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by: Mrs. Kelly Wilkinson
Mrs. Kelly Wilkinson
GPA 3.52


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Class Notes
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Kelly Wilkinson on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Environ 3 at University of California - Irvine taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see /class/201885/environ-3-university-of-california-irvine in Environmental Health, Science, And Policy at University of California - Irvine.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
OUTLINE LECTURE 1 The Universe Observed WIMP Cosmology LECTURE 2 WIMP Detection WIMPS at Colliders 2829 July 05 Feng 2 GRAVITINO COSMOLOGY Let s consider a dark matter candidate with completely different but equally rich implications for particle physics and cosmology There is one other class of particles with all the virtues of WIMPs SuperWlMPs Wellmotivated stable particle Present in of parameter space Naturally correct relic density and more Spectacular collider signals There is already cosmological evidence for it BBN small scale structure The prototypical superWlMP is the gravitino also axinos quintessino other similar candidates 2829 July 05 Feng 3 Gravitinos SUSY graviton G amp gravitino G Mass expect 100 GeV 1 TeV highscale SUSY breaking 392 my 1 will m G Interactions 8MPICH l l l l BFW Couplings grow G EMP39 B with energy but are typically extremely weak 3 2829 July 05 Feng 4 GRAVITINOS THE FIRST SUSY DM Paoels Primack 1982 Khlopov Linde 1984 Welnberg 1982 Moroi Murayama Yamaguchi 1993 Krauss 1983 Bolz Buchmuller Plumacher 1998 Nanopoulos Olive Srednicki 1983 Original ideas Ifthe universe cools from T MPI gravitinos decouple while relativistic expect n e q Stable Unstable T M2 100 G 3 05 lt 1 gt rm lt 1 keV Ta N w 1 yr 6 7 3917 cf neutrinos BBN 9 mg gt 10100 TeV Pagels Primack 1982 Weinberg 1982 Both inconsistent with TeV mass range 2829 July 05 Feng 5 Gravitino Production Reheating More modern view gravitino density is diluted by inflation But gravitinos regenerated in reheating What happens r 392 113 I 06 I 1 m pl 151 TSMil N gtgt H N SM interaction rate gtgt expansion rate gtgt G interaction rate Thermal bath of SM particles occasionally they interact to produce a gravitino ff gt fG 2829 July 05 Feng 6 Gravitino Production Reheating 0 The Boltzmann d7 W 2 equation 73H117ltUl gt 391 i ncq Dilution from fG gt f39f ffgt G expansmn 17 Change variables ta T n A Y i 8 3 3 New Boltzmann W39 39lng N Main T equation T m V lt39 T277quotH Simple Y reheat temperature 2829 July 05 Feng 7 Bounds on TRH ltoVgt for important production processes 1m wax I L m2 1 gm if 5 I C 71 nil 2 s l l quotl 7 i1 q 7 74ltw llTifl2 a 17quot 7 q 139 72H 2 2lT A B C D E F G H I J 3911 0 7 539 51 74l l775l9 11 7 a lquot C 2r22 2i lngall 103 10 llulqhggtffr 6 452l27 f n gt q 117 A 3quot 1 741 2 2l W 17 1 mmim0 MU y q i q C 72llTquotlZ m C m a i yquot 61 eilT Cll w C 0 001 TRH lt 108 1010 GeV constrains 10 3 inflation leptogenesis G DM if bound saturated introduce new scale 2829 July 05 l Illllllll Illllllll Ll I l 4l llllllll lllllll l llllwl l lllllllll m zl GeV 10 GeV l l lllllllll lll l l llllllll 105 5 O H H 109 1010 TRGev Bolz Brandenburg Buchmuller 2001 Feng 8 Gravitino Production Late Decay What if gravitinos are diluted by inflation and the universe reheats to low temperature GnotLSP GLSP SM SM NLSP LSP G G No impact implicit A new source ofgravitinos assumption of Lectures 1 and 