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by: Ms. Juvenal Kertzmann


Ms. Juvenal Kertzmann
GPA 3.76

Richard Symanski

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Richard Symanski
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Juvenal Kertzmann on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio Sci 1A at University of California - Irvine taught by Richard Symanski in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see /class/201891/bio-sci-1a-university-of-california-irvine in Biological Sciences at University of California - Irvine.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
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animals result carriers contribute to genetic diversity of plants Products of coevolution can be quite specific some yucca plants pollinated by only one kind of moth but most plantpollinator interactions less specific Concepts adaptation advertising strategy beauty deception coevolution Remember organisms plants amp animals the latter excepting humans do not plan or think about or design to be deceptive or attractive or to cheat SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome appearance in southern China and coverup spread to Hong Kong then other countries origins Civet cat importance of Asian customs global travel global cooperation and global panic H1 N1 swine flu originated in pig farm in Mexico highly contagious symptoms chills fever sore throat severe headache coughing lethargy discomfort at highest risk people under age 24 60 million Americans received vaccination feared up to 90000 Americans would die 55 million infected 250000 hospitalized 11000 people died conclusion a pandemic that didn t happen Influenza in perspective deaths 1918 Spanish Influenza 50 million deaths 1980s present AIDS 30 million deaths Black Death 25 million deaths SARS 700 deaths Drugs to treat viruses Iag behind those developed for bacteria why hard to find drug that attacks reproduction and doesn t affect host s metabolism Ma39or crops domesticated in near East crops wheat barley beans amp lentils grapes amp olives Biological evolution Charles Darwin reasoning amp background descent with modification evolution a change in the genetic characteristic of a population over time A change in population only populations can evolve individuals cannot fitness measured in populations natural selection works on individuals microevoution smallscale change macroevoution largescale change Mechanisms of evolution evoution occurs in two major ways natural selection genetic drift in this class we will note that evolution occurs principally via natural selection Natural selection organisms with current favorable traits have a better chance of survival onger life for organism more reproductive opportunities more offspring will be produced Four steps in Darwin s reasoning process 1 all organisms have great capacity for evolution 2 most populations maintain stable populations for long periods of time 3 within populations individuals vary in their genetic traits including some that affect their ability to reproduce 4 those individuals with traits best suited adapted to the environment will tend to survive to produce more offspring What is a trait any measurable aspect of an organism most traits influenced by genes and environment The famous peppered moth Biston Bitularia generation 0 10 dark phenotype several generations later 80 dark phenotype two varieties of moth one light amp one dark prior to industrial revolution dark moths rare in Great Britain during the industrial revolution there was a lot of pollution black moths appear naturalist links it to pollution Darwin divinity school at Cambridge keen naturalist seftaug ht biology saw himself as very average persistent amp dedicated HMS Beagle Journey Aim 1 expand knowledge of natural resources Aim 2 captain s find evidence for biblical account of life Darwin s bible was a book on geology 5 year journey What Darwin found Chile marine shells inland Argentina armadillolike animal glyptodant What else did he do collected specimens data data data at every opportunity used comparative method comparisons between Europe and what he saw saw importance of distance in accounting for differences Galapagos visit island mainland comparisons Darwin s two hypotheses dispersion from mainland differentia island evolution famous finches now known as Darwin s finches Darwin s return amp subseguently concludes that evolution is a fact and also concludes that mechanism producing change is natural selection Thomas Malthus influence 1844 essay and then long gestation Darwin s hand is forced etter from Alfred Russel Wallace traveed Amazon amp Malay archipelago Waace s biogeographic regions of the world joint presentation before Linnaen society July 1 1858 quotOrigin of Speciesquot published 1859 bestseller Why Darwin gets credits for theom first with the idea precedence in scienceeverywhere elaboration amp immense support After Darwin what have we learned examples of natural selection working change is genetic population genetics firms up Darwin s insights species selection changes not constant through time Mic 39 quot changes in the genetic structure of 39 quot microevolution small evolutionary changes those that result in allele amp genotype frequencies in a population Four causes of changes in genetic structure of populations natural selection