CHICANO STUDIES II
CHICANO STUDIES II ChcLat 62
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Llewellyn Huels on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ChcLat 62 at University of California - Irvine taught by Alejandro Morales in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/201881/chclat-62-university-of-california-irvine in Chicano Latino Studies at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chicano Latino Studies 62 Fall 2010 Final Review Guide De ne the following terms and apply the term to 2 characters from a booldmovie from class use speci c examples ie a speci c event or episode l Collective Level Part of ethnogenesis everyone shares a common ground or identity Ex 1 The people that escaped the killing in Guatemala in Tattooed soldier for example when Longoria was at his work and the old lady came in and recognized his tattoo and accused him of killing her son just like Antonio who sought justice for the killing of his family the old lady need closure for the disapparation of her son Ex 2 In Sweet diamond dust the collective level is from the memory of how the sugar plantations were run the past and how the US came in to provide technology advancements of how poor and how they lived hell on plantations and the poor were just stuck and had to depend on the American banks to keep their sugar cane eds growing but in the end it ended in the hands of Americans Collectively tell of their family history 2 Indiosyncratic Level Ex 1 At an individual level part of ethnogenesis Ex 2 Ex 1 3 Encyclopedia Mexicans ethnic for example in the movie El Norte they are characterized by saying chingada when Enrique goes to meet the man from Guatemala to learn how to cross the border he has to imitate being a Mexican and say he is from Oaxaca That can pass as being Mexican because he is brown and speaks Spanish Ex 2 Homeless people in Tattooed Soldier for example the homeless are cast offs of society and they became those that were almost invisible to others walking by them in the street They were dirty grimy on medication sometimes and lived under the tunnel and in a secluded spot that was an empty lot of trash Are poor and crazy and the police don t even bother with them Experience hunger Get their clothes from good will Desperately in need of a hand 4 Type Scene part of Encyclopedia is the performance aspects of identity practices of everyday life Discussing U S Latinoa identity and its relationship to literature is a complex task Literary texts make visible the tension between the everyday performances of Latinos ongoing activities practices and identifications and the historical authority of hegemonic cultural tradition Exl Ex2 5 Frame Idiosyncratic level of the individual subject Epistemological condition of the individual ethnic subject Subject s dwelling Where is he or she coming from in relation to their ethnic reality and hegemonic reality Ex 1 In Tattooed Soldier Antonio comes from a small village where his family was killed so he is eeing with a heavy load on his back he comes with depression and with frightening memories of his tragic life He is escaping revolutions and his bad job Ex 2 6 Genealogical Interrogation Ex 1 In search of roots In search of the originating culture an ancestral project The foundations of ethnicity are based on the 39 39 of the story behind one s name one s family name Ex 2 By discovering the self implicit in the surname one produces an ethnic seeing and understands self as a social an ethnic subject Implicit in one s family name is a story of origins a particular system of relations To speak of ethnicity therefore is to speak of ancestry as a pragmatic strategy of ethnic identification There are stories within words and within stories a hidden cultural identity 7 Memory The mental faculty of retaining past experience a reservoir an accumulation of knowledge Remembering to recall to the mind an active process Ex 1 Nuyorican Dream of the mother still hold on to the memory of being in Puerto Rico because she lived there then moved to the US in contrast with her son Roberto who was born there but doesn t remember anything about it The mother cooks Puerto Rican food and remembers how it was Ex 2 Sweet Diamond Dust is completely based of on memory because each character is telling their story of how they remember how thing led up to the Diamond Dust being where it is How the brother remembers Gloria of when he met her and how Titina remembers seeing each family member grow up and how Dona Laura came to her decisions PR remembers of the injustices they faced under the sugar cane plantations exploitation and how the US bought pieces of land and sugar cane mills to produce an empire 8 Project The project represents the semiotic activity of genealogical ordering and interrogation that de nes the unique eld of inference of the ethnic subject Allows the ethnic subject to infer a project identity social relations economic political etc Ethnic subject constructs goals predicts goals Ethnic subject practices hisher