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by: Ms. Juvenal Kertzmann


Ms. Juvenal Kertzmann
GPA 3.76

Richard Symanski

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Richard Symanski
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Juvenal Kertzmann on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio Sci 1 at University of California - Irvine taught by Richard Symanski in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/201892/bio-sci-1-university-of-california-irvine in Biological Sciences at University of California - Irvine.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Biological Science 1A Lecture Notes Vanda Moore Lecture EightK October 18K 2011 Coevolution Species mutually influencing each other s evolution Animals gt Flowers 0 Nectar is a saccharine secretion of plans to attract animals 0 Birds bees ants and flies then visit and carry the pollen around Products of Coevolution o Yucca plants pollinated by one type of moth Different animals can pollinate the same species Flower structures are more complex and have more genetic diversity F acts Organisms do not plan on being deceptive or attractive or to cheat on one another They are just adapting to their environment Flowers are bisexual Advertisement gt Colour shape design Pigmy possums are a select kind of pollinating mammal Lecture Nine October 2 2011 Biological Evolution A change in the genetic characteristics of a population individuals cannot evolve but natural selection does work on individuals Darwin called it descent with modification Carrying Capacity The point when organisms can be supported by their resource base Founder Effect Genetic drifts in which rare alleles occur at higher frequencies than in a general population which allele is a matter of chance Gene pool Total aggregate of genes in a population at one time Microevolution Small evolutionary changes that result in allelegenotype frequencies in a population versus Macroevolution Somatic Body function mutation that cannot be passed on through sex Causes of Changes in Genetic Structures 1 Natural selection A process that works on variation in traits that are heritable and influence reproductive SUCCESS N Mutation Change in an organism s DNA 0 New alleles on which natural selection will work 0 Occurs when cells make a mistake in replication which is random 0 Most mutations are bad or detrimental Biological Science 1A Lecture Notes Vanda Moore 0 Significance They are the original source of genetic variation that serves as raw material for natural selection 3 Gene flow The exchange of alleles between populations 4 Genetic drift Chance events that alter gene frequencies can cause one allele to be dominant than another and influences the survival of a population 0 Can be more important that natural selection in a small population 0 Likely to get different results with each generation because it is a random process Population Bottleneck 0 Large populations can have allele frequencies change and can come about through natural or human disasters 0 Most genotypes may not appear in the next generation Northern Elephant Seals 0 1890s population reduced to 20 o Breeding population is lower 0 No evidence of variation among proteins 0 Effect gt Heading towards extinction Cheetahs o Infertile due to intense interbreeding The Amish o Protestant sect from Europe 0 Small population and considerable inbreeding o Allele for dwarfism and polydactylism fingers Factors that Facilitate Evolution 0 Sexual reproduction o Recombination of genes that result in endless variety of genotypes differential possibilities available for natural selection to work on o Nonrandom mating o Assertive mating that opens up possibilities for change in gene pools in subsequent generations Mechanisms of Evolution Genetic drift and Natural selection Four Steps In Darwin s Reasoning Process 1 All organisms have a great capacity for reproduction 2 Most populations maintain stable sizes for a long period of time 3 Within a species there is a wide range of features due to different alleles 4 Some variations are passed on and inherited by the offspring Biological Science 1A Lecture Notes Vanda Moore Lecture Ten October 2 2011 Adaptation Traits that enhances survival and reproductive success of individuals Angiosperms Flowering plants Domain first to evolve on tree of life Bacteria Father of scientific naming Carl Linnaeus Runaway selection Uh peacocks Traits Any measurable aspect of an organism influenced by genes and environment Distribution of a trait can vary withinbetween populations Facts 0 Within populations individuals vary in their genetic traits including some that affect their ability to reproduce 0 Individuals with adapted traits will tend to produce more surviving offspring 0 Pepper moths are a scientific icon for adaptation though the study was later proved to have been falsely done Charles Darwin 0 Educated keen naturalist 0 Attended the Divinity School of Cambridge 0 Selfperception gt Average C student who was persistent and dedicated o 1844 essay long gestation 1858 0 Alfred Wallace Charles Darwin joint presentation to the Cinnean Society on July 15 1858 Lecture Eleven November 15 2 2011 1 Parapative Speciation A kind of allopathic speciation in which the barrier is not geographic but a difference in conditions 0 Natural selection must be stronger then gene flow If not the gene flow would prevent differentiation 0 Examples plants growing on mine tailings versus those that grow nearby on normal soil Mine plants largely