mutation gene flow random genetic drift Natural selection ex1 have change in proportion of alleles for brown amp blue eyes in the gene pool Mutations change in an organism s DNA new alleles on which natural selection will work occurs when cells make mistake in replication they occur randomly most are bad or detrimental Significance of mutations original source of genetic variation that serves as raw material for natural selection Mutations from xrays may get in overexposure from too much ultraviolet radiation producing cancers won t be passed on to offsprings Gene flow migration between populations common metapopulation a population divided into subpopulations among which there are occasional exchanges of individuals Random genetic drift chance events that alter gene frequencies greatest effect in small populations law of probabilities and large numbers effect on rare genotypes aees become fixed Genetic drift point to remember because it is a random process different results from generation to generation Population bottleneck arge populations can have allele frequencies changed can come about through natural or human disaster most genotypes may not appear Founder effect genetic drift in which rare alleles are occurring at a higher frequency in the general population Amish example small population and considerable inbreeding allele for dwarfism and polydactylism Factors that facilitate evolution two processes allow natural selection to speed up sexual reproduction amp nonrandom mating assortative Sexual reproduction recombination of genes more or less random result endless variety of genotypes result differential possibilities now available for natural selection to work on Nonrandom mating also known as assortative mating ta individuals mate with tall individuals those in sororities mate with those in fraternities rich marry rich Result of sexual 39 39 quot mating remember they open up possibilities for change in gene pool in subsequent generations Social darwinism amp eugenics Herbert Spencer crude idea of survival of the fittestquot eugenics movement in US 19191950 Nazism and Aryan nation brotherhood Eugenics the active promotion by humans of particular traits in a human population underlying belief those selected are better adapted Eugenics amp social darwinism better adapated in what sense do better in a capitalist society commit fewer crimes have fewer genetic defects are more intelligent what else thought desirable suppression of inferior genes IQ tests suppression of certain races and ethnic groups those who wanted to intermarry how done social policies institutionalization sterilization who determines the rich amp powerful those who control social institutions program promoted by state s civic leaders planned parenthood founder Margaret Sanger LA Times publisher Harry Chandler Caltech head Robert Millikan Eugenics and California what California did the third of 30 states in nation to legalize sterilization of insane and feebleminded promote programs that resulted in 20000 people being sterilized who was targeted men amp women equally foreign born more than natives AfricanAmericans more than Caucasians those with mental illnesses or large families Normalizing selection also known as stabilizing selectionquot reduces variation around mean or average does NOT change the mean or average characteristic of most populations Directional selection Selection for extreme individuals may occur in either direction when changing environment stabilizing selection may set in direction of directional selection may change Disruptive selection occurs when two or more phenotypes are favored British land snail example low vegetation with lots of light dark eaten forested areas with little light light ones eaten Speciation speciation df process by which one species splits into two and thereafter distinct lineages evolve a gradual process has occurred millions hundreds of millions of times the essential ingredient of diversification shift of concern from populations to species creation means concern is now with macroevolution Ma 39 quot and kinds of 39 quot macroevolution evolutionary change on grand scale that encompasses origin of new taxonomic groups and dealing with evolutionary trends and mass extinctions aopatric speciation most common sympatric speciation much less common parapatric speciation quite uncommon Species reminder and a bit more species df individuals capable of breeding with one another but not with members of another species species refined df groups of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations which are reproductiver isolated from one another Allopatric speciation aopatric speciation also called geographic speciation occurs when a population is separated into two or more parts by a geographic barrier weather temp soil etc ao different patris country 1 single species distributed over broad range 2 sea level rises and isolates species populations began adapting to different environments may be a change in appearance though organisms are still reproductiver compatible OR they may become reproductively incompatible before there is a noticeable morphological change Galapagos finches variety evolved because of isolation on islands three principal types seed eaters and bud and insect eaters Allopatric speciation final note most speciation among animals is allopatric striking example only one percent of earth