2 2829 July 05 Feng 9 SuperWIMPs Early universe behaves as usual WIMP freezes out with g1 Increasing I desired thermal relic density A longtime later EIO39 I 10 1 RWI NE MPIZIMW3 month all WIMPs decay to gravitinos Gravitinos inherit WIMP 1 density but are superweakly FinWm l interacting superWlMPs u 8 L l L L 39quot39l quotl 39 quotl quot39139quot quotwinr H39quotquotquotquotquot quot39IquotHquotquotl quoti 39H39m Gravitino naturally have right relic density 2829 July 05 Feng 10 SuperWlMP Signals SuperWlMPs escape all conventional DM searches But late decays gt r G Bquot gt yG have cosmological consequences Assuming QC QDM signals determined by 2 parameters mG mNLSP Lifetime Energy release 3 1 In 7 1712 4 8 Y H a G ALBITMEWE mg g I I NLSP 2 5 2 3 i 2 39 EM had A n i cob m mB ma 1176 I KB I 1 48me mg 1 mg l 3117 YNLSP nNLSP nyBG 2829 July 05 Feng 11 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Late decays may modify light element abundances a After WMAP 110 nCMB Independent 7Li measurements are all low by factor of 3 TLig H 1532 gtlt 10 9534 CL 27 Tull H 17233 x 10 lilo raw 25 7Lin 123ij3 x 11H mt m 9554 CL 29 7Li is now a problem Fields Sarkar PDG 2002 Jedamzik 2004 2829 July 05 Feng 12 BBN EM Constraints NLSP WIMP 9 Energy release is dominantly EM even mesons decay first EM energy quickly thermalized so BBN constrains r QEM BBN constraints weak for early decays hard y e thermalized in hot universe Best fit reduces 7Li 0 2329me05 0 7 z 10 11 104 1o8 1010 TWIMP SEC 106 Cyburt Ellis Fields Olive 2002 Feng 13 BBN EM Predictions Consider gt G 1 others similar 10 10 8 Grid Predictions for m6 100 GeV 3 TeV top to bottom r 109 Am 600 GeV 100 GeV left to right 9 E JEN 10 E Some parameter space 11 3 excluded but much survives 1 10 1210L 103 103 1010 SuperWIMP DM naturally Tm sec explains Feng Rajaraman Takayama 2003 2829 July 05 Feng 14 BBN Hadronic Constraints BBN constraints on hadronic energy release are severe Dimopoulos Esmailzadeh Hall Starkman 1988 Jedamzik 2004 Reno Seckel 1988 Kawasaki Kohri Moroi 2004 Neutralino NLSPs highly disfavored hadrons from X gt 26 hi destroy BBN Possible ways out Kinematic suppression No Am lt mZ BBN EM violated Dynamical suppression X I ok but unmotivated For sleptons cannot neglect subleading decays i a 26 mm 1 a 126 iii 6 2829 July 05 Feng 15 BBN Hadronic Predictions chl HDHAYP Am a 100 0300 wlouu H quotl l ms m usw 566 m4 ma 1 08 Tm sec Feng Su Takayama 2004 Despite Bhad 10395 103 hadronic constraints are leading for 17 105 106 must be included l H mm 2829 July 05 Feng 16 Cosmic Microwave Background Late decays may also distort 107 E the CMB spectrum 39 1o B For 105s lt T lt 107 s get u distortions g 109 1 55 Eli39TI L 1 51010 u0 Planckian spectrum u 0 BoseEinstein spectrum HuSHk1993 lllllllll I III III III 104 1o6 ll lllllllll II llllll 108 1010 Future DIMES u 2 x 106 Twmv sec Feng Rajaraman Takayama 2003 Current bound u lt 9 x105 2829 July 05 Feng 17 GRAVITINOS AT COLLIDERS Each SUSY event may produce 2 metastable sleptons Spectacular signature highlyionizing charged tracks Current bound LEP m gt 99 GeV Tevatron Run II reach m 180 GeV for 10 fb391 LHC reach m 700 GeV for 100 fb391 DreeS Tata 1990 Hoffman Stuart et al 1997 Goity Kossler Sher 1993 Acosta 2002 Feng Moroi 1996 2829 July 05 Feng 18 Guaranteed Rates from Cosmology Cosmology implies modelindependent guaranteed rates for collider signals WIMPS Birkedal Matchev Perelstein 2004 Pair production invisible 9 radiate jet or photon X e 52 X 6 X WMAPQdmgt I