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by: Amy Hauck IV


Amy Hauck IV
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Hauck IV on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Soc Sci 1A at University of California - Irvine taught by Christopherson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 578 views. For similar materials see /class/201910/soc-sci-1a-university-of-california-irvine in Social Science at University of California - Irvine.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Review Page 1 Social Science 1A Principles Fall 2010 Study Guide Final Exam The nal exam will cover Chapters 5 6 18 22 29 30 31 32 33 34 42 and 54 of the text lecture material lms and handouts This exam is scheduled for Monday December 6 2010 at 1000am This is the only time the exam will be given Please bring a red scantron form F 288 ParL From lecture know Sociology What is the de nition of sociology The study of people at the group level The systematic study of the relationships among people and organizations How is research conducted in sociology Intensive interviews content analysis participant analysis surveys In lecture we will view a portion of the lm Bowlin for Columbine where Michael Moore interviewed James Nichols brother of one of the convicted Oklahoma City bombers We will have two or three questions on the methods and content of this interview What is the gun culture in America The way that the use and purpose of guns are seen For example some view it as a patriotic duty It is out of a fearful defensive world view How did survey research begin During the industrial revolution in order to understand and improve social problems They did this in order to improve conditions for the working poor out of fear of political revolt What social reforms did early surveys lead to State created insurance wage and factory regulations and provisions for welfare and education What were the contributions of Karl Marx Max Weber and Emile Durkheim to sociology Marx Position in society is determined by socioeconomic status 7 determines privilege Weber Prestige determines class Durkheim Dilemma of tting into society vs personal freedom What are the main theoretical postulates of sociology 1 Human actions are determined by the environment 7 not genetics 2 Humans cannot survive in social isolation 7 anomie we need a society 3 Authority always appears in a large group setting 7the need for restraining con ict What is the moral message from sociology Inform society through research about social problems and encourage government to solve problems and improve society Review Page 2 Political Science What is the de nition of political science Political Science is the study of systems and government and the actions of government within and among nations In general what are the responsibilities of government Maintain internal order and security Hobbes Maintain Justice Aristotle Safeguard the social contract Hobbes Regulate Actions of citizens Promote the general welfare How is research conducted in political science Analyze historical trends case studies interviews simulation game theory What is political theory The personal belief in how government should be constructed to suit people What advice did Confucius offer to leaders Leaders should not show contempt for others Character of leaders determines character of government leaders should give encouragement leaders should not profit from government service What advice did John Locke and Thomas Jefferson offer for the development of political systems Modification of the social contract protection of human rights separation of church and state What is Rousseau s theory of government A social contract is created between the people and government People give up rights so and in return government uses that to protect the people What did Rousseau mean by the rule of law and the tyranny of the majority Rule of Law law governs society and no person is immune to law Tyranny of the Majority The majority has so much power over the function of government that individual interests are oppressed by the majority What are the functions of government given human nature according to Rousseau What advice did Machiavelli offer to leaders What moral question remains for leaders from Machiavelli s work What are the characteristics of an effective leader according to Machiavelli What are three classic views of government Necessary Evil Hobbes 7 We don t want government but we have to have one to protect Unnecessary Evil MarX 7 Government coerces us and gets away with corruption Necessary Good Aristotle 7 The government has the purpose in educating us Regarding government what do anarchists libertarians conservatives and liberals favor Review Page 3 What major difference exists between conservatives and liberals regarding the role of personal decision making Anarchism 7No government or infringement on liberty can rule ourselves 7 Extreme Right Libertarians 7 Capitalist the only purpose of government is to protect against invaders 7 ar Right Conservatives 7 Keep government as small as possible 7 Right Liberals 7 We should expand government to take care of social concerns 7 Left How would you characterize the leadership style of Vladimir Putin of Russia Machiavellian From lecture what lessons have been learned from the 2000 presidential election regarding the electoral college That it presents a challenge as the winner may not necessarily be the true winner Why does the electoral college exist The constitution requires it What are the reasons for keeping it It would be impossible to create a constitutional