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by: Isabelle Hue


Marketplace > University of Cincinnati > MGMT3080 > MANAGEMENT WEEK 8 NOTES
Isabelle Hue
GPA 3.9

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Heather Vough
Class Notes
Management, Leadership
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabelle Hue on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MGMT3080 at University of Cincinnati taught by Heather Vough in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.




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Date Created: 03/04/16
leadership - The use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal a chievement leader-member exchange theory-A theory describing how leader– member relationships develop over time on a dyadic basis,\ role taking-The phase in a leader– role making-The phase in a leader– follower relationship when a follower voices his or her own expectations for the r elationship,</em> <em>resulting in a free- flowing exchange of opportunities and resources for activities and effort, THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP- -trait theory approaches • looks at personal qualities and characteristics to identify those that differentiate leaders from followers ◦ big 5 traits-neuroticism (negative). extraversion, openess to experience, conscientiousness …slides ◦ emotional intelligence-refers to capabilities that affect social functioning (research is mixed, scholars question its validity) ▪ self awareness ▪ emotional regulation ▪ use of emotions ▪ other awareness  ◦ honesty forward thinking, inspiriting, competent=credibility y  ◦ **traits speak more to emergence than effectiveness -behavioral theories • propose that …2 dimensions, both contribute to effectiveness  ◦ initiating structure ◦ consideration leader effectiveness- The degree to which the leader's actions result in the achievement of the unit's g oals, the continued commitment of the unit's employees, and the development of mutual trust, respect, and obligation in leader– member dyads-effective leader improves performance and overall well being of his unit also cultivates high-quality  leader-member exchange relationships on a dyadic basis through role taking and role making processes leader emergence-The process of becoming a leader in the first place, linked to a number of traits including—the Warren Harding Effect, Malcolm Gladwell talks about this (we see one thing and decide it, warren harding looked presidential so he was elected president) Steve Jobs example, he is a prototype of a good leader, looks/has characteristics of a good leader, then people allow you the chance to be a leader) basically if you don’t look like a leader you’ll have a tougher time being one 1. conscientiousness 2. disagreeableness  3. openess 4. extraversion 5. general cognitive ability 6. energy level 7. stress tolerance 8. self confidence       3-8 also predict leader effectiveness  DECISION MAKING STYLES  **from high leader control to high follower control  1. autocratic style- leadership style where the leader makes the decision alone without asking  for opinions or suggestions of the employees in the work unit, 2. consultative style- A leadership style where the leader presents the problem to employees as king for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decisi on himself or herself 3. facilitative style- eadership style where the leader presents the problem to a group of empl oyees and seeks consensus on a solution, making sure that his or her own opinion receives no more weight than any one else's, 4. delegative style- A leadership style where the leader gives the employee the responsibility f or making decisions within some set of specified boundary conditions, WHEN ARE THE STYLES MOST EFFECTIVE? **there is no one decision making style that is effective across all situations, the below model offers a guide to choosing the best decision making style based on seven factors and in what combination they are presented  time-driven model of leadership-A model that suggests that seven factors, including the importance of the decision, the expertise of the leader, and the competence of the followers, combine to make some decision- making styles more effective than others in a given situation, according tho this model the appropriateness of the above styles depends on the following: • decision significance • the importance of commitment • leader expertise • the likelihood of commitment • shared objectives • employee expertise • teamwork skills DAY-TO-DAY LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS **fall into these 2 categories 1. initiating structure- A pattern of behavior where the leader defines and structures the roles of  employees in pursuit of goal attainment—behaviors/duties include ◦ initiation ◦ organization ◦ production sorts of duties 2. consideration- A pattern of behavior where the leader creates job relationships characteri zed by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings-behaviors include ◦ membership ◦ integration ◦ communication ◦ recognition ◦ representation sorts of duties life cycle theory of leadership- A theory stating that the optimal combination of initiating structure and consider ation depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit, • readiness- The degree to which employees have the ability and the willingness to acc omplish their specific tasks, ◦ telling- When the leader provides specific instructions and closely supervis es performance, ◦ selling- When the leader explains key issues and provides opportunities for  clarification ◦ participating- When the leader shares ideas and tries to help the group conduct it s affairs, ◦ delegating - When the leader turns responsibility for key behaviors over to emplo yees TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS transformational leadership- A pattern of behavior where the leader inspires followers to commit to a shared  vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model wh o helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from new persp ectives-fundamentally changes the way employees view their work-inspires employees to commit to a shared vision or goal that provides meaning and challenge to their work—has a moderate positive relationship with job performance and strong positive relationship with organizational commitment (has a stronger effect on these outcomes than other leadership behaviors) —leaders can be trained to be effective, training often used to increase transformational behaviors— the behaviors that underlie transformational leadership include the 4 I's 1. idealized influence 2. inspirational motivation 3. intellectual stimulation 4. individualized consideration 1. idealized influence- When the leader behaves in ways that earn the admiration, trust, and respect of followers, causing followers to want to identify with and emulate the leader, 2. inspirational motivation- When the leader behaves in ways that foster an enthusiasm for and  commitment to a shared vision of the future, 3. intellectual stimulation- When the leader behaves in ways that challenge followers to be inn ovative and creative by questioning assumptions and reframing old  situations in new ways, 4. individualized consideration- When the leader behaves in ways that help followers achieve their p otential through coaching, development, and mentoring, laissez-faire leadership-When the leader avoids leadership duties altogether transactional leadership- A pattern of behavior where the leader rewards or disciplines the follower based  on performance, emphasizes “carrot & stick” approaches to motivating employees whereas transformational leadership fundamentally changes the way employees view their work  • passive management-by-exception- hen the leader waits around for mistakes and errors,</ em> <em>then takes corrective action as necessary • active management-by-exception- When the leader arranges to monitor mistakes and errors actively and tak es corrective action when required, • contingent reward- When the leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done usi ng rewards in exchange for adequate performance substitutes for leadership model- A model that suggests that characteristics of the situations can constrain the infl uence of the leader, which makes it more difficult for the leader to influence employee performance, those constrains come in 2 varieties 1. substitutes- Situational characteristics that reduce the importance of the leader while s imultaneously providing a direct benefit to employee performance, 2. neutralizers- Situational characteristics that reduce the importance of the leader and do  not improve employee performance in any way,


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