SPANISH DANCE I
SPANISH DANCE I Dance 12
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aliyah King on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Dance 12 at University of California - Irvine taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/201917/dance-12-university-of-california-irvine in Dance at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
LETTERS Ou g the Conflicted Et Tu NIH HAT SHOULD BE DONE WHm THE MS ON se w Tl of publiceminded scientific re arch in U 39he have if ments for lull public disclosure and times by limits or pmhibilions on the type and Another concern le s otten voiced in these cases relates to doubledipping lfa scientist39s desirability as a consultant from eerll post can she be that Accor gtoa 39eandtimeshesellsto39 strydoesnot Angeler rm some Nlll of cials have already belong to 7 sponse to this received hundreds of thousands of dollars concernoneNlll employee toldtheLA nmer over the past decade from hundreds of undertook his consulting work on 1610 support NIH must raise the bar It should severely lim39t the annuntof alluulllul 39 lwmr mr 39 39 ular N mh le rrii quotthe sometimes sixefigul39e sums involved concerns should persist abom whether Given similar consulting arrangements In many or 39 39 a r 39 te universities the real question of the Th f 39 as are the connections made in the articles between of NIH staff and their laboratories Bm erha s more surprising is that these w approvedblell ethrcso icers mmllvrli lnei l impartial disinterested science or should Nlll 1 th 39 39 Letters to the Editor Letters 300 words discuss rneteriel published e previous 5 rncnths or issues e W x 20005 USA Letters are upori receipt rior ere euthcrs generelly consulted before publication Whether published in tull or in pert letters ere subiect to editing for clerity end spece Dietary Restriction in Drosophila DIETARY RESTRICTION IS ONE OF THE FEW envimnmental 39 39 increases lifespan 1 In their Report Demography of die restriction and death in Drcrcphtlti39 19 Sept p 1731 w Mair et a1 found that shoneterm rather than longetterm dietary restriction deter mined momlity rates in Drcecphtliz only ageeindependent mortality a result foimd before 2 Mair 2 e1 did not however sled much ligrt on the mecha nistic basis of immediate changes in Nlll must raise the bar It should severely irnit the unt ofmoney employees can receive and the amount o time they can sell under consulting arrangements lt higlestepaid employees are not required to disclose their consulting income 1 3 arrungpoten r scientists it is not learn that Nlll felt competie s 5 surprising to 39 ressuretoloosenitsrule trve p they realistically serve two or three or en urmashers the an outlandish smack on character 5 ests and in other fields such as law accounting and journalism a reliance on virtuehasrightiy been supersededbyrequire to companies with whom NIH has official dealings g employees that do not compror mise research integrity JosEvHINE JOHNSION The Hestings Center 21 Melcclrn Cordon Reed oerriscn NY iosstsss USA Email iohrir storiiCalthehzstirigsceriterorg References and Nutes i u willnian Stealth merger drug Dmpariies and nnient niedieal researd i lorAhgeler riner 7 taternent about 3 EditurialNatllre4267392003 E Marshall Stems 302 2046 2003 s 3 Krirnsky Stems ill the pnreteiriterert Ha theture OmefKX Corrupted the virtue of tomedzal Itereerew MD 2003 M n ii Ned u 15162000 7 u Willriiari Casestudy lerrreyM Trerit LJAngee Time7De 2002 Setiuri i p 35 a This researdi was tunded by a grarit troni the DuriagriueFuuridatiuri We believe that we can Dietary restriction tends to increase Drcrcphtltz lifespan reduce m E tr 0 a o 5 in whether reproductron o whenadditiona o life and downward wh see fig 3 in 3 This transition took lZ MARCH 2004 VOL303 SClENCE wwwsciericernegorg about 3 days in either direction about the same magnitude of time as the 48hour transition observed by Mair et al Chippindale et al 3 also studied the shortterm response of starvation resistance to a change in dietary regime Starvation resist ance is a major factor determining