasis on obedience and more emphasis on family loyalty C more emphasis on obedience and more emphasis on family loyalty D less emphasis on obedience and less emphasis on family loyalty Children39s tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely to facilitate the process A behavior genetics B individualism C gender typing D natural selection The labels easy difficult and slowtowarmup are used to refer to differences in an infant39s A gender schema B personal space C temperament D gendertyping Page 1 H V H 0 H gt1 H 00 H O N H N L N U N O N l Female children are more likely to act like tomboys if they were exposed to excess An infant boy was raised as a girl following a botched circumcision During adolescence the child nd 39 To estimate trait heritability researchers are most likely to make use of A the pruning process B gender schemas C gender typing D twin studies Heritability refers to the extent to which A unrelated individuals share common genes genetic mutations can be transmitted to one39s offspring trait differences among individuals are attributable to genetic variations adult personality is determined by infant temperament B C D People have always responded so positively to Alyssa39s good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality This best illustrates A the impact of temperament on gender identity B that gender schemas and social roles are complementary C the interaction of nature and nurture D the reciprocal influence of norms and roles The reproductive advantage enjoyed by organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as A selfregulation B behavior genetics C natural selection D collectivism Compared with women men are more likely to A initiate sexual activity B think about sex C comply with direct requests for casual sex D behave in all of these ways Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to A gender schemas B parental in uences C temperament D peer in uences Personal space refers to A our inner private thoughts and personally subjective feelings about ourselves B the distance we like to maintain between ourselves and other people C the priority we give to our own personal needs over group needs D areas of a home such as a bedroom where privacy is important A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of A social harmony B personalprivacy C innovation and creativity D racial diversity Compared with people in individualist cultures those in collectivist cultures are A less likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to others39 wishes B more likely to display signs of humility and less likely to defer to others39 wishes C less likely to display signs of humility and less likely to defer to others39 wishes D more likely to display signs of humility and more likely to defer to others39 wishes Men and women are most likely to differ in their A happiness B intelligence C selfesteem D aggressiveness during their prenatal development A DNA B testosterone C endorphins D ovarianhormones boys the assigned female identity A wanted to kiss accepte B wanted to kiss did not accept C wanted no part of kissing accepted D wanted no part of kissing did not accept The social roles assigned to women and men A are virtually the same in all cultures B have been virtually the same in all historical time periods C differ widely across cultures D differ widely across historical time periods but not across cultures Page 2 Review for Midterm l Intro to Psych Chapter 5 H O r r H N r N 9 gt V39 0 gt1 00 0 One of the three major concerns of developmental psychology centers around the issue of A identity or intimacy C imprinting or object permanence B continuity or stages D conservation or egocentrism As compared to the production of egg cells sperm cell production A begins later in life B involves a jellylike outer covering C begins earlier in life D involves differentiation prior to fusion with the egg A teratogen is an A fertilized egg that undergoes rapid cell division unborn child with one or more physical defects or abnormalities chromosomal abnormality substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child B C D Darlene smoked heavily during the entire 9 months of her pregnancy Her newborn baby will most likely be A underweight B autistic C hyperactive D hearing impaired The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include A egocentrism B brain abnormalities C visual impairments D autism Mr Hersch triggered a rooting re ex in his infant son by touching him on the A foot B knee C arm D cheek Habituation refers to the A awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived B decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus to which one is repeatedly exposed C adjustment of current schemas to make sense of new information D biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience From ages 3 to 6 the brain39s neural networks are sprouting most rapidly in the A frontal lobes B hypothalamus C cerebellum D brainstem Maturation refers to A the acquisition of socially acceptable behaviors biological growth processes that are relatively unin uenced by experience any learned behavior patterns that accompany personal growth and development the physical and sexual development of early adolescence B C D Infant motor development is typically characterized by individual differences in developmental milestones A both