gt gt gtILCafyE X 6 e X e X 7 quotzij25X 12 4253 12Sj 1 nij39vggQSX l D2 4231 l 123j 1 gt gt m vggzll Hij Ut0t 2829 July 05 Feng 19 2amp29Jwy05 WIMP guaranteed rates not promising 25 153 175 209 225 250 Grew stat only A 51119 gt UL 117 gt 75 GeV Feng 20 Guaranteed Rates from Cosmology SuperWIMPs Feng Su Takayama 2004 Stau pair production visible and spectacular N e39 e N T T if e equot if LHC sensitive to many annihilation channels u d s c b 2829 July 05 Feng 21 SuperWlMP guaranteed rates much more promising 1 Tevatron L30 fb l LHC L1 abrl 10 event discovery contours Pwave SX0 5 10 3 loopinduced K mSWIMPmWIMP0396 Scale as 74 2 sx12 and 10 39wm 39 mSWIMPmWIMP1 ILC L1 ab l Ecm28 mWIMP 1307 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 mWIMP Gev 28 29 July 05 Feng 22 Slepton Trapping Slepton trap Cosmological constraints Charged slepton NLSP TNLSP lt year Sleptons can be trapped and moved to a quiet environment to study their decays Feng Smith 2004 Nojiri et al 2004 Crucial question how many can be trapped by a reasonably sized trap in a reasonable time 2829 July 05 Feng 23 Reservoir Trap Optimization To optimize trap shape and placement Consider parts of d spherical shells centered on cose O and placed NCOSG Ad against detector Fix volume v ktons lin 10 m 10 mwe Vary Acos9 Ad IP 2829 July 05 Feng 24 Slepton Range Ionization energy loss i described by BetheBloch 20 equation g 15 1F Z 1 397lllr393i1393 2 n JD1 E W fjd g In i 10 m 5 Use continuous slowing o i i i i u 220 280 240 250 down apprOXImatIon down E GeV to B 005 m 219 GeV 2829Jwy05 Feng 25 Model Framework Results depend heavily on the entire SUSY spectrum Consider mSUGRA with moA0O tanB 10 ugt0 M12 300 400 900 GeV 2500gtllllllllllllllllllll llll 2000 1500 Mass 1000 500 E z 7 O o 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 m0e Mlg 2829 July 05 Feng 26 Large Hadron Collider 105 Q M E LHC 800 gtx gt 4 ID of 10 1 L5 600 a 400 g 102 m 2 D4 200 M12 600 GeV 2 O H 10 1 o 7 1 m7 219 GeV 5 L 100 fb yr 2 one 3 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I o 200 400 600 800 1000 100 150 200 250 300 E GeV mNLSP Of the sleptons produced O1 are caught in 10 kton trap 10 to 104 trapped sleptons in 10 kton trap 1 m thick 2829 July 05 Feng 27 International Linear Collider mN 242 1 GvV maR mm 2 0V mSUGRA mR 2193 GCV i NLSP only i i i i 1500 ILC 7 gt5 04 7 NC 7 mSUGRA mSUGRA A M o 04 103 r mkmn r m 1000 7 i S 4 NH n 039 z r I noquot quotg 102 7 n V7 5 7 z 500 7 amp ny a 039 m2 2 101 7 Vi 7 7 H L 300 ib39ilyr JHr 7 i 100 I 220 230 240 250 450 475 F mm 525 5710 E GeV W Sleptons are slow most can be caught in 10 kton trap Factor of 10 improvement over LHC 2829Juiy 05 Feng What we learn from slepton decays Gravitational decays are simple F I a 1 77239 1 mi 1 7 7 I 487r ff mg 772 M Measurement of F 9 m6 9 2G SuperWlMP contribution to dark matter 9 F Supersymmetry breaking scale 9 BBN in the lab Measurement of F and E 9 mg and M 9 Precise test of supergravity gravitino is graviton partner 9 Measurement of GNewton on fundamental particle scale 9 Probes gravitational interaction in particle experiment 2829 July 05 Feng 29 EM 7 The Giabal Envxmnm em E3 Humnn Environmmts Lecture 5 American Environmemal Hismry 177671976 Human Environments July 10 2001 I WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY II EARLY INHABITANTS OF NORTH AMERICA 1 Human Settlement of North America a Initial Settlement 50000 BC 2 Changing attitudes and policies toward Native Americans dependencecoexistence 1600s 1800s