amendment because smaller states would not support it Anthropology What is the de nition of anthropology The study of humans past present and future What research methods are used in anthropology Participant observation structured interviews studying everyday activates What are the contributions of Bronislaw Malinowski to anthropology Ethnography WWI Trobriand Islands First Participant Observation Study Taught islanders Cricket to get them to stop killing each other in games Who was Franz Boas German anthropologist who was interested in how there were differences in human perception What is his theory of Historical Particularism Human evolution is not linear every society develops in its own way Every culture is unique and has its own history Who was Margaret Mead Student of Boas who studied structures of various societies How did her work support Boas theories She went over to Samoa to see how adolescence was seen Freud said that adolescence was the hardest part of life for people and Boas stated that was only true in western society Was Boas a cultural or physical anthropologist Cultural What was the controversy surrounding Mead s work That she ignored some things was biased in work and some Samoans lied to her Derek Freeman attacked her but was later disregarded Review Page 4 How was it resolved by the American Anthropological Association They supported Mead Who were the Neanderthals Early hominid forms that died out Why did Homo Sapiens become the exclusive hominid The development of a frontal lobe made them dominant Why did Homo Sapiens become dominant over Neanderthals Same as above What happened to the Neanderthals They died out we are not sure why though Did the two groups coeXist Yes What is the out of Africa hypothesis All hominid forms today originated from Africa Cultural anthropology is concerned with what area of study Human culture past and present Physical anthropology is concerned with what area of study Physical nature of humans Time permitting we will view a lm about Anthropology s contribution to crime prevention We will have one or two questions from this lm Chapter 5 What is the de nition of the science of sociology What is the basic premise of sociology The scienti c study of society social groups and social behavior The development of sociological research and theory takes place in countries that have what kind of government In what two countries is this changing Countries that are democratic in nature In the USSR and in China the study has become a national priority What is the difference between microsociology and macrosociology Microsociology Focuses on everyday patterns of behavior such as face to face interaction Macrosociology Relationships between groups or overall society What percentage of the data in sociology is collected by interviews and questionnaires 0 One ofthe classic books of sociology is Mills Sociological Imagination How does this book present the eld of sociology It can help create a bridge between the distinction between the individual and how they t into society as a whole What was the famous legal case of Brown vs Board of Education about The segregation of schools in Topeka Kansas 1954 How did sociologists contribute to this case They proved how segregation could be detrimental to a child s development Who were Jane Addams and WEB DuBois What did they accomplish See Box 53 DuBois Founder of the NAACP researched interactions between whites and blacks Review Page 5 Addams Founded the Hull House which helped to serve immigrant families and did work on understanding the poor sick and aged Chapter 6 What is the de nition of anthropology The study of the human race What makes humans different from all other animals We possess culture Why is culture important It allows for the transfer of knowledge and ideas from one another which in turns allows us to become much more advanced What are the two sub fields of anthropology Physical Anthropology focuses on humans as biological organisms Cultural Anthropology Study of humans in terms of their culture What is ethnocentrism What is cultural relativism Ethnocentrism Considering our way of life superior to others Cultural Relativism Considering how a practice fits into their culture not ours What is culture shock Is ethnocentrism always wrong The feelings of disorientation and stress that people experience when they enter an unfamiliar cultural setting Chapter 18 What was the great advancement in the time course of human evolution Becoming bipedal What did Yohannes HaileSelassie discover that appears to confirm the existence of this advancement A 52 to 58 million year old hominid that walked on 2 legs Where were these discoveries made Alayla Ethiopia Chapter 22 What is nonverbal communication The communication that two people have between eachother based on body movement facial expressions and tone Why is this form of communication important Because it can change how the verbal message is interpreted What is our conclusion when there is a lack of agreement between a verbal and a nonverbal message from the same person The person will tend to feel uncomfortable and uneasy What is meant by territoriality personal space The spaces in which we communicate with each other in different situations What controls the amount of territoriality between people The amount of activity and the personal level of the situation What are the four zones main distances most white middleclass Americans use in business and social relations Intimate Used for private activities Personal Space used in public between close partners and friends Review Page 6 Social Space used for social