the sequence and the agerelated timing B the sequence but not the agerelated timing of the major C the agerelated timing but not the sequence D neither the sequence nor the agerelated timing Cognition refers to A B C D an emotional tie linking one person with another the mental activities associated with thinking knowing remembering and communicating any process that facilitates the physical development of the brain any process of change that accompanies maturation Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middleaged male nurse took care of him Nageeb39s altered conception of a nurse illustrates the process of A habituation B assimilation C accommodation D attachment Page 1 H E H u H 0 H gt1 H 00 H O N L N I If children cannot grasp the principle of conservation they are unable to deal with the discipline of toilet training see things from the point of view of another person recognize that the quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its shape retain earlier schemas when confronted by new experiences Ms Pearson cut Judy39s hot dog into eight pieces and Sylvia39s into six pieces Sylvia cried because she felt she wasn39t getting as much hot dog as Judy Piaget would say that Sylvia doesn39t understand the principle of A object permanence B conservation C egocentrism D accommodation Fouryearold Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present This best illustrates Piaget39s concept of A accommodation B object permanence C conservation D egocentrism Psychologist Sim on BaronCohen has proposed that autism is indicative of an inborn A stranger anx1ety B fetal alcohol syndrome C infantile amnesia D male systemizing tendency The Russian psychologist Vygotsky suggested that children39s ability to solve problems is enhanced by A basic trust B inner speech C conservation D imprinting At about 8 months children become increasingly likely to react to newcomers with tears and distress This best illustrates A role confusion B insecure attachment C egocentrism D stranger anxiety Studies of monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that motherinfant emotional bonds result primarily from mothers providing infants wit A adequate nourishment B body contact C the opportunity to explore D selfesteem In a pleasant but unfamiliar setting infants with a secure maternal attachment are most likely to 3 act as though their mothers are of little importance to them use their mothers as a base from which to explore the new surroundings cling to their mothers and ignore the new surroundings show hostility when their mothers approach them after a brief absence B C D A mother who is slow in responding to her infant39s cries of distress is most likely to encourage A conservation B insecure attachment C objectpermanence D egocentrism Many researchers believe that adult styles of romantic love correspond with childhood patterns of A habituation B attachment C conservation D objectpermanence Severe and prolonged child sexual abuse places children at risk for A fetal alcohol syndrome B menarche C imprinting D substance abuse The McDougals use harsh discipline on their children and demand unquestioning obedience Psychologists are likely to characterize the McDougals as parents A authoritarian B egocentric C permissive D authoritative Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be A authoritarian B conservative C perm1ss1ve D authoritative People experience rapid physical growth and sexual maturation during A late adolescence B puberty C the preoperational stage D late childhood Which of the following is an example of a secondary sex characteristic A female ovaries B male facial hair C the male grip D female height The selective loss ofunused connections among brain cells is called A pruning B imprinting C conservation D accommodation Page 2 N O L O L N L 4 L Lquot L O L O 4 O 4 N Even though smoking marijuana would reduce the pain associated with her chronic medical condition Juanita believes it would be morally wrong because it is prohibited by the laws of her state Kohlberg would suggest that Juanita demonstrates an morality A 39 B 39 Cr quotDr quot character1st1c o A individualistic societies collectivist societies B socialists capitalists Critics of Kohlberg39s theory of moral development have suggested that postconventional morality is more 39 than of C African Americans White Americans D Catholics Protestants According to Erikson teens who suffer role confusion have not yet A experienced a sense of basic trust B achieved a sense of autonomy C D strived for a sense of competence solidified a sense of identity Adolescence is typically a time of A diminishing parental in uence and diminishing peer in uence B growing parental in uence and growing peer in uence C diminishing parental in uence and growing peer in uence D growing parental in uence and diminishing peer in uence An elaborate ceremony used to celebrate a person39s emergence into adulthood is an example of a A schema B critical period C secure attachment D rite of passage Which of the following is true of adolescence in contemporary industrialized societies as compared to previous centur1es A It begins earlier in life and ends earlier in life B It begins later in life and ends earlier in life C It begins earlier in life and ends later in life D It begins later in life and ends later in life Physical abilities such as