longevity in D melanogaster 577 and is in turn deter mined by the total stored calories in the y 8 When dietary regime is abruptly changed Chippindale et al 3 found a rapid shi in starvation resistance that was the inverse of the rapid shift in fecundity This also matched the known evolutionary antagonism between starvation resistance and fecundity Given the evidence linking starvation resistance to longevity starvation resistance must in uence mortality rates In sum our interpretation of the effects of abrupt dietary change is that when fewer calories and nutrients are ingested fecundity falls increasing the storage of calories thereby reducing mortality rates and conversely Furthermore this interpretation can be extended to explain the findings of Mair et al for both the increase and decrease in mortality rate in males and females with dietary change That is when caloric intake is increased the storage of calories is reduced and reproduc tive activity increases thereby increasing mortality rates Conversely when caloric intake is decreased the storage of calories is increased and reproductive activity decreases causing mortality rates to drop CASANDRA L RAUSER LAURENCE D MUELLER MICHAEL R ROSE Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biologc University of California Inine CA 92697 2525 USA References C E Find Longevin Senexcence and The Genome Univ of Chicago Press Chicago IL 1990 T J Nusbaum era Exp Geronroi 31507 1996 A K Chippindale eraijEvoiBioi6171 1993 M R Rn a 39 39 39 39 ewe Press Oxford 1991 M R Rose eraL Exp Geronroi 27 241 1992 M Djawdan er 21 Pigrial Zool 71 584 1998 Res 0 se RAUSER ETAL SUGGEST THAT THE REDUCTION in mortality rate in Drasophila in response to dietary restriction DR is caused by reduced fecundity andor increased stress resistance Increased lifespan in response to DR in diverse organisms is accompanied by a reduc tion in daily and lifetime fecundity 173 The suggestion that this reduction in fecundity is causal in the extension of lifespan under DR has been made several times previously 7 including in the Perspective accompanying L E T T E R 5 our paper 8 The idea may be correct but at present there is no direct experimental evidence for or against it xperiments in which costly aspects of reproduction are blocked directly and the effect on the response of lifespan to DR examined could throw some light on the issue stress resistance has also frequently been shown to accompany exten sion of lifespan in response to DR and has again previously been suggested to be causal 9714 As for the effects of fecundity there is no 1 39 evidence and direct manipu lation of the stress responses in DR and control animals could prove informative WILLIAM MAIR PATRICK GOYMER SCOTT D PLET HER LINDA PARTRIDGET Department of Biology University College London DanVin Building Gower Street LondonWC1 E 6B1j UK Present address Department of Molecular and Human Genetis and Huffington Center on Aging Baylor College of Medicine Houston TX 77030 USA tTo whom correspondence should be addressed E mail lpartridgeuclacu References 1 T Chapman L Partridge Proc R Soc London Ser B Biol Sci 263 755 1996 2 A M Holehan B J Meny Mech Ageing Dev 33 19 1985 3 M R Klass Mech Ageing Dev 6 413 1977 4 R HollidayBioeaS 10 125 1989 www5ciencemagorg SCIENCE VOL303 12 MARCH 2004 1611 Lecture 11 Molecular Electronics 0 Fermi Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Readings that cover this lecture Ferry pp 209226 Heath and Rattler Moemczr Eecz mm cy Physics Today May 2003 reading packet Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Particle in a box These are the allowed energy levels or quantum states Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke 3 Fermi gas At zero temperature as we add electrons to the box we gradually ll up all the states DISCUSS PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE IMPORTANT Fenni When we are done lling the box the energy of the last electron is called the Fermi energy EE 1619119 Gas means we neglect electronelectron interactions gtAll these states are lled with electrons PE