conversations or business Public Used in speeches gatherings important people What is the distance of each of these zones Intimate Direct and 6 to 18 inches Personal 1 12 to 2 feet and 2 12 to 4 feet Social 4 to 7 feet and 7 to 12 feet Public 25 feet and beyond What is the importance of these distances in dating other persons It shows how we perceive the other partner and our closeness to them Chapter 29 What two enduring themes in American society continue to be confirmed by the 2000 US Census The lower caste is composed of black people and that there is an ongoing immigration of people who assimilate into American culture within a few generations According to the material on pages 318319 why do incumbents tend to win reelection When gerrymandering districts they are drawn in such a way the incumbents are secured for a return How was the term Hispanic created for the US Census The collection of Spanish speaking groups What are the four official minorities American Indians Hispanics Blacks and Asians From page 324 what are the trends for marriage between people of different races Are any particular groups not entering into intermarriages It has grown greatly in recent decades Black people seem to be excluded What will be the effect of intermarriage for defining the concept of race There will become a lack of people with a single race and rather multirace On the 2000 US Census form it was possible to select more than one category for the respondent s race Why does the author of this chapter conclude that the whole scheme of racial identification may have to be abandoned It will eventually become too hard and complicated to try to figure out the whole racial status of a country and we may just drop it Chapter 30 Who is pressuring the federal government not to include a multiracial category on the census form Why Parents who are in multiracial marriages who feel that their children should not be forced to choose one race over the other What three factors explain the shift in how Americans are choosing to identify themselves racially Interracial Marriages Immigrants Choosing blended ancestry no matter how remote Chapter 31 Why is the author of this chapter Elizabeth Martinez angry She feels that other minorities are being left out of the model of racism and not considered According to this chapter what is meant by the BlackWhite model of Racism Why is this model awed according to the author It does not consider other minorities such as Hispanics and asians Review Page 7 What is La Raza ie National Council of La Raza Ifyou do not know please look up La Raza on the intemet and discover what it is A nonprofit advocacy group that strives to reduce poverty and discrimination as well as increase opportunities for Hispanics The chapter concludes by saying that racism evolves According to the chapter what factor seems to be important for de ning the current state of racism Social conditions for the group Chapter 32 In 1900 what percentage of students graduated from high school compared to now 6 compared to 88 today According to the chapter what were the attractive features of the American family during the 1950s Fathers with a college education subsidized mortgages What was also bad about the 1950s regarding discrimination in society and problems regarding the family There was a superficial sameness As well the government investigated people with unconventional beliefs and many African Americans and Mexicans were not allowed to vote from literacy tests that were not given to whites Many families have mother who work Is the condition of working mothers necessarily bad for the children in the family Why or why not It has tended to be better Studies have shown that mothers who are happy whether they are working or at home as a house wife has an effect on the children being happy What benefits come from the fact that fathers now spend more time with their children than in the past They say that their children and grandchildren communicate far better with their kids The kids tend to also be more successful and expressive Chapter 33 In the past how did slavery affect the institution of the family for African Americans It had been split up and pretty much destroyed According to this chapter what is the special task that African American parents have with regard to the rearing of their children They have to teach them how to deal with a world that will constantly belittle them What is meant by multiple mothering Having multiple role models that act to the child like a mother and help guide them in life According to Robert Hill cited in the chapter what are the four strengths of the AfricanAmerican family Strong kinship bonds a strong achievement motivation a strong religious and spiritual orientation and a strong work orientation Review Page 8 Chapter 34 This chapter addresses several trends affecting the American family According to the chapter the American family is changing for economic reasons trend 2 What are the four implications for the family when each spouse works Two decision makers 7 lifecareer planning will be difficult because of this Women Disappearing from the community 7 malls and stores will be emptier Masculization of home Fathers who cook clean and take care of children Economy of convenience 7 An increase of entertainment and resturants According to trend 3 what will happen to the divorce rate in the United States How may divorces be handled in the future The divorce rate will continue to climb In the future divorces will be seen as a simple business or partnership dissolution According to trend 4 what is the boomerang family and the