utopics The ethnic subject may chose to write an autobiography in which the ancestors the fathers and mothers dominate Their story is governed by a foundational project implicit in the act of emigrationimmigration or by the projection ofa possible world The idea is to begin life over again What does the ethnic subject want Ex 1 Nuyorican Dream shows how Roberto and his siblings grew up in the beginning of the film showing pictures of when they were little and telling of his past of how his stepfather left them and how each sister got pregnant and that his brother ended up in jail He starts at the beginning to explain how his family is the way it is not all dysfunctional but really trying to make it in the US especially of his roots in PR and how his mom struggled to get where she still is in the poor neighborhood Ex 2 Tattooed Soldier Longoria remembers when he was a peasant growing up extremely poor and being a peasant in the fields helping his mother and how the Army rescued him He begins to remember of when he first got taken by the army and how he begin to climb up in rank to where he was even sent to the US for military training Then how he received a higher rank but later was sent to speci c missions to kill people The idea is that Longoria begins his military life again at the moment where he became a soldier IMMIGRANT NARRATIVE 9 What are the narrative or structural features of an immigrant narrative An immigrant protagonists representing an ethnic world view comes to America with great expectations and through a series of trials is led to reconsider them in terms of hishertheir nal status THE IMMIGRANT NARRATIVE the immigrant narrative must organize three cultural systems THREE CULTURAL SYSTEMSi a CULTURE of the FAST and a CULTURE the PRESENT and a CULTURE the FUTURE a CULTURE of MEMORY IMMIGRANT NARRATIVE comment several possible issues with the term immigrant FIRST SECOND THIRD GENERATION ETHNIC APPRENTICESHIP LINGUISTIC LANGUAGES CHOICE OF LANGUAGE 10 Choose one text book or lm and describe how it is an immigrant narrative Tattooed Soldier is an immigrant narrative in that there are two immigrants one Mexican and one from Guatemala The text format follows the characteristics for being an immigrant narrative since it contains the 3 culture systers of the past present and future In the text it tells of how Antonio left Guatemala while focusing a part in how he lived in the past with his wife Elena and his son and it even goes further into his past to tell when he rst met Elena through Elena s point of view For the present Antonio is currently describing how his situation is being homeless and how he came about to nding the soldier that killed his family His present revolves around his past meaning his present he focuses on getting revenge on Longoria by stalking him constantly and attacking him to the point where he nishes the job with a gun and abandoning Longoria in a tunnel For his future follows an immigrant s success in trying to achieve American status by emulating their way of life he gets rescued by his Mexican friend and will have a job and a place to live and Antonio also planned to leave his past in the tunnel with the dead soldier because he has gotten justice He faces the dif culty of not having anyone in the US already established to help him but what ever work he and his friend make for themselves I De ne the following terms and apply them to 2 main from books lms from class ll Microtext Ex 1 12 Dream anticipation EX 1 AMERICA WAS AN IDEA BEFORE IT WAS A GEOGRAPHY The seminal moment the moment of origin the moment of initiation of the migration process can EX 2 be instigated by different positive or negative or both circumstances a mythical moment 13 Biblical EX 1 EX 2 l4 Geographical EX 1 Old World vs New World Closed Space vs Open Space EX 2 15 Economical EX 1 Poverty vs Wealth Static Conditions vs Opportunity EX 2 l6 Psychological EX 1 Despair vs Hope EX 2 EX 1 17 Religious C vs Freedom Racial Discrimination vs rr Racial Equality EX 2 18 Political EX 1 Oppression vs Freedom Racial Discrimination vs Racial Equality EX 2 19 Journey EX 1 The protagonist undertakes a journey from the Old World to the New World EX 2 20 Contact EX 1 and engages in a series of contacts and contrasts NEW WORLD IDEAL vs NEW WORLD REALITY EX 2 2l Contrast EX 1 and engages in a series of contacts and contrasts OLD WORLD REALITY vs NEW WORLD REALITY EX 2 22 Old World EX 1 The place someone left behind or their native land their old customs and ways of life and doing things Tattoed Soldier EX 2 El Norte 23 New World EX 1 UTOPIAN GRAMMAR of the NEW WORLD the E1 Norte protagonists is forced to confront the utopian grammar of the New World for what it actually EX 2 represents The place where they chose to presently reside traveling to a new place and settling there and having to learn new ways of living living their old world behind 24 Past Present Future as cultural systems EX 1 Cultural System includes hegemonic and ethnic cultural system A cultural system is a