CRUISE NEWS IN BIO
CRUISE NEWS IN BIO Uni Stu 4
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This 38 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Moore on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Uni Stu 4 at University of California - Irvine taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/201929/uni-stu-4-university-of-california-irvine in University Studies at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
The Twin Higgs with Zackaria Chacko and HockSeng Goh hepph0506256 Naturalness and LHC LHC is going to be exciting from the start rst IO fbquot 1 L 7553 SM AP Aczz ara The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Naturalness and LHC LHC is going to be exciting from the start rst IO fbquot i Q II Aczz ara tR x SM M9 3 NP is related to the SM top by a symmetry 3 NP is around aTeV Vi Colored NP at aTeV Will be produced abundantly at LHC The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Singlet New Physics Not necessarily 3 what do we really need to cancel the SM loop 75L t O Q tR The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Singlet New Physics Not necessarily 3 what do we really need to cancel the SM loop 75L 75 K Q tR 2 vertices The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Singlet New Physics Not necessarily 3 what do we really need to cancel the SM loop 75L t O Q tR 2 of dof vertices The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Singlet New Physics Not necessarily 3 what do we really need to cancel the SM loop 75L t O Q tR 2 of dof vertices 75 does not have to be colored Not produced at LHC The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford The Twin Higgs Outline alt Motivation 3 The mechanism 2 Amodel 3 Phenomenology Cosmology Roni Harnik SLACStanford Motivation The LEP Paradox Barbieri Strumia Dimensions six rm 2 115 GeV optu ators 1 1 Q 1 0m HTr39iHmyng p 97 10 OH HUM 2 46 55 OLL irw l 79 61 0 iHDw H 1WquotL 8 HTDp HHwaraQ 6quot 68 l The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford A Hint Something is protecting the Higgs 3 We are not seeing any sign of new physics This would be explained automatically if the new physics that is protecting the Higgs is all in SM singlets IS 7115 poSSAe 7 yes O O The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford The Mechanism A new mechanism for the Higgs as a Goldstone Higgs as a Goldstone The Higgs mass is protected if it is a PNGB 2 An old idea 0 KaplanGeorgi 0 Recently Little Higgs collective symm breaking The Twin Higgs O A new realization of the Higgs as a pseudo 0 Discrete symmetry 9 Global symmetry The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford AToy Example A global SU4 symmetry w one fundamental VH 772lHl2 AlHl4 The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford SU2AXSU2B Gauge a subgroup SU2A gtlt SU2B 040 SM Z win SM 3 In some basis H transforms as HA 0 gaze H 160d5i0n8 herd 3 SU2A gtlt SU2B breaks global SU4 The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Radiative Corrections alt At oop AV 2 The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Radiative Corrections alt At oop 2 2 AV 2 99AA T 647T2 HA HA The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Radiative Corrections alt At oop 2 2 AV 2 99AA 64W2 9912M2 HAHA 647T2 HgHB The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Radiative Corrections At oop 2 2 AV 2 99AA 64W2 QQZBAZ HAHA 647T2 HgHB 2 Impose a Z2 twin symmetry Does not give a Goldstone mass The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Twin Mechanism 55 mm emfquot 71 V T Z 7 U l7 1 7 39y39quot 39 1 i 7quot 7 17 7 39 7L i 7 7 77 7 L 7 7 3 7 I 739 i 27537 7 L7 W am Wei in M e s in uiinifsui Ute j iwigygijH wiaf ifIHA ii I li ii g ijiiiW 1 f i 3 Quartic terms can violate global symmetry Goldstone mass only log divergent The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford The Model Mirror Symmetric Twin Higgs r1 tortquot mg u fijk39 wt i 5amp5 n f a Left or SMA gtlt SMB Double all of the SM Impose Z2 2 In particular 5 3 ytHAfAtA ytHBthB Z2 quadratic divergence has the form CA2 HA 2 H 2 MarlaIi A B A Q 34 Q A A The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford SU4 breaking Radiative corrections induce AVI HA4lHB4 T 4 A with H N yt log 16772 f y2 Goldstone mass is mh N 4 13 7T WEEK See 72 bQE IIe Need f N 500 8OOGeV 798 007 8 we 444 Can look at EFT below A N m The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Soft Breaking 1 The potential as is gives 11A 113 N i But then A N 47rf is too low Add Vsoft M2IHAI2 1 a mild cancelation needed to get EW scale ATeV fGcV 111T3V AIBTGV mew mMGeV Tuning 10 800 6 1 239 122 0134 6 500 55 1 145 121 0378 10 800 7 0 355 166 0112 6 500 7 0 203 153 0307 TheTwin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Phenomenology and Cosmology