energy Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke 4 Particle in a box m 203A sinknxx smug y sinknzz A kn nx7z Lx L 2m kny7zLy NA ML L y gt knz nZ Lz X 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Ehknx kny knzh 2 1 722 1 722 1 n2 2m 2m L x L y L Z x These are the allowed energy levels or quantum states Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke 5 Fermi energy Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke 6 Fermi energy O 39 W LX Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Energy scales 39 Charging energy 39 Single electron energy level spacing Temperature Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Continuum band diagrams like this no longer apply Energy uonoun mom E Fermi Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke 9 gram with Coulomb gap Energy Band dia L W Energy Band diagram with Coulomb gap and accounting for 0d states AE Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Energy Band diagram with Coulomb gap and accounting for 0d states AE Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Experimental realization W ZDEGS http marcuslabharvardeduresphp Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Results From P Kouwenhoven OM Marcus PL McEuen S Tarucha RM Westervelt and NS Wingreen Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Nato ASI conference proceedings ed By L P Kouwenhoven G Schampampampoumn LL Sohn Kluwer Dordrecht 1997 Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Arti cial atoms Leo Kouwenhoven and Charles Marcus Quantum Dots Physics World June 1998 Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Coulomb diamonds Leo Kouwenhoven and Charles Marcus Quantum Dots Physics World June 1998 Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Arti cial molecules From P Kouwenhoven OM Marcus PL McEuen S Tarucha RM Westervelt and NS Wingreen Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Nato ASI conference proceedings ed By L P Kouwenhoven G Schampampampoumn LL Sohn Kluwer Dordrecht 1997 Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Metallic quantum dots Spectroscopy of Discrete Energy Levels in Ultrasmall Metallic Grains Jan von Delft and D C Ralph Physics Reports 345 61 2001 Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Molecular electronics J Heath Physics Today May 2003 Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Molecular electronics J Heath Physics Today May 2003 Last modi ed 422004 EECS 217C Nanotechnology 2004 P Burke Leann 1 Global Warming Pomts of Agreement a mud allKmhggm aum mu mm mm mm m m m mum Mlmhwammm mmgm uf u mm ufcumemm hm ummmommpm ummwmmmmwmm Human Injecuon of Carbon Global Carbon Cycle The stsmg Carbon Smk Mam Pomt of Contention m on Mmuicmm mmmm My DThAdebubmlgnbdmmmgxyrmx y mum have m Wm mmmwxm w mm m mm m m mm a unmmm mm mm mm m an my mm 1 5 mm mm mm m 1 mm nun mnm39m quot Water Vapor Feedback snowlee Albedo Feedback Vegetauonrcllmate Feedbacks Is Global Warmlng Emdem Yew u m gmlm ubsu39vedihtmsl lame mm nun aim me magmkdlymd uswwmmmummwnm ma mmlmwmmmmm mmmedglnwmmgmudymw u m meme nmmtmwagmkdly mud mm Mmmnuvuyhgt Predleuon of Future Warmlng um mam New we me m m pmmelmmmmpm lva 5mm wmwmwnn39c mm em mum m Gbmsukvdwmnewsw w mwzm eemmeemeMle Amman tfpmuwlmunewml39 The Physics of Music Physics 15 University of California Irvine Lecture 12 String Instruments Violin Family Guitar Woodwind Instruments ISingle reed IDouble reed Air reed Instructor David Kirkby dkirkby uciedu Instructor David Kirkby dkirkbyuciedu Review of Lecture 11 We discussed how reflections and absorption modify the sound you hear and how the Precedence Effect helps you sort out the complex results We completed the second part of this course which dealt with the Perception of Sound and started the third part which deals with Production 0 usica ound We studied the orchestral strings as examples of the string instruments Physics of Music Lcciucc 12 D Kirkby 2 The Guitar D3 G3 33 E4 intervals of a 4th 4th 4th 3rd 4th The guitar is an older instrument than the violin and probably originates from Egypt over 3000 years ago The modern