NTRI 2000 Week 8 Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
NTRI 2000 Week 8 Chylomicron A. Triglyeceride is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase on the inside walls of capillaries B. After much of the triglyceride is removed from the chylomicron, it is called a chylomicron remnant C. It is removed from the circulation by the liver and its components recycled to make other lipoproteins or bile D. Large particle that carries dietary lipid E. Exogenous pathway for lipid metabolism VLDL A. Carries lipids from the liver to tissues B. Endogenous pathway for lipid metabolism C. Liver packages lipid in a lipoprotein called VLDL D. Lipoprotein lipase breaks down the triglyceride in VLDL to release fatty acids E. Fatty acid uptake into cells by diffusion F.VLDL becomes LDL when the content of cholesterol is greater than that of TG G. LDL is a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein that transports cholesterol to tissues Transport of cholesterol from tissues to liver A. HDL is made by liver and intestine B. HDL picks up cholesterol from dying and other cells and transfers it out other lipoproteins C. HDL delivers the cholesterol to the liver CV Disease and Lipids A. HDL- “good cholesterol” B. LDL- “bad cholesterol” C. But isn't cholesterol the same? D. The actual molecule is the same Atherosclerosis A. Clinical condition B. Artery wall thickens as a result of plaques C. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. CV Disease and Science A. Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, associations, and effects of health and disease in deﬁned populations B. A meta-analysis refers to methods focused on contrasting and combing results from different studies, in the hope of identifying patters among them Optimal or desirable levels (KNOW THESE NUMBERS) A. Low LDL-C < 100 mg/dL B. High HDL-C > 60 mg/dL C. Low total cholesterol < 200 mg/dL D. Low triglycerides < 150 mg/dL A better measure of cholesterol: Non- HDL-C A. Provides an estimate of cholesterol in VLDL, IDL, LDL, and Lp(a) B. The difference between the total cholesterol and the HDL-C concentrations C. Lp(a) is an LDL like particle D. Takes into account all atherogenic particles Why all these recommendations? A. Idea is to reduce the levels of atherogenic particles, but why? B. Limit the built up of plaques Current method to assess CVD Risk (AHA): ASCVD Risk Estimator A. Gender B. Age C. Race D. Total cholesterol levels E. HDL-cholesterol levels F. Systolic blood pressure How to raise HDL-C A. Consume ﬁsh (fatty ﬁsh B. Increase omega-3s (soy foods, green vegetables, nuts C. Eat more purple skinned fruits and juices D. Choose lower glycemic index/load foods Raising HDL A. Physical activity (at least 43 mins/day, 4 days a week) B. Don’t smoke Storage of lipids in the body A. Adipose Tissue 1. White Fat or WAT (white adipose tissue) a. Usually one lipid droplet b. Large storage capacity for lipids (triglyerides) c. Source for fatty acids d. White fat does more than store fat; it secretes factors which lead to metabolic disease 2. Brown Fat or BAT (brown adipose tissue) a. Has LOTS of mitochondria- produces energy b. Abundant in newborns and hibernating animals c. Also found in adults d. Functions as a means of generating body heat so it burns energy B. Adipocytes 1. Cells that are up fat 2. Actual storage of energy Fat Rancidity A. Contains products of decomposed oils B. Breakdown of the C=C bonds by UV light and/or O2 C. Unpleasant odor and ﬂavor D. Polyunsaturated fatty acid more susceptible E. Limited shelf life of food products Hydrogenated Fat A. Sometimes, food producers want the physical properties of the lipid B. Good for making pastries, biscuits, pie crust Prevention of Rancidity A. Hydrogenation 1. Process used to solidify an oil 2. Addition of H to C=C double bonds C. Increases shelf life of food product B. Addition of vitamin E (antioxidant) C. Chemicals added such as BHA (butylated hydroxyanisol) and BHT (butylated hydroxytolune) D. Formation of trans fatty acid 1. Trans fat is very similar to the shape of a saturated fatty acid 2. Presents health risk similar to saturated fats In other tissues with oils, consider the smoke point A. Smoke point is the temperature at which oil starts to smoke B. It produces harmful chemicals Recommendations for fat intake A. No speciﬁc RDA for total fat intake in