All new physics is SM singlets LHC Signals A standard model higgs The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford LHC Signals A standard model higgs 3 If we are luck we can measure D Higgs decay to invisibles BR N 0v2f2 u Modi cation of ZZhWWhtthh3 also of 0vf correlations The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford LHC Signals A standard model higgs 3 If we are luck we can measure D Higgs decay to invisibles BR N 0v2f2 u Modi cation of ZZhWWhtthh3 also of 0vf correlations 3 If we are really lucky work in progress Twin hadrons decay back to SM with displaced verticesA Hidden Valley Signal Strassler and Zurek The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Cosmology Twin baryons could be dark matter 3 Light twin matter is dangerous during BBN 0 Small Z2 breaking in light yukawa sector Make twin matter Heavier than a few GeV Barbieri Gregiore Hall 0 More entropy production in our QCD transition 0 Late inflation LHC implications are drastic enough to overshadow these issues The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Conclusions The Twin Higgs mechanism is a very simple to get a pseduoGoldstone Higgs Can be implemented in mirror symmetry Naturalness doesn39t guarantee an easy LHC signal Seeing BSM physics may be a challenge The Twin Higgs Roni Harnik SLACStanford Outline of Waves Show 2009 Version for elementary only Idea Introductions Clickers Vibrations Many waves Frequency Amplitude FreqAmp Pitch Loudness Sound Freq Amp Freq Graph Amp Graph FreqAmp Graph Traveling Traveling Need medium Need medium Natural frequency Natural frequency Frequency vs length Frequency vs length Resonance Resonance Resonance Review Handson 0 Overhead Projector 0 Projection Screen Presenter Demo All Terminology slide iClicker Move hand Waves slides Move hand Move hand Move hand Sing Sing Kids sounds Freq slides Amp slides Freqamp slide Spring Dowel chain Human chain Bell in vacuum Earthquake balls Singing rod Hoot tubes Trombone Driven air track Earthquake balls Laser Oscilloscope and problem Springs earthquake balls oscilloscopes bt INAUJAHNUJbNt IAUJNAUJNAUJNHHb 3 Equipment Required from School Custodian 0 Tables at back and sides of room for Oscilloscope stations Waves Script Note the name of the demonstration is in boldface stage instructions are in a small blue font and slides appear in a small red font The four presenters are labeled 1 2 3 and 4 Opening Tsunami slide While kids enter Terminology De nitions slide Once show starts 4 Welcome to our assembly about waves My name is and I am studying at UC Irvine Don t just give the name of your majoribrie y explain in ordinary language what it is amp why you study it eg I am studying Biologyithe science of lifeibecause I want to become a doctor someday 2 My name is and I am studying at UC Irvine I m going to teach you about vibrations 2 My name is and I am studying at UC Irvine I m going to teach you about frequency 3 My name is iand I am studying fat UCI I m going to teach you about amplitude All together And we are all going to teach you about resonance 4 Waves are all around you In fact you are hearing the sound wave made by my voice right now Today we are going to teach you four different ideas about the science of waves The words for those four ideas are up on the screen Please read them after we say them 4 points to word as each person says it 1 The rst word is vibration Audience repeats 2 The second word is frequency Audience repeats 3 The third word is amplitude Audience repeats 4 The fourth word is resonance Audience repeats Favorite wave multiple choice iClicker 4 We are going to use these clickers during our assembly today just like we do in some of our classes at UC Irvine Let me show you how they work You turn on your clicker by hitting the OnOff switch near the bottom Your clicker is on when the little blue light is shining We use these clickers to answer questions and to see how many people get the right answer Let s practice with this question that is on the screen Read the question Now when I hit the Start button on the computer you answer the question with your clicker Hit the button that says A if your favorite wave is Sound hit B if water waves are your favorite hit C if light waves are your favorite and hit D if earthquakes are your favorite You have to answer before I hit the Done button on the computer I ve turned it on now click Start button so answer the question with your clicker now Hit Stop after most children have answered Let s see which wave is your favorite Hit Display Oh your favorite wave is Graph multiple choice 4 Now that you know how to use the clickers I m going to ask you a question about waves This will probably be a hard question for most of you but by the end of our assembly you will know the answer Which