s water is fresh water and fish productively higher in oceans but 36 of earth s 20000 bony fish are found in fresh water Sympatric speciation sympatric speciation division of a population where there is NO geographic isolation sym with most common means of sympatric speciation polyploidy Polypoidy an increase in the number of chromosomes occurs during cell division get four rather than two sets how to overcome problem or produce viable offspring by selffertilization mate with other tetraploids individuals with four sets of chromosomes note poypoids more common among plants than animals speciation by polyploidy very important among flowering plants 70 of flowering plants produced in this manner 95 of ferns produced in this manner Parapatric speciation parapatric speciation a kind of allopatric speciation in which the barrier is not geographical but a difference in conditions para beside to occur natural selection must be stronger than gene flow if not stronger gene flow could prevent differentiation between two populations Parapatric speciation example plants that grow on mine tailings vs those that grow nearby on normal soil those growing on mine tailing largely selffertilize thus little gene flow how common is parapatric speciation rub species nearby that are different could have been geographically isolated at some point in the past Reproductive isolating mechanisms barrier established daughter populations diverge through natural selection Prezygotic isolating mechanisms those that operate before mating either prevent mating or prevent fertilization zygote fertilized egg resulting from union of sperm cell nucleus and egg cell nucleus Types of prezygotic mechanisms spatia or geographical isolation tempora isolation mechanica isolation gametic isolation behaviora isolation Spatial or geographical isolation individuals of different species select different places in which to breed and never come in contact during mating season EXAMPLE English oaks and California oaks can hybridize and produce viable hybrids but they are isolated spacially Tigons and ligers tigons African lions and Asian tigers are obviously geographically separated but they do mate in zoos when the father is a tiger the hybrid is called a tigon and hybrids are fertile Temporal isolation occurs when the mating period of two species does not overlap characteristic of most plants different times of days different seasons note example of frogs Mechanical isolation size and shape of reproductive organs may be crucial insects great diversity in particularly among males flowering plant morphology small differences can prevent bees from transferring pollen from another plant Gametic isolation remember gamete haploid reproductive cell sperm of one species is not attracted to eggs of another species appropriate chemicals not released to allow sperm to penetrate egg sperm might function poorly in reproductive tract of another species Behavioral isolation ack of sexual attraction between sexes unwecome or unattractive courtship rituals could be based on chemical signals pheromones in humans for example Types of postzygotic mechanisms those that operate after mating has occurred hybrid zygote abnormality Hybrid zygote abnormali zygotes fail to mature normally abnormalities may develop that prevent successful mating may die during development lethal genes Hybrid infertility hybrids may mature normally but be infertile when they attempt to mate reca example of mule offspring of a female horse and a male donkey mules are vigorous but sterile produce no offspring Low hybrid viability offspring have tougher time surviving may do well first generation but not well beyond that Incomplete reproductive isolation contact is reestablished before genetic differences accumulate gene pools can quickly combine and no new species is formed Geographical hybrid zones zone where species interbreed only when in contact in one area example of warblers townsend warblers and hermit warblers hybridize both breed in conifer forests and no boundaries at hybrid zone hybrid zone shifting southward townsend warblers replacing hermit warblers why TWs more aggressive TWs better at attracting mates TWs ability to maintain territory Evidence for evolution comparative anatomy embryology biogeography molecular biology all are complementary Evidence from comparative anatomy homologous structures similarities that stem from having a common ancestor can be homologous even though functions are different Types of homologous structures anatomica as noted behavioral eg bird songs sexual posturing molecular nucleotide sequences in DNA Appearances can be deceiving wing bones of bats and birds seem to be homologous ancestra organism amniote wings NOT homologous bird wings dinosaurs bat wings mammalian ancestor Convergent evolution reca example of wings that are not homologous thus analogous structures same function but do not share a common ancestor evoved to do same thing but with different origins cacti and spurges similar appearance both spiny flowering plants cacti evolved in America spurges evolved in tropical Africa Evidence from embryology organisms contain evidence of their evolutionary history vestigia structures embryological development evidence in embryos not apparent in adult organisms ex all vertebrates have pharyngeal pouches in throat region in some stage of development Evidence from molecular