guitar usually has six strings tuned to E2 A2 Physics of Music Lcciucc 12 D Kirkby Guitar Construction Like the violin the guitar has a thin top plate 25mm The guitar has more substantial structural reinforcement inside its body Physics of Music Lcciucc 12 D Kirkby 4 The guitar neck is fitted with frets to make finger positioning easier Air escapes from the guitar body through a large round hole under the strings compare with the violin fholes Guitars are usually plucked or picked and not bowed Physics of Music Lcciucc 12 D Kirkby Guitar Body Vibrations At high frequencies most of the guitar39s sound is produced by vibrations of the thin top plate alone At low frequencies both the top and back plates vibrate to change the volume of air contained in the body and therefore pump air out through the sound hole These images show Chladni patterns for a guitar top plate Physics of Music Lcciucc 12 D Kirkby e The Physics of Music Physics 15 Instructor David Kirkby University of California Irvine dkirkbyuciedu Electric Guitar and Bass Other String Instruments The electric guitar and bass usually have solid bodies and There are many other string instruments that we will not so cannot produce a useful amount of sound by string have time to cover vibrations alone Instead a wire coil pickup senses the disturbance of a magnetic field due to the vibrations of the nearby metal string The pickup generates an ad electronic signal that varies a in synch with the motion of the string vibrating over it y H Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby 7 Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby V l 8 Guitar Demonstration Woodwind Instruments Listen to the guitar being played thanks to John Nuch Woodwinds are one of two groups of instruments that are played by blowing into them the other group is brass We will analyze the guitar39s sound using the freeware inglmmenls S ectro ram software for windows p 9 Examples of woodwind instruments are the flute clarinet saxophone oboe and bassoon Look for The attack transients and slow decay in the envelope The common features of woodwind instruments are A vibrating quotreedquot at the mouthpiece end The change in timbre from attack to decay An air column open of H16 for end The change in timbre depending on pluck location Tone holes along H16 air column Compare finger and pick Woodwinds were originally made of wood Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby 9 Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby 10 Energy Flow and Feedback Woodwind Categories The source of energy in a woodwind instrument is a The woodwind instruments divide naturally into three player39s breath categories according to the type of reed they use There are two resonators in a woodwind the reed and the Doublereed instruments oboe bassoon reeds air column The resonant frequencies of the reed are Aircreed insfruumenfs flufel Whis e much higher than those of the air column The two resonators interact through a feedback process Singlereed instruments clarinet saxophone Jcane The player transfers energy directly to the reed and then some of this energy in turn is stored in the air column Less than 1 of the player39s energy is radiated as sound Arundo Donax Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby 11 Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby 12 The Physics of Music Physics 15 Univer39siTy of California Irvine Woodwinds in The Or39chesTr39a l i Tquot quotquot Eiu Iquot i quotL l sac 1 a y 39I I quot u mama wan 39F I 39 I El l i J y I i39 quota quot39 I al mu ma quot7quot quot m J Hi 39 Himum quot Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby Single Reed InsTr39umenTs Clar39ineT InsTr39ucTor39 David Kir39kby dkir39kbyuciedu LisTen from 1 1 3 a quotTE If To These samples of The four or chesTr aI woodwinds Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby Single Reed InsTr39umenTs Saxophone The saxophone is a r ecenT addiTion To The woodwinds invenTed in 1846 by Adolphe Sax Bar iTone sax AITo sax Tenor sax Soprano sax 16 piece of cane Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby Double Reed InsTr39umenTs Oboe Double r eeds are formed from a folded English hor n Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby Double Reed InsTr39umenTs Bassoon bocal ConTr abassoon Physics of Music Lecture 12 D Kirkby The Physics of Music Physics 15 Insfrucfor David Kirkby Universify of California Irvine dk irkby uciedu andng Waves inme AirCuiumn Sianaing Waves Review Wm si spiiwiimmssiiiiiiaiis iii miss ii mys mdng Wis n ii iii ssisiii assuming mi uii iiisii isiis iii ssiiiia iii Yh sssiauiyssmnis m ii miipm ia aim si M ii Np si rad bnvg ism m rad imiiuiiiis iii ssiiiiuiiyassia Mt mssiipm is i m Av rad nsiisiiiiis in ssiiiniiyspii Mt mssiipm is iii mm m rad Buundary Candiiiuns Piicii and Timbre A irrReed Imer ciiuns M Ma iiiiiiaiiiiiiisis mimiiiiis minim M iii ssisiii m mssiipiis mm in ham iismi mm in mi sysiims ms m iii m iismi iiiqsiisiis a mi mas iii ii iawt isiduiiiiiiii rimmy ii ii siiii iiigii si nsiismi siuiiiii m A miiiisi 1mm siii mam iisiisiimis is mi M iii nbau Mt siiii inth hm Mt auiiiiis ii mas iissmii iiiqsiisiis in iism mm mum imsi isi is mum in ssiiii ismi mum iii s i misiiis iissmii mamas i minassiiismiimssiigsiiimisiisiiss ii issi vi quotaims ii iiisi siii Haw a w m w w mm w gm w MN m H mm W W m ii simii assimi si ii isiiimi mi in isssisiiiiis ma ssw InsTrucTor David Kirkby The Physics of Music Physics 15 dkirkbyuciedu UniversiTy of California Irvine Example Feedback in a ClarineT A pulse of air senT down The insTrumenT from The When you blow genle Through a clarineT mouThpiece your breaTh goes Through unimpeded mouThpiece has a negaTive reflecTion from The open end T 0 As you blow harder your air pressure forces The reed To 32550Th parTially close closes reed T 2 Lv quot FT l l i Law mouThpiece closes reed quot 139 ZLV When This negaTive pulse reTurns To The mouThpiece iT a m nssmimml 12c mum 4 M quot P quot P P creaTes sucTion ThaT pulls The reed closed and cuTs off The flow of air inTo The insTrumenT Physics uf Music Leclur e 12 D Kirkby 25 Physics uf Music Leclur e 12 D Kirkby 26 ClarineT Feedback Loop The reed and air column are in synch when The reed The negaTive pulse is reflecTed from The mouThpiece and makes anoTher round Trip This Time The negaTive vibraTes aT f v4L The effecTs of The pressure inside reflecTion resTores The original posiTive pulse The mouThpiece provides posiTive reinforcemenT or feedback To The effecTs of The player39s breaTh pressure Low breaTh 1 ZLV pressure opens read High breaTh Low mouThpiece la w 1 3LV closes reed closes reed High mouThpiece opens reed T 4Lv High mnuThpiece Law breaTh g pressure Q opens reed The reTurning pulse pushes The reed open when iT geTs Opens reed back To The mouThpiece a Time 4Lv afTer The iniTial pulse 27 Physics uf Music Leclure 12 D Kirkby mm uf Music Leclure 12 D Kirkby EffecTs of Tone Holes So far we have assumed ThaT all The finger holes are Open finger holes change The effecTive lengTh of The air closed so ThaT we have a simple air column column A small hole has a negligible effecT while a large hole hole diameTer gt insTrumenT diameTer compleTely opens The insTrumenT To The air aT The hole posiTion Real woodwind insTrumenTs have holes along The lengTh of Their air column We call These Tone holes or finger holes How does The presence of Tone holes change The resonanT response of The air comm This is The purpose of Tone holes To change The fundamenTal resonanT frequency noTe of The insTrumenT 29 Physics ufMusic Leclure 12 D Kirkby mm uf Music Leclure 12 b Kirkby The Physics of Music Physics 15 Insfrucfor David Kirkby Universify of California Irvine d kirkby uciedu Mssi iiissiiiss isi di isiss assss s is sssiiss sisimiisii iisiissiiPm sisiisisi iiiisiiss isiss sssi xi msisiis iisiisiisiis ii sis siii isiss is ssmsisi ii ssisssi ii iiiiiiis msss ss s ssimi gisi ii sisiisi siii nsiismi sii sssi isiss ossi isiss iii isw iiisssisyssmss ssi iisi ssiyiisi iisi issssisyssmss WW Yhthaittamnns isssismsiisiissisiii sisss s ssss iissisisi M isw iiissiisn s si siiiiisiiis siisii s 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