muscular strength reaction tim e sensory keenness and cardiac output reach their peak dur1ng A late adolescence B early adulthood C puberty D middle adulthood The ratio of males to females first begins declining during A prenatal development B childhood C adolescence D adulthood Aerobic exercise programs during late adulthood stimulate improvement in A object permanence B basic trust C menarche D memory During the last few years 75yearold Mrs Yamaguchi has gradually become so mentally disoriented that she can39t find her way around her own house and often fails to recognize her husband It is most likely that Mrs Yam aguchi is suffering the effects of A crystallizedintelligence B menopause C habituation D Alzheimer39s disease When adults of varying ages were tested for their memory of a recently learned list of 24 words the older adults demonstrated A no decline in either recall or recognition B a decline in recognition but not in recall C a decline in recall but not in recognition D a decline in both recognition and recall Professor Parker suggested that heterosexual adults are genetically predisposed to form monogamous bonds because this practice facilitated the cooperative nurture and survival of children The professor39s suggestion best illustrates a n perspective A authoritarian B p 39 qr 1 1 D 1 When children grow up and leave home mothers most frequently report feeling A depressed B bored C happy D anxious The stability of personality traits is greater among A boys than among girls B men than among women C adults than among children D preschoolers than among adolescents Page 3 Review for Midterm l Intro to Psych Prologue 1 Wilhelm Wundt conducted what many consider psychology39s first experiment His laboratory work involved experimental studies of A animal intelligence C learning and memo B personality development D reactions to sensory stimulation 2 Looking inward and reporting your immediate sensations images and feelings is called A cognitive neuroscience B introspection C behaviorism D humanism 3 The young science of psychology developed from the more established fields of philosophy and A economics B biology C geography D sociology 4 In its early years psychology focused on the study of but from the 1920s into the 1960s American psychologists emphasized the study of A environmental influences hereditary influences B maladaptive behavior39 adaptive behavior C unconscious motives conscious thoughts and feelings D mental life39 observable behavior 5 In the early 1960s the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of A mental processes B hereditary in uences C unconscious motives D learned behaviors 6 Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between A natural selection and genetic predispositions C thought processes and brain functions B childhood memories and psychological disorders D philosophy and physiology 7 Efforts to discover whether the intelligence of children is more heavily influenced by their biology or by their home environments are most directly relevant to the debate regarding A structuralism versus functionalism C observation versus introspection B evolution versus natural selection D nature versus nurture 8 The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by A environmental circumstances C unconscious con icts B blood chemistry D subjective interpretations 9 Akira believes that her son has become a good student because she always praises his learning efforts Her belief best illustrates a perspective A behavior genetics B neuroscience C psychodynamic D behavioral 10 Dr lLills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others Which specialty area does his research best represent A cognitive psychology B social psychology C developmental psychology D clinical psychology ll Which psychologists are MOST likely to be involved in applied research A industrialorganizational psychologists C personality psychologists B developmental psychologists D biological psychologists 12 Dr Vazquez helps people to make career choices by assisting them in identifying their strengths and interests Dr Vazquez is most likely a A biological psychologist C cognitive psychologist B counseling psychologist D social psychologist 13 Clinical psychologists specialize in A constructing surveys C providing therapy to troubled people B animal research D providing drugs to treat behavioral disorders Page 1 Review for Midterm l Intro to Psych Chapter 3 i N 9 gt V 0 gt1 so 0 i O i i i M H 9 After 1960 the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists39 renewed interest in A behavior genetics B emotion C socialization D mental processes A large amount of our mental activity occurs outside our awareness thanks to our capacity for A neuroadaptation B hypnagogic sensations C REM rebound D dual processing You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision This best illustrates A neuroadaptation B change blindness C dissociation D selective attention Standing in the checkout line at the grocery store Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time As a result he failed to see that a store employee was being robbed by a person just in front of him Jerry most clearly suffered REM rebound B inattentional blindness C age regression D narcolepsy The impact of circadian rhythms is best illustrated by A the differing musical preferences of younger and older