biology plants and animals all share common characteristics at molecular level genetic code passed on through tree of life can compare DNA and protein patterns to determine degree of relatedness Fossils what are they hard shells bones and teeth that have been preserved in sedimentary rock generally found in anaerobic wo oxygen environments most organisms die elsewhere most not actual remnants Other fossils species preserved in amber species preserved in ice tracks eggs dung fossil record very incomplete but some lineages well represented horses Traditional fossils link different taxal fish and land vertebrates dinosaurs and birds and mammals and whales What the fossil record reveals great regularity particular types in rocks of specific ages new organisms in younger rocks reative age only until radiocarbon dating extinction the fate of all species Fossils how many estimated 300000 described estimated 200000 marine animals with hard skeletons very selective record how many exist Radiometric dating allows for rather precise dating of fossils use of radioactive isotopes to date fossils they decay in regular pattern during successive equal periods of time radioactive decay loss of neutrons at a regular rate it is constant and not affected by pressure temperature etc rate of decay is expressed as halflife amount of time it takes for one half of atom to decay Significance of different halflives different isotopes used to date rocks of different ages ex 1 uranium to date age of the earth Further notes on isotopes decaying of isotopes begin at time of organism s death Ideas about organismal change over time de Buffon natural history of animals clear statement about possibility of evolution each species divinely created for particular way of life ex dogs serve men fish fill oceans But Buffon had doubts doubts based in anatomy similarity of limb bones pigs with toes that never touch the ground purpose how could this be explained by special creation where everything had a purpose de Buffon resolves doubts concludes mammals not specially created but evolved from common ancestor descent with modification What Buffon did not do did not explain how changes came about put quot 39 no was he had no concept of natural selection LI Jean Baptiste Lamarck first to propose mechanism of evolution change occurs as offspring inherit structures that have changed as a result of continued use during its life his idea the mechanism postulated known as the Lamarckian theory or Lamarckism present status wholly discredited Nineteenth century change scientists receptive to newtheory of change why work of geologists examining fossil record then comes along Darwin and the theory of evolution by natural selection Gradual change over time creationist claim intermediate forms do not exist meaning evolutionary descent cannot be shown Rapid change over time amp other issues organisms may evolve in places where fossils are not found when fossils are only found in one place this may suggest very rapid evolution Brief histom of life on Earth On a 24 hour scale 300600AM life began 11OOAM photosynthesis began 8OOPM first multicellular organisms appeared 10OOPM colonization of land 11OOPM first dinosaurs 1145PM land organisms similar to modern times 1158PM 5 human ancestors diverse from apes 4 seconds to midnight modern humans appear Geological timescale of Earth each era period epoch covers a series of major events punctuated by a catastrophic event each more detailed as we move closer to present From the beginning a reminder universe 1020 bya Milky Way 5 bya Earth 45 46 bya origin of life 38 4 bya multicellular organisms 25 bya rocks w oxygen 24 bya anima forms of today 540 mya and plants 440 mya Carboniferous Period 300 mya Permian extinction 250 mya flowering plants 100 mya extinction of dinosaurs 65 mya world map looks familiar hominids 5 7 mya Homo sapiens 2 mya eave Africa 200000 mya Large eras Precambrian Era 46 bya 550 mya ife exclusively unicellular for most of Earth s history 02 virtually absent from oceans amp atmosphere for 2 billion years after life Paleozoic Era 550 245 mya origin of animals land animals plants fungi diversification of fish amphibians insects Carboniferous Period origin of seed plants and reptiles rapid increase in animal diversity in fossil record what caused Cambrian explosion emergence of predatorprey relationship enough oxygen to support greater metabolic activity emergence of particular genes Hox genes Paleozoic 3 major extinctions a experienced a drop in sea level Permian extinction had most severe drop ends with Permian extinction loss of almost all multicellular life forms 90 extinction rate of species climate warms Antarctica forested supercontinent Pangaea formed Mesozoic Era 245 65 mya mosty hot humid radiation of reptiles origin and radiation of dinosaurs origin of flowering plants birds mammals Cenozoic Era 65 mya present cooer drier radiation of birds mammals angiosperms insects origin of primates 3O mya Pleistocene ice age 18 mya Earth cools life shifts to equator hominids appear amp extinctions of large mammals and birds in America amp Australia Pangea 25O mya continents fused together drop in sea level change of ocean currents Role of extinction in histom of life mass extinction account for only small proportion of all extinctions arge impact on radiation of taxa


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