one of these waves has the highest frequency Poll students Most of you think it is ABC but some of you think it is ABC By the end of the show you will know which answer is correct 1 The rst idea about waves is easy A vibration happens when something moves back and forth Rock body back and forth My body is vibrating Here is one vibration of my hand Move hand back and forth one time Slides of sound water light and earthquake waves Say the name of the type of wave as the slide appears 4 advances slides as 2 and 3 speak and point to screen 2 For sound waves the air vibrates 3 For water waves the water vibrates 2 For light waves electric and magnetic elds vibrate 3 For earthquakes the ground vibrates 1 And there are many other types of waves too But all waves involve some kind of vibration have a frequency and an amplitude and are usually generated through some kind of resonance Frequency slide 2 Our second important idea is frequency Frequency is how many times each second something wiggles or vibrates Wiggle hand as you speak Make sure the amplitude stays the same This is a low frequency because it doesn t wiggle back and forth very many times in a second This is a high frequency because it vibrates back and forth many times in a second Amplitude slide 3 Our third important idea is amplitude Amplitude is how far something vibrates Wiggle hand as you speak Make sure the frequency stays the same This is a large amplitude because my hand vibrates back and forth over a large distance This is a low amplitude because I only wiggle a small distance 1 Let s make sure you understand the difference between frequency and am plitude for hand vibrations Take your hand out and we ll practice making vibra tions Make a low frequency small amplitude vibration Move your hand Make a high frequency small amplitude vibration Move your hand Make a low fre quency large amplitude vibration Move your hand Good you understand about vibrations 2 Just like my hand can have different frequencies sound waves can have dif ferent frequencies too Some sound waves have high frequencies and they sound high Sing high pitch Other sound waves have low frequencies and they sound low Sing low pitch 3 Just like my hand can have different amplitudes sound waves can have dilTerent amplitudes too When a sound has a small amplitude we call it soft Speak softly When a sound has a large amplitude we call it loud Yell 1 Let s make sure you understand the difference between frequency and am plitude for sound waves When I say Go I want you to make the type of sound I say and when I say Stop I want you to stop and listen to me First we ll make a loud low frequency sound Go Kids yell Stop That s right the frequency was low because you used a low voice and the amplitude was large because you used a loud voice Now we ll make a high soft sound Go Kids screech Stop That s right the frequency was high because you used a high voice and the amplitude was small because you used a soft voice Frequency graphs 4 Scientists use mathematics all the time Raise your hand if you have ever made a graph during math Oh good We re going to show you some graphs of waves These curves point to slide show the wave vibrating back and forth 2 The XaXis on this graph is the time one second two seconds point to gure as you speak If something is vibrating fast and has a high frequency it goes back and forth many times in two seconds point to righthand gure If it has a lower frequency it doesn t vibrate as many times in two seconds point to lefthand gure Let s measure the frequency from this graph We can count the number of vibrationsishout them out with meil 2 3 4 Now the frequency is the number of vibrations something makes in one second We can make a math formula for this We ll call the number of vibrations V We ll call the amount of time T The frequency is the number of vibrations V divided by the time T Scientists often use this to mean divides In this case the number of vibrations is V 4 and the amount of time is T 2 so the frequency is Four divided by two is Shout out the frequency if you know the answer Kids shout Advance to next slide You re right it s two Slide with What s the frequency under righthand gure 2 How about the righthand graph What is the time T The XaXis hasn t changed so T is still 2 But how many vibrations are there now What is V Let s 4 count themishout it out with meil 2 10 So the frequency is 10 divided by 2 which equals Advance slide That s right it is 5 Amplitude slide 3 We can also use the graph to measure the amplitude of the wave The yaXis shows how far the wave vibrates The graph on the left shows a large amplitude Point at vertical motion of wave The graph on the right shows a small amplitude Let s read the graph to measure the amplitude of the wave on the left What is it Point