total organization of what is generally held to be true about an ethnic world including stereotypes How EX 2 do people celebrate major human events birth coming of age into adulthood marriage death 25 Separation EX 1 EX 2 26 Transition EX 1 EX 2 27 Incorporation EX 1 Properly assimilated to a society s standards that they can pass as tting no longer being outsiders or too part of another culture that there is not difference from own culture In Nuyorican Dream the third generation seems to be the only one that is comfortable with their place the children are happy and the adults still live a misery They speak English and succeed more in their education that they do not feel a connection to Puerto Rico but see the US as their origin since they were born there and parents got them used to only US even tho they still practice PR customs Even tho they are citizens PRs still are looked upon like foreigners and they try to be American by no longer speaking Spanish and picking up American customs to try to t in with the rest of the youth on the block EX 2 A small example of incorporation in the lm El Norte is when Enrique has been ppromoted showing that he has been incorporated into the waiter workforce because he could speak English and was hard working and he was given the opportunity This shows how he was incorporated into the American dream of haVing a chance at promotion getting ahead because he can speak English and have an opportunity to succeed 28 Ethnic Apprenticeship EXl ETHNOGENESIS Collective Individual Idiosyncratic Level of Ethnic Subject Memory Frame GENEALOGICAL SCENE ETHNIC SUBJECT TYPE INTERROGATION Encyclopedia Project BOELHOWER S IMMIGRANT NARRATIVE MACROTEXT MACROTEXT A single story in which immigrant narratives are presumed to participate MACROTEXT the macroteXt does not limit the microtexts TRANSFORMATION During a process of transformation or Americanization THREE FABULA STORY MOMENTS ANTICIPATION OLD WORLD REALITY vs NEW WORLD IDEAL Catalyst language evokes the dream OCUPATIONAL Old World Labor vs New World Labor EDUCATION Old World Education vs New World Education Without DREAM ANTICIPATION no JOURNEY no MOVEMENT from MYTH THE FANTASTIC t0 HISTORY no MULTICULTURAL PERSPECTIVE no cultural CONTRAST no SETTLEMENT no COMFORT MIGRATION MIGRACION EMIGRATION EMIGRACION IMMIGRATION INMIGRACION To leave one country or region to To enter settle in a country to which one is to enter settle in another legally not native legally EMIGRANT EMIGRANTE IMMIGRANT INMIGRANTE A person who leaves one country A person who enters one country to enter to enter settle permanently in to settle permanently in anotherlegally anotherlegally SEPARACION TRANSICION INCORPORACION SEPARATION TRANSITION INCORPORATION ESTABLECIMIENTO SETTLEMENT COMODIDAD COMFORT REGRESO RETURN TRANSNATIONAL MIGRATION INTERNAL MIGRATION METAPHOR Characters Arturo Xuncax Wife Enrique Xuncax Rosa Xuncax Los Compadres Godparents los coyotes Moctezuma Nacha Enrique s fellow workers Part 1 1 Where does Arturo Xuncax work Picking some kind of fruit 2 Where do the Maya Indians stand in the power structure Just as workers below animals even 3 Explain why Arturo Xuncax and his companions are slaughtered They were planning to revolt and 5 gt1 9 because they held secret meetings Who orders the killing and why The guy in charge of the workers finds out and alerts the military men where they plan their meeting so they can come and shoot them all Why does the army return to the village To take the mom away and take Mayan Indians that are capable of revolting and probably they were the ones related to the ones they shot in the mission When does the dream anticipation to go to El Norte begin for Enrique and his sister Rosa It begins when the father gets killed then the mother gets taken away and they are left to hide with the godparents and in the hills after they have lost everything and their closest family with no other option Why do Enrique and Rosa have to ee their village Because the army is looking for them to round them up with the rest What must Enrique have to learn to get through Mexico He needs to speak like a Mexican saying chingada all the time he needs to say he is from Oaxaca he needs a good coyote Part 2 9 O N LN Does Enrique s and Rosa s daily situation get better as they journey further north Idk it seems to be because they manage to get out of their city and set forth to travel Explain how racism is expressed in the bus journey to Tijuana The guy doesn t believe they are from Oaxaca and keeps calling them indios and saying how they are disgrace because they get caught and try to say something else While in Tijuana where do Enrique and Rosa stay They stay in a little slum that looks like its made up of craps of metal and carton in a little neighborhood that has little shacks that belong to nobody Enrique s and Rosa s first attempt to cross the border fails What does the scene with the immigration agents reveal about their knowledge about who is coming across the border They cannot tell the