blended family Blended Family One that is made up of half brotherssisters step fathersmothers Boomerang Family Children that leave home for college and after they graduate come home in order to save money This chapter concludes with an assessment whether Americans still value family life What data is used to support a positive conclusion to this question Young people still believe that marriage and raising a family is important to them Many people agree that being happily married and having a happy family is an important goal Chapter 42 What is the difference between sex and gender Sex The biological malefemale identity that is given Gender Socially learned expectations and behaviors associated with each sex What is homophobia A range of negative attitudes towards the LGBT culture Is homophobia more common among men or women Men Does it differ by racial ethnic group Yes In many cultures it is seen as a good thing Do you think our society currently has a third gender Would you expect in the next 50 years that we might develop one Chapter 54 What is the idea behind the Broken Windows article by Wilson Neighborhoods in decline were places where the residents had lost hope and pride where police rarely came except to make arrests and where offenders could commit crimes almost with impunity According to research by the author of the chapter what factors work to prevent crime Frequent home visits to infants by trained nurses attending preschool or being visited at home weekly by a teacher family therapy and parent training reinforcement of positive behavior lifeskills training ex offender job training police patrol in hot spots therapeutic community programs Why don t Neighborhood Watch programs work Neighbors are always either transient or so busy What is restorative justice The victim is the one who the crime is against and the offender is responsible to them Review Page 9 Sample exam on next page Please note the nal exam for this course Fall 2010 will have 50 questions Review Page 10 Name Social Science 1A 7 Principles Sample Final Exam 1 N E The sociological perspective always focuses on a individuals b groups c governments d deviants Which of the following statements is not true of contemporary sociology a Sociology can be de ned as the study of interpersonal relationships b Sociologists never examine a social problem in isolation The problem has to be linked to the operation of the whole society c The moral message of society is to discover the causes ofa social problem so that those in political power can correct the problem d Sociology is developing a reliance upon evolutionary biology to help explain many human social customs A sociologist conducting research devised a coding system to analyze the messages on an internet bulletin board discussion of the 2000 controversy concerning Elian Gonzalez the Cuban boy who was rescued after a boat accident in the ocean between Cuba and the United States This method of research is called participant observation a survey content analysis intensive interview 9 0quotm Early sociologists such as Durkheim and Marx discussed factors that allow society to function For Durkheim the important factor for the integration of society is however for Marx the important factor for maintaining societal cohesion is the that leaders inspire confidence elimination of poverty that the society be led by intelligent people that the leaders of the society be freely elected that the leaders have absolute power elimination of capitalism a strong collective conscience elimination of class distinctions 999 Which factor of social organization describes recognition respect and admiration attached to social positions a wealth b power c prestige d honor 0 gt1 9 0 Review Page 1 1 Which of the following statements would best fit with the main postulates of sociology a b 0 2 1 Differences in mental abilities such as intelligence are largely inherited To understand the behavior of individuals you must first understand the behavior of society It is important for people to function as individuals since identi cation with a group in contrary to human nature The emergence of authority such as leaders and governments is not consistent with human nature which favors freedom Which of the following was not mentioned in lecture as a function or responsibility of modern government a ensure justice b promote general welfare c regulate actions between people d promote the cause of science Politics literally means a b c d the ability and means for citizens and small groups to affect the operations of government the holding of elections to select candidates for public office the effectiveness of the government in responding to the needs of the population the nature of the relationship between the various branches of government such as the legislature Which political theorist wrote The character of the government is rooted in the character of the leader a b c d E Fquot 99 John Locke Thomas Jefferson Confucius Niccolo Machiavelli Which of the following was not advice offered by Machiavelli to political leaders Once a leader takes power the leader should consider all injuries on opponents and then in ict them all at once Once the leader takes power the leader should determine which of the other people can be trusted and which cannot The people who can be trusted will become advisors and those who cannot be trusted will be assigned to lowlevel positions Deal fumly with your enemies Try to be both loved and feared simultaneously by the people Jean Jacques Rousseau may be the most famous of all the political theorists In his earlier writings he argued