out how you read it as you speak It is lOhigh so the amplitude is 10 Amplitude slide with A 7 on the right 3 What is the amplitude of the wave on the right Can you read this graph It is smaller than 5 There are 12345 tick marks and the wave lines up with the second tick mark so the amplitude is Advance slide The amplitude is 2 Frequency and amplitude graphs 1 The graphs tell us about both frequency and amplitude at once This wave on the left Point to graph vibrates many times in two seconds so it has a high fre quency It does not vibrate very far in the ydirection so it has a small amplitude It has high frequency and low amplitude so if it was a hand motion it would look like this move hand If it was a sound it would sound like this make soft high pitch sound The graph on the right does not vibrate very many times in two seconds so it has a low frequency But it moves a lot in the ydirection so it has a large amplitude If it was a hand motion it would look like this Move hand If it was a sound it would sound loud and low Make sound Frequency multiple choice 4 Let s see how well you understand about graphs of waves Here is a new graph Get your clickers out What is the frequency of this wave Hit Start Discuss answer Amplitude multiple choice 4 Now let s think about the amplitude of the same wave What is the ampli tude Answer with your clicker Take answers amp discuss Spring Traveling wave slide 1 In a wave the vibrations travel from one place to the next It works like the vibrations on this spring If I hit the spring here launch a pulse this part will start to vibrate but the vibration travels down the spring This is how sound and other waves work too Right now my vocal cards are vibrating and making the air in my mouth wiggle back and forth Walk from stage up to someone s ear in the audience while you wiggle your hand and speak That air makes the air next to it vibrate which makes the air next to it vibrate and the vibrations go all the way up to your ear where the air makes your eardrum vibrate Dowel chain 2 Here s something else to show you how waves work These pieces of wood are held together by rubber bands If it start the wood at the end vibrating do it it will make the wood next to it vibrate which will make the wood next to it vibrate and so on A wave travels down the chain Human chain 4 For waves to travel from one place to the next each piece has to make the piece next to it vibrate I need some volunteers to help me show how this works Prearrange to have one of the rows at the front stand up I ve already chosen my volunteers 2 and 3 help get them in position close together with their hands on the shoulders of the person in front of them I m going to push Rosario here at one end and we ll see what happens Shove Rosario Look the wave travels from one end to another Now I m going to have everyone in the line sit down except the two people at the ends 2 and 3 get them to sit down but keep the person at the far end in the same place What happens when I shove Rosario now Shove her The wave doesn t travel anymore because there is nothing next to Rosario to push on Thank you sit down now Bell in vacuum Block slide projector and use overhead 3 Sound waves work just like this Here is a bell that makes sound waves The waves travel through the air in this container make the walls of the container vibrate the container makes the air outside vibrate then the wave travels all the way out to your ears You can see that the little hammer is hitting the bell to make it vibrate Point to screen But what will happen if I suck the air out of this container Iwill use this vacuum pump to suck the air out Turn on pump It takes awhile to pull all the air out The hammer is still hitting the bell like before but now it is getting quieter Without any air in the chamber the sound waves can t travel from the bell to the walls of the chamber It s like our line of children when there were only two children left Now I ll let the air back in Turn off pump Vent gradually You can hear the air rushing in The bell is getting louder again because now the vibrations make it from the bell to our ears Ealthquake balls 2 So far we ve learned about frequency amplitude and vibration The last part of our show is about resonance Resonance is important because that is how you make a large wave But before we talk about resonance I need to explain about something called the natural frequency Most objects have a frequency 6 that they naturally vibrate at Here s an example This red weight is on a stiiT plastic rod When I pull it it vibrates back and forth at a high frequency Pull it The yellow weight is on a thinner rod that doesn t snap back as hard as the thick rod When I pull it it vibrates with a lower frequency Pull it The blue weight is on a very thin weak rod When