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by: Whitney Lakin
Whitney Lakin
GPA 3.84


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Class Notes
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Lakin on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Human 21 at University of California - Irvine taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see /class/201949/human-21-university-of-california-irvine in Humanities at University of California - Irvine.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
I In Search of TheijO39r kA965quot 21 Jo fBlghdtht om 39 39 F l gt 0 x I 7 I 1 1 Into the Era of Reionization The EpochEra of Reioniza I39ion is n0139 a single event bu139 is a process That probably occurs over39 The redshif I39 range 20 1390 redshif I39 6 The period between redshif I39 20 and 6 is a period of Renaissance Time years 10 109 108 107 106 Galaxy clusters Lllhlum rocomblnmlon From MiraldaEscude 2003 Science 300 1904 Basic experimental principle Basic principle is to survey regions vvhere the sky spectrum IS darkest In between the Intense airglow Gaps in the OH airglow picket fence Lymanalpha redshifts of gaps in OpticalSilicon CCD regime 7400 A z53 8120 A z57 used extensively 9200 A z66 used extensively 9600 A z69 CCDs have poor OE and sky relatively bright 8185105 z I I o I o I o z 2 z 0 O O o o o O O R v B I O I O 39 o 2 1 39 O O o O o FLUX 103 erg cm392 5 Hz Mobserved Lymana91903 Mrest Lymana12163 Hu etal 2002 Redshi 6558 50 39 50 U i i 7777 0 L39 L so In H 7 7 J 1 Am gt gt 0 5 LA LW l 50 I 9100 9200 9300 N Z 0 A 4wmAWIrHvJM 39Wf 39 v m y My WWW 1 WWW 5000 7000 9000 10000 8000 OBSERVED WAVELENGTH A Flux density 103918 erg s391 cm392 5quot SDF J1325223273520 z 660 Wavelength K z6597 galaxy Taniguchi et al PASJ 2005 Survey Subaru 82m Suprimecam 34 x 27 02quotpixe 132A filter centred at 9196A Exposure time 54000 secs 15hrs Results 58 candidates 9 spectroscpoically confirmed with z66 9235A redshift 6597 2AB 2649 iz gt1 72 SFR History Current results Stanway Bunker McMahon etal 2003 10 No Extinction 45 0 Q E 39207 7 Q s 4 e v 25 D LE Re ime E g 330 QMO3 QAO7 35quotHrrrrrrrrrw o 2 4 6 8 redshift The Night Sky Problem Broad band sky gets brighter as you go to redder wavelengths Waveband Central Wavelength Dark Sky Redshift Angstrom s Brightness Lyman0t 1216A B 4400 221 26 V 5500 213 35 R 6000 204 39 l 7500 190 52 Z 9000 180 64 J 12500 160 93 H 16500 140 126 K 21000 130 163 Infrared OH Sky Observations Mahaira etal 1993 PASP GOOD IKIEVVS The 10 to 18 micron IR sky is very dark between the OH lines which contain 99 of broad band background INIENSITY RRnucleon a 2m THE NOT SO GOOD NEWS The narrowest gaps are narrower than in the optical filter Widths of 01 are needed compared with 1 filters in optical INTENsmr ianairnanv nuns BUT THIS IS A TECHNICAL CHALLENGE WE HAVE SOLVED L I 159 was man I 705 Fm DAZLE Dark Ages Z Lyman Explorer visiting a Time when Galaxies were Young McMahon BlandHawthorn Parry Horton Background Funded from Oct 2000 under PPARC Opportunity Scheme NOW destined for VLT UT3 visitor focus was Gemini Status May 2001 Design Contract with AAO signed Jan 2002 Conceptual Design Review August 2002 Preliminary Design Review JanuaryJune 2003 Progressive Final Design Review Currently being completed at IOA all components have been delivered AugSep 2005 Ship to Paranal NovDec 2005 Start survey of GOODSUDF Chandra Deep Field South DAZLE Dark Age Z Lyman Explorer McMahon BlandHawthorn Parry Horton L on ul ho Redsh39 760 753 Mdquot 77539 730 755 1 10 u p I 5 m IR narrow band imager With OH discrimination at R1000 ie 01 FOV 69 x 69 Rockwell Hawaii2 I 2K x2K O2 pixel LA I P D Transmission m P a Fqu1E 15 ergssarcsac EchA I 05 985 0 100 39 39 39 18 2 1 1 Lymanaph masm lt 394 Sen51t1V1ty2 10 erg cm sec 50 980 930 95 1000 1005 1010 L7 10 10 