removal beginning ca 183039s 0 Trail of Tears 1838 and 1839 concentration on reservations beginning ca 186039s assimilation beginning ca 1870s and 1880s 0 Indian Is 0 Dawes Act 1887 appreciation beginning ca 193039s teachers late 1960s and early 1970s 3 Other visions of Native Americans American Indian Movement AIM Iron Eyes Cody and Keep America Beautiful Chief Seattle39s Speec Noble SavagePrimitivism ea J eau 18th century French philosopher Life in HunterGather societies III EUROPEAN SE39I39I39LEMENT OF NORTH AMERICA 1 The Discovery of North America 39c the Red Bjarni Herjolfsson 986 Leif Eriksson 1000 Christopher Columbus 1492 John Ca ot1497 Juan Ponce de Leon 1513 Hernan Cortes 1519 2 Early settlemenfs in North America near St Johns Newfoundland 1583 Roanoke Island 1585 and 1587 Jamestown 160 Plymouth Oolony 1620 usetis Bay Colony 16281630 a Massach 3 Motivations for coming to Amenc SpIrIua Economic E3L4 r The Global Environment 4 Why did colonization succeed a Demographic takeover unique Lands of the Demographic takeover Canada and US 90 European Argentina and Uruguay 95 European Australia 98 European New Zeeland 90 European b Explanations racial arguments Georges Buffon Social Darwinism technologicalarguments 0 steel vs stone arrows and slings vs cannons and firearms horses and stirrups v infantry ships wagons able to transport supplies and people Political Arguments 0 strong central authority v weak or no central authorky religious arguments 5 Ecological Imperialism a Alfred Crosby 1986 b flows of Ecological Imperialism generally one way humans animals domestic animals pests weeds and seeds pathogens 000 IV BEGINNINGS OF NATURE APPRECIATION 1 Romanticism late 18 early 19th century literary artistic and philosophical movement reaction against the Enlightenment characteristics sublime evokes awe terror majesty and delight Often tied in with ideas of God and great power e Primitivism f Deism on m 2 Transcendentalism a American manifestation of Romanticism flourished 1830 1850 b Ralph Waldo Emerson 18031882 c Henry David Thoreau 18171862 E3L4 r The Global Environment V EARLY CONSERVATION IN AMERICA 1 Preserving Nature in National Parks a Early Ideas of National Parks George Catlin 1832 Henry David Thoreau 1858 b Motivations for first national parks primary interest is in preserving natural wonders preservation of wild nature a byproduct c First parks created from land within the public domain d First Parks Yosemite 18641890 Yellowstone 1872 2 Decline of American wildlife a Passenger Pigeon b Bison American Buffalo c Responses VI CONSERVATION IN THE PROGRESSIVE ERA 1 Definition of progressivism 2 Themes of progressivism a search for order concern about the effects of unbridled urbanization industrialization and immigration informed by moral outrage challenge to laissezfaire governing seek to expand power and influence of experts big concern with efficiency 3 Context of Progressive era conservation a spread of Romantic ideas from intellectuals to broader public b publicity of decline of American wildlife c publicity related to decline of America s forests George Perkins Marsh 1864 d Continued expansion westward e Closing of the frontier 1890 in South Dakota 4 Theodore Roosevelt 18581919 a background b conservation minded advisors c important conservation initiatives Bureau of Reclamation 1902 Forest Service 1905 5 Strains within the progressive era conservation movement Conservation Preservation


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