difference in people because they all look the same and don t speak Spanish They racialized people just because they cross the MexicoUS border so they just assume they are Mexican How do they finally cross to the other side They start looking for a coyote they were told to nd and he says he will cross them as a favor to the guy he knows The only way he can cross them is by leading them to a tunnel they must cross and he will meet them at the other end They crawl through the sewer tunnel and get threw even tho rats attack them Part 3 14 15 Explain Moctezuma s role in the transition and the incorporation stages of the migration process Teaches how it really is to live in the US and how to get by and take advantage Comment on a few speci c examples of how Enrique and Rosa are constantly engaged in contrasting old world reality with new world reality For example when Rosa has to do laundry she gets back to her old ways and con icts with technology Rosa also goes to a curandera ignoring hospitals Enrique and Rosa both have to learn a new language change their clothes Comment on language and how Enrique and Rosa may be considered trilingual Comment on how English and success are related Language is what keeps Enrique and Rosa tied back to their roots because it reminds them of home and they get by the immigration agents by speaking to each other so they wont get caught they learn English so they can get a job in the US their Spanish keeps them l 00 O N connected to the other Hispanics in the community and are able to live with them If you know English you can get a job and therefore make money and not get tricked by Americans and able to communicate with them and sound like you are no longer poor and accepted US society Identify several ways that Nacha helps Rosa incorporate into American culture She introduces her to Macys She buys her new clothes and teaches her about nding jobs and about being careful she doesn t get caught in raids She buys her food and gets a job with her and teaches her the importance of learning English and teaches her that she is in El Norte and things are different here so she also has to behave differently How are the gringos depicted in the lm They look like they don t even notice the immigrants They are all rich and classy and see the immigrants as cheap labor and look down upon them However they do know of the immigrant presence but they only take advantage How are the Chicanos described They are the same as immigrants working at a low minimum wage just as if they had recently crossed the border They are seemed as jealous of the immigrants and also suffering because they are seen in society as low work force They have gained the language and live just a few spots above the economic ladder in the US but are still in enclaves where there are mostly Chicanos around them Like they are trying to be American but cant cus the white ppl wont accept them How does the patriarchal family structure in uence Enrique s job and immigrant documentation opportunities He gets the opportunity for a green card but he cannot leave his sister it is his responsibility of being the man in the family and the only family left Rosa has He would go if he could take his sister but he cannot leave her to fend for herself even tho he said earlier that Rosa is stronger that him Explain how Enrique gets promoted Does his promotion impact other works in the restaurant What are the consequences He gets promoted because he has taken English lessons and the little English he knows has made it possible for him to get noticed and liked by customers that make it look like he already made it in the US He also has a positive outlook that makes him likeable BUT not everyone is happy an immigrant got promoted when a Chicano has worked for the same meager wage as an undocumented that he wasn t promoted The consequences are that the jealous Chicano calls INS on him and gets chased off his job and can no longer work there When Rosa feels ill to whom does she go for treatment What does this sequence reveal about undocumented immigrants like Rosa and Enrique She goes to a curandera that cracks her back and shakes her around This tells how they don t trust the doctors and rely on home remedies and what little they know about what they think might make them feel better They cant afford the proper medic care so they resort to what the immigrant community knows that might work and they also resort to healing beliefs of their home county Comment of Rosa s statements We are not free there is no place for us They are immigrants and not welcomed in the US because they face discrimination They were not free because they relied on being cheated of their wages and the ignorance of not knowing how to properly assimilate into the US society They are stuck in the US where they seem like they don t even count and cannot return to their homeland because they will be killed Being immigrants themselves will leave them stuck from succeeding in US economy and stuck in a dependence of meager wages and they