that humans are noble savages What does this mean a b People are born good it is society that corrupts people People are born bad it is society that makes people good Review Page 12 c It is the function of society to transform humans from being animals with savage mentalities into educated and responsible people d It is the function of society to control at all costs the impulsive human instincts for aggression 12 According to Rousseau s later writings the major task of government is to a ensure that people do not harm one another b allow for maximum amount of freedom with the minimum number of laws c ensure people reach their telos d allow for tolerance of opinions Rousseau warned against the tyranny of the majority What does this mean a The will of the majority is not always correct Therefore a major function of government is to ensure that the majority does not prohibit the rights of any minority b The opinion of the majority must always be followed by the government even though sometimes the will of the majority is wrong c People should be free to do whatever they like so long as they do not harm other people d The majority has the obligation to help improve the lives of any minority in a society Thomas Jefferson was important for promoting secularism for American government What does secularism mean The Earth is able to sustain as large a population that humans can produce In its functions the State does not recognize any religion The electoral college is the instrument for electing the president of the United States Citizens must be tolerant of all reasonable viewpoints produced by political leaders 9 0quotm John Locke tried to improve upon Thomas Hobbes theory of the social contract In Locke s contract the people have several basic rights Which of the following is not a right advocated by John Locke a right to own property b right to life c right to dissent d right to pursue happiness In lecture we reviewed the leadership style of President Vladimir Putin of Russia Which of the following statements best describes his leadership style a Putin is making sure the tyranny of the majority does not occur in Russia b Putin has installed John Locke s idea of the social contract in Russia c Putin removed from power certain rich Russians who were a threat to his reelection as president of Russia d Putin is making a tremendous amount of money by allowing foreigners to buy up businesses in Russia 00 O N O 23 People who identify themselves as Review Page 13 In lecture we reviewed three classic views of government For example proposed one of the classic views that government is anecessary evil a Aristotle b Thomas Hobbes c JJ Rousseau d Karl Marx Which political theorist believed that government is a necessary good a Aristotle b Thomas Hobbes c JJ Rousseau d Karl Marx Which political theorist believed that government is an unnecessary evil a Aristotle b Thomas Hobbes c JJ Rousseau d Karl Marx In every presidential election the libertarian party runs a candidate that ends up receiving relatively few votes Which of the following statements would be most consistent with the campaign promises of the libertarian candidate The federal government needs to extend health care insurance to all Americans People should be allowed to do whatever they want as long as they do not hurt others The federal government should be disbanded People should solve their own problems and not expect the government to be the problem solver 999 tend to want government to expand into new areas to take care of human needs as they arise in society a Conservatives b Reactionaries c Liberals d Anarchists Which of the following statements best describes physical anthropology Physical anthropology studies the evolutionary development of humans Physical anthropology studies the development of cultures Physical anthropology studies how religions develop Physical anthropology studies how languages develop 993 Which of the following is not one of the subdisciplines in anthropology a cultural anthropology Review Page 14 b biology c physical anthropology d archeology Many anthropologists believe that each culture is a rather unique creation In addition it is incorrect to think of cultures as evolving from simple to complex This viewpoint is called ethnocentrism cultural relativism cultural speci city historical particularism FL 57 What kind of anthropologist was Franz Boas Boas was a physical anthropologist Boas was a Freudian anthropologist Boas was a cultural anthropologist Boas was a social anthropologist 999 Franz Boas sent his graduate student Margaret Mead to conduct eld research to determine whether the Freud s theory that the passage from childhood to adolescence is traumatic was correct On which island did Mead conduct her research a Hawaii b New Zealand c Samoa d Trobriand Islands The Out of Africa hypothesis was developed by anthropologists to indicate that a The rst hominids to evolve stayed away from Africa due to its harsh weather b The rst hominids developed in Asia with Africa being the last continent to be reached by the rst hominids c The rst hominids developed in Africa and then migrated to various regions of the Earth d The rst hominids suffered a massive extinction when a comet hit Africa about 1 million years ago The last Neanderthal hominids disappeared from the Earth about 30000 years ago 50000 years ago 75000 years ago a b c d 95000 years ago The one major advantage that homo sapiens might have used to replace the Neanderthals was symbolic thinking that included language a much longer life span a much higher fertility rate the ability to run faster 99 9 Review