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by: Whitney Lakin


Whitney Lakin
GPA 3.84


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Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Lakin on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Human 1 at University of California - Irvine taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/201947/human-1-university-of-california-irvine in Humanities at University of California - Irvine.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
What is Philosophy Ancient Greek Philosophy Main figures Socrates Plato and Aristotle known for 1 Conceptual Precision 2 Logical analysis and logical arguments vs appeals to emotion 3 Comprehensive worldviews including Physics accounts of the natural world the gods soul and body Ethics accounts of the best human life and the virtues needed to live it Hellenistic amp Roman Philosophy early 4th c BC 2 c AD Main movements quotschoolsquot Epicureanism Stoicism and Skepticism Ultimate goal of life happiness longterm flourishing vs mere feeling 0 Usually understood as tranquility freedom from quotdisturbancequot 0 Associated with freedom and selfsufficiency vs quotslaveryquot and dependence Followers of the same philosophical school sometimes lived in their own communities Over time increasing focus on practical questions of quotethicsquot Philosophy in the Modern Period 17th19th c Increasingly quotacademicquot vs a way of living Increasingly distinguished from both theology and the sciences Still concerned with the basic assumptions ofthe sciences 0 Examples What is time What is a biological species An emotion Still concerned with conceptual precision and logical argument Philosophy from the 20th c to the Present Growing specialization within philosophy Fewer philosophers develop comprehensive worldviews Most philosophers work mainly in one or more subfields 0 Logic philosophy of science ethics history of philosophy etc Stoicism o Began in the 3rel c BC Epictetus is a representative of later Stoicism o Influenced Christian Islamic and Jewish theology though often indirectly o Influenced early modern philosophy especially Descartes and Spinoza 0 Examples of presentday influence Philosophy Lawrence Becker A New Stoicism Princeton UP 1998 Cognitive amp CognitiveBehavioral Psychotherapy Ronald Pies Everything Has Two Handes The Stoic s Guide to the Art of Living Hamilton Books 2008 Military Education James Stockdale quotThe Stoic Warrior s Triad 1995 Nancy Sherman Stoic Warriors The Ancient Philosophy Behind the Military Mind Oxford UP 2005 Epictetus d 135 Grew up as a slave during the Roman empire After being freed became a famous teacher of Stoicism Addressed his teachings to ordinary people Apparently never wrote anything Teachings compiled by Flavius Arrianus alias Arrian Main work by Epictetus the Discourses The Handbook a highly condensed version of the Discourses Focused primarily on ethics secondarily on physics including theology Problem of interpretation Did he sometimes use common language esp about God in order to make his teachings less shocking and more appealing to ordinary people Key Distinction What is Up to Us vs What is Not Up to Us Our mental states our opinions judgments desires aversions emotions and virtues or vices By nature free unhindered unimpeded our own Within our control Our freedom from harm and disturbance Everything else our possessions jobs reputations and even our own bodies Enslaved hindered weak not our own Beyond our control Our own deaths Theory of Emotions and Value The ideal state of mind apatheia freedom from passion vs emotion or feeling Whatever is good is beneficial under all circumstances Only our own virtue is good and our own virtue is up to us Other things might have instrumental value but are still quotindifferentquot not good or bad Passions Always irrational Reflect the erroneous judgment that something indifferent is good or bad Examples desire exhuberance fear grief anger envy Good Emotional States Reflect rational judgments about what is good and bad Do not cause disturbance Examples wish joy caution No rational counterparts of grief anger envy What is the Central Argument The most important advice is quotDo not seek to have events happen as you want them to but instead want them to happen as they do happen and your life will go well sect 8 This itself is not an argument because arguments have premises and conclusions all of which must be true or false Any statement in the form of an imperative such as quotDo not seek is neither true nor false The advice can be reformulated as an argument that meets logical requirements but to find all the necessary premises we must look beyond sect 8 P1 If you want your life to go well If you want to be happy things must happen as you want Part of sect 8 transformed from an imperative into a conditional If x then y This premise is generally regarded as true because You do want your life to go well Everyone wants happiness even if disagree about what happiness is Being happy Having things happen as you want Widely accepted view of happiness But if you want to be happy and if happiness having things happen as you want why should you not seek to have them happen as you want them to The answer lies in Sect 1 which provides two more premises P2 How things happen is not up to you P3 What you want is up to you


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