will be stuck in pover What might the last images in the lm mean How immigrant missed their homeland mainly because of their family not necessarily their living conditions the dead father is a reminder of why he must stay and that being in the US he already changed his fate and will not end up dead This history begins as Ferre sets it in the town of Guamani nestled on the rolling slopes of Mount Guamani 3 in a land with a warm dry atmosphere and a rich fertile land covering practically begging to become farmland for what would have been 19th century Puerto Rico s most valuable crop 7 sugar cane Like their neighbors around them the De La Valles own a sugar mill lovingly named Diamond Dust which like the characters that tend to and own it deals with its own highs and lows The rst owners of the mill that readers are introduced to are Dona Elvira and her ery and wellreputed husband Don Julio Don Julio who courts Elvira in a strange fashion likened to a brazen assault totally lacking in the cloying embellishments of Guamamenan society 13 quickly asserts his status of administrator of Diamond Dust upon the marriage to Dona Elvira whose family tended to the mill for generations However although it is through his ambitious ideals that the mill finds great success it is also through his coldhearted money saving ploys that the workers of Diamond Dust are alienated When his wife learns of his plans to take the land away from the workers who had so loyally tended it she valiantly attempts to dissuade her husband Unfortunately her efforts are in vain Don Julio explodes and thus a cycle of abuse and shame is born hidden in the hearts of the De La Valle family and passed down generation through generation just as Diamond Dust itself weaves its way through their lives Sweet Diamond Dust continues tracing the events of the mill through the stories of Dona Elvira39s offspring and of her grandchildren as well As time passes the mill gathers more profits along with more secrets Lovers and friends are made and in turn betrayed And soon greater misfortune hits Diamond Dust when American entrepreneurs invade the island buy out all of the other remaining local mills save Diamond Dust and consolidate their land into one huge conglomerate with new technology and higher profit margins The De La Valles uphold their honor and try to keep the mill running but low demand and even older technology stunt their growth However just as the last locally owned mill in Guamani is to fall in the hands of northern investors 58 fate intervenes and Elvira39s son Ubaldino steps in protecting his family39s heritage and furthering the tradition of the sugar mill in his family39s life In Sweet Diamond Dust Don Julio is a moneydriven creator and owner or quothacendadoquot of the quotDiamond Dustquot sugar mill He is extremely successful leading the family into great wealth and power However he becomes quotmore and more absorbed by the tasks of the sugar millquot even as his success continues to grow 14 He loses sight ofthe simpler things in life and soon begins to dedicate his entire existence because he is quotvisited by a host of troublesquot concerning sugar production and the threat of American conglomerates 26 With vividness typical of Ferre39s work we learn that quota number of powerful banks from the north had recently opened branches in Gamani and their red granite palaces anked by white stucco lions were the new sensation in townquot 26 The banks quotfound no difficulty in financing the new sugar corporations that had recently arrived in townquot 26 The new financing of huge sugar corporations eventually runs Don Julio s business into the ground Through the eyes of Don Julio we are able to see the horrible repercussions of the powerful American corporations and banks moving into the country Thus through the use of vivid imagery and the perspective of a moneyloving madman who is true to his country Ferre is able to criticize colonialism Antonio and Jose Juan get evicted into homelessness For Antonio homelessness is yet another downward spiral that started when he steps into the puddles of blood owing from his wife39s partially clad corpse and son Carlitos39 machine gunned body sprawled amid childish toys building blocks Ever industrious as well as lucky the Mexicano Jose Juan works his way back to a home and respectability Except Longoria was once a vicious murderer trained at School of the Americas Except Longoria is a small indian who speaks in a peasant39s voice serving an Army contemptuous of indians and their voices Longoria plays chess he never wins The butt of the locals39 jokes at the lVIacArthur Park senior citizens tables the soldier stays aloof from the tawdry swindlers he works for in a crooked paqueteria Offended small business tipos might object to the stereotype but it serves the perfect backdrop for the life Longoria has found in the United States Longoria is customer relations when a customer complains that money never got to its addressee Longoria intimidates them into accepting their