persons B uctuations in energy level and alertness across the span of a day C the different study habits of men and women D the different personalities of people born during different months of the year Cindi prefers to take exams in the late afternoon rather than during the morning because her energy level and ability to concentrate are better at that time Her experience most likely re ects the in uence of t e A REM rebound B menstrual cycle C circadian rhythm D hypnagogic state When people are experiencing vivid dreams A their bodies often move in accordance with what they dream B their eyes are likely to move under their closed eyelids C they are more likely to sleepwalk than during any other stage of sleep D their slow brainwave patterns indicate that they are deeply asleep After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour and a half his heart began to beat faster his breathing became fast and irregular and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth Carlos was most likely experiencing A Stage 4 sleep B sleep apnea C narcolepsy D REM sleep Feli has been asleep for three hours As he continues to sleep we can expect that A Stage 4 sleep will diminish and that Stage 3 sleep will increase in duration B Stage 3 sleep will diminish and that Stage 4 sleep will increase in duration C Stage 4 sleep will diminish and that REM sleep will increase in duration D REM sleep will diminish and that Stage 3 sleep will increase in duration Terry has not had a decent night39s sleep in over a week If this sleep deprivation continues he will become increasingly susceptible to A viral infections B sleep apnea C insomnia D nightterrors Insomnia is a disorder involvin A the excessive use of sleeping pills or other drugs that induce sleep B recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep C the cessation of breathing during sleep D uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness The disorder involving uncontrollable attacks of overwhelming sleepiness is known as A narcolepsy B insomnia C sleep apnea D paradoxical sleep Mr Dayton occasionally stops breathing while sleeping He wakes up to snort air for a few seconds before falling back to sleep Mrs Dayton complains that her husband snores Clearly Mr Dayton suffers from A sleep apnea B narcolepsy C insomnia D nightterrors Page 1 Review for Midterm 1 Intro to Psych Chapter 1 H Professor Smith told one class that drinking alcohol has been found to increase sexual desire He informed another class that drinking alcohol has been found to reduce sexual appetite The fact that neither class was surprised by the information they received best illustrates the power 0 A replication B hindsight bias C the doubleblind procedure D the placebo effect 19 Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates A naturalistic observation B illusory correlation C overconfidence D the standard deviation 9 Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate A the placebo effect B wording effects C the standard deviation D our intuition 5 Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are A pride enthusiasm and ingenuit C certainty creativity and curiosity B ingenuity practicality and certainty D curiosity skepticism and humility 5 A A 39 39 attitude icgardiug p 39 39 J 39 and hidden values best illustrates A replication B critical thinking C hindsight bias D overcon dence 0 A hypothesis is an A observable relationship between specific independent and dependent variables B testable prediction that gives direction to research C set of principles that organizes observations and explains newly discovered facts D unprovable assumption about the unobservable processes that underlie psychological functioning gt1 In a written report of their research psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed thus providing their readers with an A hypothesis B independent variable C operational definition D standard deviation 00 Professor Ambra was skeptical about the accuracy of recently reported research on sleep deprivation Which process would best enable her to assess the reliability of these findings A naturalistic observation B replication C random sampling D the case study 0 The case study is a research method in which A a single individual is studied in great depth B a representative sample of people are questioned regarding their opinions or behaviors C organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory environment D an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior H O In which type of research is a representative random sample of people asked to answer questions about their behaviors or attitudes A experimentation B the survey C the case study D naturalistic observation H H Correlation is a measure of the extent to which two variables A vary together C influence each other B are random samples D show statistically significant differences H 19 To determine whether the strength of people39s selfesteem is related to their income levels researchers would most likely make use of A case studies B correlational research C experimentation D naturalistic observation H E If the points on a scatterplot are clustered in a pattern that extends from the upper left to the lower right this would suggest that the two variables depicted are A normally distributed B positively correlated C negatively correlated D not correlated Page 1