I pull it it vibrates with a very low frequency You see each of these weights has a certain frequency that it likes to vibrate at That s its natural frequency Singing rod 1 or 3 Sound waves in this rod have a natural frequency and I can give them a large amplitude I m going to pull my hands across the rod and we ll hear the natural frequency of the sound waves Excite rod If we hold a cup up against the end of the rod the sound gets louder 2 holds cup on end because the vibrations are going back and forth along the rod Hoot tubes 4 Tubes have natural frequencies too This tube has a piece of metal in the bottom If I heat it up over this re heat it it makes a very loud sound It only makes the loud sound when the hot metal is on the bottom Raise your hand if you think you know why that is Take no more than two ideas Does anyone know what happens to hot air Take no more than two ideas Hot air rises When the tube is upright hot air rushes through it and the sound waves vibrate at their natural frequency 4 In science we like to make guesses about what will happen before we do an experiment We call this guess a hypothesis I have a shorter tube here and I am going to heat up its metal piece Will the natural frequency of this tube be higher or lower than the natural frequency of the rst tube Raise your hand how many think it will have a higher frequency Lower Let s try it and see Heat them both The shorter one has a higher frequency Smaller things usually have higher frequencies than bigger things just like your voice is higher than your father s voice Trombone 3 or 1 Musical instruments have natural frequencies too Here is a trombone If I buzz my lips like this and put them up against the mouthpiece the trombone will pick out the natural frequency it likes to vibrate at Do it The nice thing about trombones is that it is easy to make them longer or shorter When you do this the natural frequency changes Do it When the trombone is longer the frequency is lower when it is shorter the frequency is higher Air track resonance 2 unblocks slide projector to show Resonance de nition slide 7 4 This car on the air track has a natural frequency too Launch it with driving power supply off Now the way resonance works is that if you push or drive something at its natural frequency it will absorb lots of energy and have a large amplitude vibration This is what happens when you push somebody on a swing Let me show you how that works for this car Here is the natural frequency of this car We measured it earlier and its natural frequency is 378 Now I m going to use this little motor to push the car at a higher frequency of 60 see the red tag that is attached to the motor is moving back and forth pretty fast Drive above natural frequency at 60 V The car hardly moves But if I push it at its natural frequency tune power supply to 378 V I pump lots of energy into the car and the amplitude gets very large This is a resonance If you want to make a big wave it s best to drive the system at its natural frequency Earthquake balls 2 Remember my three rods with the high frequency the medium frequency and the low frequency Excite each of them as you speak I m going to shake the bottom back and forth Let me see your hypothesis by a show of hands Who thinks the red one will vibrate the most The yellow The blue Excite whichever one is selected least Actually this is a cheat I could have made it the yellow if I wanted excite it or the red excite it What did I do differently in each case That s right I matched the shaking frequency to the natural frequency of the rod I wanted to give a large amplitude When you vibrate something at its natural frequency you can give it a large amplitude This is called resonance Laser 1 Resonance is an important part of how largeamplitude light waves are made in a laser We can see inside this special laser turn it on There is a gas inside the laser in this case it s helium and neon The gas molecules have certain natural frequencies The laser is arranged so light waves bounce back and forth in the tube at the natural frequency of the molecules This resonance makes it so that the amplitude of the light wave that comes out gets larger and larger Move laser beam around on a far wall That is why laser beams are so bright Oscilloscope Amplitude multiple choice 4 You may have noticed the screens we have set up around the room This machine is called an oscilloscope Point at one The oscilloscope is a kind of graphing machine All during the show these speakers and the oscilloscopes have made graphs of the sound waves in the room Get out your clickers and let s see how much you ve learned about waves Which wave has the largest amplitude Click in your answer Poll students and discuss correct answer
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