being cheated Antonio nds friendship among the homeless camped on a hillside overlooking downtown Los Angeles39 skyscrapers until the police and bulldozers scrape the hillside clean of all traces of the habitation Frank helps Antonio buy a gun from a Chicana in the projects because Longoria damaged as a boy The story of the wounded Longoria crawling three blocks pursued by his attacker retraces Antonio39s journey from home to tunnel Antonio never forgot the face of a man rst seen in a Guatemala Park only to see that face again across a chessboard in a park in Los Angeles but Antonio forgets the date his wife and son were butchered by that man where Antonio disables the sergeant accelerating the tattooed sergeant s own inevitable finish as his past catches up with him Chapter 4 deals with the migration history of Gonzales and how his family came from PR it goes into history of what was going on in PR that made Puerto Ricans poor and migrate into the mainland Tell about the family and how their living conditions were in PR in extreme poverty How they came to the US and started to work and had a good job but lived in segregated neighborhood because Puerto Ricans weren t liked because they just weren t white and clashed with the Italians 0 What s so unique about Puerto Rican migration 7 How is this both an advantage and disadvantage for Puerto Ricans 7 Palm Sunday Massacre What s the purpose of Americanization programs How do Puerto Ricans confront or deal with the racial landscape in East Harlem What brings Puerto Ricans and Italian immigrants together What brings Puerto Ricans and African Americans together How does Juan Gonzlaez s educational experience differ from the Torres family in Nuyorican Dreams Young Lords Ch 8 Central Americans Intervention Comes Home to Roost 1 Why does Gonzalez make the following observation in regards to Central America Leaders in Washington sought to portray the region as pivotal to the worldwide battle between democracy and Communism Such simplistic justi cations obscured longfestering divisions between rich and poor in the region and they ignored our own government s historic complicity in exacerbating those divisions Gonzalez 131 2 Why does Gonzalez calls the US portrayal of Central American con ict as simplistic and obscuring the actual complex reasons of conflict How has the United States been complicit in creating poverty and inequality in Central America 3 Discuss the Nicaraguan con ict between the Somozas and the Sandinistas 4 Discuss the causes of El Salvador s civil war Who was Oscar Romero 5 Discuss what brought Jacobo Arbenz to the presidency of Guatemala What where some of the economic and social policies he pursued Finally discuss how the UFCO and the CIA participated in the overthrow of Arbenz 111610 3 generation of women as ethnic subject Separationidea the mother holds more memory Roberto only knows about it in his study and interviews 0 Mother hasn t progressed into the US life culture is limited her daily life is around the neighborhood 0 Ethnic group is based on what we eat and how we prepare food They don t sit around the table to eat Idea of ethnic feast expressing idea of ethnicity o Depends on particular economic status Idea of separation incorporation and transition Kids talk about god where does it come from 0 Based upon the life he lives in the space Roberto can walk away from the family but he doesn t 2quotd generation is different This can be applied to any ppl that emigrates e1 no sabe nada de Puerto Rico Roberto could do it but his brother and sisters could not make it hopefully the 3rd generation can break the poverty cycle Settleness marta is settled but happy IDK Roberto is settled because he teaches happy IDK kids are HAPPY Life is a struggle so theres not really comfortableness Children play they are comfortable others lost their ability to play 2quot generation were born here lives in PR Marta is 1st generation is the center of the world she supplies memory of PR she is aXle Roberto was born in PR but came over young but not a strong source but knows the academia of PR Citizenship doesn t mean success Ethnogenesis is the beginning of ethnicity 0 Will ethoncize you as Latinoethnilization and racialization Theory of ethnogenesis happened throughout time o Humans always trying to indetigy individuals Robert as an ethnic subject Ones individuals efforts to do something Danny encyclopedia Roberto in their mind COMPARED Constitutes cultural systems 0 Roberto has a vast domestic encyclopedia about PR not one who has lived in PR but has learned PR can live wants to get away to become professional 0 Dannys encyclopedia is pretty narrow based on his daily life the PR he deals with a re poor sees certain types of ppl in certain cultures maybe illiterate ppl he deals with are in drugs and prison Go from encyclopedia to frame type scene 0 See what robertos daily life is and Dannys Deal with education differences 0 Prison and Roberto has a system better
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