Page 15 30 Traditionally anthropologists would be least interested in LA N L 4 993 cultural change over time Third World subsistence strategies art consumption by the elite in modern societies diversity among cultures Chapter 5 of the text discusses the two levels of analysis at which sociologists work According to the chapter which of the following statements best represents the level called microsociology a Microsociology focuses on how the self is developed through social interactions b Microsociology focuses on everyday patterns of behavior facetoface interactions and the like c Microsociology focuses the theory of why people form groups d Microsociology focuses on the relationship between and socioeconomic class and status a b C a b c d level According to Chapter 6 the term culture shock refers to the feelings of nausea when eating foods another culture finds desirable but are considered inedible in ones own culture the feelings of superiority when ones own values beliefs and attitudes are different from another culture the inability to complete a field research project due to giving up ones way of life and joining the culture one has been studying the feelings of disorientation and stress people experience when they enter an unfamiliar cultural setting According to Chapter 18 what was the great advancement in human evolution The great advancement came when our ancestors began to stand on two legs The great advancement came when our ancestors developed tools for agriculture The great advancement came when our ancestors invented warfare The great advancement came when our ancestors began to form social groups Chapter 22 presents four zones main distances that most White middleclass Americans use in business and social relations Which one of the following zones is not presented in the chapter a Fquot 99 Personal distance of one and onehalf feet to two feet most often used by people in conversation Social distance of four to seven feet employed during business transactions or by co workers Defense distance often feet used when feeling attacked verbally by a stranger Public distance of up to twentyfive feet or more used by teachers speakers and public figures Review Page 16 35 According to Chapter 29 of the readings what two enduring themes in America Society LA LA LA LA continue to be con rmed by the 2000 US Census a The two enduring themes are immigration of people to America from many different parts of the world and the continued existence of an underclass composed mainly of African Americans b The two enduring themes are the loss of con dence in the American economy and the major increase in the population of people de ned as Hispanic c The two enduring themes are the increase in marriage between people of different ethnic groups and the continued existence of segregation applied to certain ethnic groups d The two enduring themes are the rate of population in America is one of the highest in the world and Americans are leaving the East coast to live in the South and the West According to Chapter 30 the 2000 US Census form was unique in that it included several ways that a respondent could be selfclassi ed on the basis of race and ethnic background Who has opposed the use of multiracial and multiethnic classi cations on the census form The Democratic Political Party because it is afraid of losing minority voters State governments that fear a loss of federal money allocated on the basis of race Minority activist groups that fear a loss of political power Americans themselves who still overwhelmingly selfidentify on only one racial or ethnic category 51957 According to Chapter 31 why is the author of the chapter Elizabeth Martinez angry a Elizabeth Martinez is angry because congressional districts are determined in a manner to keep Hispanics from winning elections to congress b Elizabeth Martinez is angry because Hispanic children attend the poorest schools in the United States c Elizabeth Martinez is angry because there are multiple forms of racism in the United States other than the BlackWhite model d Elizabeth Martinez is angry since no Hispanic has ever been elected president of the United States Chapter 32 reviews the status of the American family Regarding high school 88 of adolescents graduate from high school today By contrast the high school graduation rate in the year 1900 was a 98 b 50 c 23 d 6 In Chapter 33 we are given the term multiple mothering which refers to a the high birth rate in AfricanAmerican families b the introduction of new techniques in AfricanAmerican families to raise twins c the expectations placed upon a young AfricanAmerican female to be a mother while working a career job Review Page 17 d the help given by extended family members in raising children in AfricanAmerican families 40 According to Chapter 34 what is a boomerang family and what is its future a A boomerang family results from adult children returning home to live with their parents The number of boomerang families is expected to increase b A boomerang family is one headed by a singleparent who is usually a female the number of boomerang families is expected to decrease in the immediate future c A boomerang family results from divorced parents who remarry and bring their biological children into the remarriage The number of boomerang families is expected to increase in the future d A boomerang family is one headed by immigrant parents The children of boomerang families have the task of adapting to the American culture The number of boomerang families is expected to increase in the future


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