selffertilise with little gene flow 2 Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms Barrier established daughter populations diverge through natural selection 0 Differences magnify with time reducing probability of future successful reproductions o Prezygotic Operates before mating prevent mating fertilising o Zygote Fertilised egg 0 Isolations 1 SpatialGeographical Individuals of different species select different places in which to breed and never come into contact during mating season N Temporal Occurs when the mating period of two species do not overlap 3 Mechanical size and shape of reproductive organs may be crucial He Gametic Sperm of one species is not attracted to the egg of the other species 0 Appropriate chemicals not released to allow sperm to penetrate egg Biological Science 1A Lecture Notes Vanda Moore 5 Behavourial Lack of sexual attraction o Unwelcomed unattractive courtship rituals could be based on chemical signals Types of Prezygotic Mechanisms Occurs after mating o Zygots fail to mature Abnormalities may develop that prevent successful mating may die during development 0 Hybrids Mature normally infertile Bacertial Diseases Only small fracture causes diseases 0 Leprosy cyme disease syphilis tuberculosis gangrene strap throat Chlamydia etc Lecture Twelve November 317 2011 Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin on September 28 1928 Enzymes Organic catalyst usually a protein Antibiotics lnactivates bacterial enzymes without harming host enzymes 0 Most are produced naturally by soil organisms 0 Do not work on viruses also kill good bacteria 0 Makes bacteria more resistant over time 0 Fast generation time gives them ability to evolve faster than multicellular organisms 0 Resistance can be shamed with other bacteria their evolution can be witnessed in lifetimes o Resistant bacteria can easily transfer from animal to human Some people can be fatally allergic Penicillin and Tetracycline once cured gonorrhea but now fails Viruses Detached fragments of genomes of organisms 0 Cannot exist independently of preexisting organisms 0 Cannot reproduce on their own uses the host instead 0 Are parasitic there for not life Cannot be placed into any kingdom Very high mutation rates Are hard to kill using modern medicine Many go into latency and will remain with its host for life Best known for hurting humans and plants Viral Diseases Cancer hepatitis warts fevers blisters shingles common cold rabies measles chicken pox small pox genital herpes genital warts HIV AIDS etc Biological Science 1A Lecture Notes Vanda Moore Bacteria Virus Three main shapes Multiple shapes Reproduce by fission Reproduce by tricking its host Most are beneficial No applicable benefits Harmful ones can be treated with antibiotics Antibiotics have no effect Chicken Pox o Belong in the herpes family 0 DNA virus which goes into the cell nucleus where it replicates and bursts out 0 Will remain with its host forever AIDS HIV 0 First came to humans through the consumption of African bushmeat then being spread by truckers and homosexual men 0 Transferred through sex needles and blood 0 Attacks and weakens the immune system Small Pox 0 Spread by saliva 0 End of US vaccines 1972 0 Gone from world 1977 Yellow Fever 0 Name from jaundiced look 0 Spread by mosquitoes 0 Major health problem in the tropics o 500 million people infected 250000 cases a year Influenza Flu 0 Animal to human transmission 0 Mutation to human form 0 Historically a major killer 0 Spanish Influenza 1918 I Killed 50 million people worldwide I Mortality rate low compared to Black Death I Considerable impact on US life expectancy SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome o Appeared in Southern China covered up by the government 0 Spread to Hong Kong then other countries in Asia 0 Came from Civet cats H1N1 Swine Flu o Pigs from Mexico 0 Highly contagious 0 Age range People under 24 0 Symptoms Chills fever sore throat coughing lethargy discomfort headache Biological Science 1A Lecture Notes Vanda Moore Lecture Thirteen November 8quot 2011 Anthropoids Monkeys and great apes 45 mya Chordata Animals with backbones Hominids Great apes Hominins Modern humans and ancestors 57 mya Mammalia Evolved from reptilian stock 0 Traits legs skull jaws teeth body hair mammary glands Prosimians Lemurs lorises pottos tarsiers 55 mya The Great Apes Gibbons orangutans gorillas chimps humans 1 Primates Came from tree living insectivora o Subgroups Anthropoids and Prosimians 0 Notable Traits o Dexterous hands and feet with opposable thumbs 0 Designed for arboreal existence 0 Binocular and colour vision 0 Binocular associated with decline of importance of smell can focus on one object from different angles depth perception of trees 0 Flexible shoulder and elbow joints 0 Functional fingers and opposable toes 0 Flat nails versus claws 0 Large brains in relation to body size Lemurs 0 Located in Madagascar 0 Origins in East Africa 40 mya 0 Thirty five species tremendous diversity in size and social behaviour Tarsiers 0 Located in the Philippines Indonesia and Borneo o Noted for biggest eyes which each weighs more than its brain 0 Nocturnal tree dwellers 0 Feeds on birds bats insects fruits and nectar Anthropoid Fossils 0 Origins Evolved in the Old World Asia and Africa Possibly reached South Africa on raftslogs Adapted differently in the New World the Americas 0 Two jaws found in China 45 mya 0 Found in Egypt 37 mya size of squirrel lemurlike in appearance


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