adults B. Food and Nutrition Board recommends 5% of your calorie intake comes from the total of both essential fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids) C. 2015 Dietary Guidelines- intake of oils should be around 12% of total calories D. AHA- 25-30% of calories from fat but no more than 7% of calories come from saturated fat; no more than 1% come from trans fat E. DRI for omega-6 and omega-3- how much should you have of the essential fatty acids? There are no RDA’s but there are adequate intakes 1. Omega-6 for females 14-30 years in 12 g/day 2. Omega 3 for females 14-30 is 1.1 g/day 3. The ratio is 11:1. Is it a good ratio? a. A Typical western diet is 15:1 to 20:1 b. 4:1 ratio in total mortality from DC c. 2:5:1- beneﬁcial for colon cancer and rheumatoid arthritis d. What ratio is best?? Closer to 1:1 seems best. What fats/lipids/oils should you consume? 1. Replace extra virgin olive old for vegetable oils and butter 2. Seek out omega-3s through ﬁsh/seafood or nuts or green vegetables 3. Limit saturated and trans fat Fatty Acid Structure A. Alpha End B. Omega End Why is atherosclerosis harmful? A. Atherosclerosis is a clinical condition that leads to heart attack and stroke B. Artery wall thickens as a result of plaques (fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood) What leads to atherosclerosis? A. Main cause is unknown B. Thought to be an inﬂammatory process C. Involves oxidation of LDL and the deposition of oxidized cholesterol Lipid changes associated with atherosclerosis A. Elevated LDL-C B. Low HDL-C C. Elevated cholesterol D. Elevated triglycerides Omega-6 to omega-3 ratios A. Consensus is that omega-3 fatty acids are good for your health B. Seek out foods with high amounts of omega 3 1. Flaxseed oil, soybean oil, canola oil 2. Fatty ﬁsh C. If more omega 3 consumption than the ratio will improve PUB QUIZ 1. What property do all lipids share? They are hydrophobic. 2. Name an essential omega-6 fatty acid. Linolenic acid 3. By what mechanism of transport would you expect this fatty acid (CH3(CH2)6COOH) to be taken up by cells? Since it is saturated and short, it will be taken up by diffusion and won't have to go through the lymphatic system. 4. T or F: Minor gastrointestinal upsets including diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, and abdominal bloating is a side effect of omega-3 supplements. True. 5. What do you call a lipid that is solid at room temperature? Fat. 6. What is an adipocyte? An adipocyte is fat cell that can either be white or brown. It stores fat as well as secretes many substances that can lead to diseases later in life. 7. Lecithin is what type of lipid? A phospholipid. 8. What type of fat has lots of mitochondria? Brown fat because it burns energy. 9. What are functions of cholesterol? It keeps cell membrane ﬂuid, makes bile, vitamin D, and sex hormones. 10. What does emulsify do to lipids? It helps dissolve the oils and aids in digestion. 11. What organ is the major site of fat digestion? The small intestine. 12. What is a meta-analysis? It is when you take a lot of studies and compare the conclusions drawn from all of them as a means of gathering information. 13. TG is broken down into which two molecules? Glycerol and fatty acids 14. Why is HDL-C a key player in CV disease risk? It collects cholesterol which lowers it. 15. What is the function of a lipoprotein lipase and where is it found? On the inside walls of capillaries. 16. T or F: Protein mediated uptake is important in fatty acid transport in enterocytes. True. 17. What is a lipoprotein? A transporter for triglyceride and cholesterol. 18. How can you increase your HDL? Don't smoke, try to exercise, eat ﬁsh, and eat food with lower glycemic index. 19. Name two factors you should consider when choosing a vegetable oil? It’s smoke point, what types of fatty acids are in it, and if it has polyphenols and vitamins. 20. What are the desirable or optimal levels LDL-C < 100 HDL-C > 60 Total cholesterol < 200 Triglycerides < 100 21. A biotech company working on a new medication for a skin disease found in clinical trials for a skin disease found in clinical trials that the new drug stimulates the growth of brown fat. should the be happy or frustrated? They should buy more stock so they can burn more energy which allows people to lose weight.
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