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Date Created: 07/03/14
Origins of the concept of culture 11413 Edward Tylor o 19 Century British anthropologist 0 culture is the complex whole which includes knowledge belief arts morals law custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society 1871 we are social animals enculturation is the process by which a child learns his or her culture culture is transmitted a directly by teaching bindirecty by observation culture depends on symbols including language Human abilities that permit culture To learn to think symbolically to manipulate language to create and use tools and other cultural products biocultural development of the ability to learn communicate store process use and transmit cultural information Culture and biology Cuture s evolutionary basis 0 how to mark events in the life cyce birth puberty marriage death shapes how we respond to biological needs Types of culture national culture subculture popular culture Ethnocentrism the error of viewing one s own culture as superior and applying one s own cultural values in judging people from other cultures Cultural relativism the principle that all behavior should be evaluated in the context of the culture in which it occurs Cultural change diffusion borrowing of cultural traits between cultures acculturation exchange of cultural features through continuous contact independent innovation the process by which humans innovate or find creative solutions to problems 0 domestication of plants and animals 0 pyramids 0 social institutions why study culture To better understand the human condition to collaborate with people whose cultural patterns and processes we seek to understand to bridge social distances to help give create voice to the people whose cultures and behaviors anthropologists study to encourage respect for the diversity of individuals cultures societies and knowledge systems Applying Anthropology 11613 Methods 0 Ethnography participant observation interviews and focus groups 0 Textual analysis archival research and other empirical methods 0 Applied archaeologists will also use survey and excavation methods 0 Make decisions about the significance and preservation of important sites Development Anthropology Focuses on social issues in and the cultural dimension of economic development Help to plan and guide and carry out development policy Anthropology and Business Use ethnographic methods Study parts of the organization workers managers etc and how they function together as a system Improve organizational culture Study how products are used in homes Medical Anthropology How illness is socially constructed diagnosed managed and treated Disease a scientifically identified threat such as a bacterium virus parasite or other pathogen Illness a condition of poor health as felt by an individual and which is culturally constructed So a disease causes illness The incidence and severity of disease and illness vary between cultural and socio economic groups Look up doctor Tanner professor here Forensic Anthropology Identification of deceased individuals Age sex stature ancestry trauma disease Cause of death Work with state and international legal teams 0 Homicides 0 War crimes political violence Applied Archaeology The garbage project 0 Gathered data on household consumption and waste 0 Advised cities and waste management firms 0 Led to modern recycling movement Cultural Resource Management Archaeologists architectural historians and historical architects Managing places of archaeological architectural and historical interests 0 Compliance with environmental and historic preservation laws Palaeoanthropology The study of fossil remains of humans our ancestors and other ancient primates in order to understand and explain processes of human evolution FossHs Fossil the remains of a once iving organism that has been preserved in the earth39s crust Fossilization typically involves the hard parts of an organism 0 Bones teeth shells woody tissues of plants Replacement of hard tissues with minerals made of stone 0 FOSSILS ARE NOT BONE AND STUFF MADE OF STONE Anthropological Archaeology The primary goal of anthropological archaeology is the explain past human behavior Recovery and analysis of material traces artifacts structures settlements etc Finding Archaeological Sites vs Fossil Localities Archaeological sites can be found almost anywhere Fossil localities are only present where geological contexts are suitable for fossilization Archaeological materials ie stone tools may indicate where fossils might be found Archaeological Survey How do we identify an archaeological site 0 Presence of artifacts most sites accidental discoveries local knowledge remote sensing Excava on Careful recording and removal of fossils or artifacts and other archaeological materials from the surrounding matrix CONTEXT is everything Associations between objects are very important January 25 Natural Selection Natural selection selection of favored biological forms through differential reproductive success Charles Darwin Alfred Russell Wallace In the struggle for existence individuals with advantageous variations will do better than those without them 0 eg the peppered moth horses with long necks it is not the strongest of the species that survives nor the most intelligent but the one most responsive to change Charles Darwin biological changes occur by chance and accumulate over time because they are advantageous genotype the genetic makeup or constitution of an organism biological building blocks phenotype the physical expression of biological characteristics part genetic park adaptation to environmental forces Biology and Evolution The basics DNA 0 The genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid 0 A complex molecule that contains information that can direct the synthesis of proteins 0 DNA molecules can produce exact copies themselves Genes o Portions of DNA molecules that do the actual directing of the synthesis of proteins Genome o the complete sequence of DNA for a species Chromosome o DNA combines with protein to form chromosomes o Inherited from both parents Mutation o The ultimate source of evolutionary change is the mutation of genes through errors in the copying of DNA 0 Purely by chance Population Genetics Concept of population 0 A group of individuals within which breeding takes place 0 Natural selection takes place within the population o This is the level at which evolutionary change occurs Gene pool 0 The genetic variants available to a population Evolutionary Forces Sources of change 0 Mutation chance alteration that produces a new gene 0 Genetic drift chance fluctuations in the gene pool 0 Gene flow introduction of new alleles from nearby populations Microevolution refers to genetic changes in a population over a few several or many generations but without speciation Macroevolution refers to arger scae or more significant genetic changes in a population over a long time period an result in speciation Punctuated evolution Punctuated equilibrium or punctuated evolution Certain events can cause rapid and dramatic change There may also be long periods of time with little significant change
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