hrs on VLT ie 1M yr391 at 28 4 1quot U i 0513 Sky emission and absorption 0 spectrum around 106 and 133 microns showing DAZLE lter pairs for Lyman or at z77 99 other gaps m 1732quot are at 88 92 M I Fqu1E15 ergssarcseercmQA D 1 31 1 32 33 Wmlunqthmicran Dazle to be shipped to VLTUT3 in Aug 2005 first light Nov 2005 CIRPAS S Camera Pupil Narrowband 1mg W K H Film leed Doublet CIRPA Collimalor optics i01d minor Figure 2 Layout of the nal DAZLE optical design Cryogenic Camera Filter wheel Collimator rear tliplet Team Ian Parry Anthony Horton David King RGM JBH Field and phase effect Field edge quot Angle at camera 2 52 quot I 0 It s not as easy as it looks Sonia Cianoi 2004 PhD Anthony Horton 2005 PhD h quotr quotms Field centre Angle at camera 0 2 l l I Field corner Angle at camera 14 39 DAZLE Z7 7 3 WINDOW l um winduw I I II I I I I I I I I I I l I l quot 39 intenmy lquot quot39l39 quot39quot fihji39fiI39quot39I J39E39f 39 High 11 I F H39H A b 1040 f fv39l39 l 1060 1 DVD HER5 1030 Pf EH J I I I I I I I I l I 5 m 1 E IIIIILiliaaH 1 055 391 050 1 055 wavelength IIIn intensity 53 a DAZLE Z87 2 WINDOW 118 11911111 Window 4 I I I I 3 b 41 E I w 2 5 E 39 1 f i II I n E F I 39 J 39 I 1quot3939JLquotL nquotrquotllquotquotquot quotIMM E D 1150 1130 Tmm I I I I I I I II I I I I I I I I I I I intensity 393 53 390 to I 73 I I lL39 39JJf1L 23IIIIIIIHquotIIIIIIII ii D j 2 2 E 1quot ii I D ILL I 1JL I quotjgIa 1WILJIIFR1 1170 1175 1180 1135 1190 wavelength urn Expected Capabilities Volume surveyed Each narrow band filter targets a redshift slice of dz001 1 Field of view is 47 arcmin2 0013 degrees2 Assuming Ho70 Qm03 QA07 cosmology the comoving volume surveyed by an exposure with each pair of filters is 3000 h3Mpc3 Minimum Volume needed search a comoving volume within which you expect to find the progenitors of around 10 L galaxies Local density 14102 x 10392 h70MpC393eg Loveday etal 1992 gt minimum is 1000 Mpc3 for progenitors of 10 L galaxies Predicted Detection rates 39 Depend on luminosity function 39 Using Santos et al 2004 39 26 in a survey over 4 DAZLE fields 10hrs per field per filter Synergy of DAZLE and ALMA H070 Qm03 QA07 DAZLE in 2005 Field of view at 020 pixe 69 x 69 Redshift range per exposure 0011 e 1500 Mpc3comoving Sensitivity50 SFR of1 Melyr 10 hrs on VLT ALMA 392 Field of view 15 x 15 1mm Redshift range 5ltzlt15 dz10 e 1500 Mpc3comoving Sensitivity50 SFR of1 Melyr 70 hrs What hope for the near future Cluster caustics nature s own telescope Narrow filters in fast beams OH suppression OHS photonic technology 8m adaptive optics OHS JWST Extremely Large Telescopes 20100m Wide field narrow band what we reallywant to see comm39mg disiunce Mpc no go 30 Increasing evidence for highly inhomogeneous Lycx source distribution on scales of 50 Mpc z6 20 1 3 M E S E E Shimasaku et al 03 04 Bremer et al 04 Hu et al 04 Ouchi et al 05 Lyotquot3hman Filter JBH et al 2001 ApJ To get widest eld need fastest beam on biggest telescope But can we insert 10A lters into f2 beam without degradation YES 10A Natural seeing 2 2 at d A191 A292 2 4F AO corrected A A J39EN x N Ar 191 292 2 3A 3A F 1 2 Lyot principle 1933 PRP2HP Iquot I39nl39l Ina lml l39lr I I II I II 39I I i Iquot I II 39II I 399 II I 39 x 7339 39x I I f f ll I m r39 J P R P 2R P PzFizP FizPrrlFizF39 ll lI39II llquot H 39139 l I i I I I l II I I II II L II LyotOhman Filter Subaru f2 250mm diameterx 30mm thick Final step is to split thickest element like so P4115412 P 2 BPRPZRF ARP8RP B80Abiocker BPRP2RP4RP4RH4RP H haifwave retarder The near infrared sky m ground can reach Optical sensitivity point source 7 m AB 28 50 Near IR sensitivity does not even come close Vi i i i i i iiaii ji ii i i i I L L Jttlii i i i This is not a detector problem Region tackled by our new prototypes Why is OH suppression so important in searching forthe Dark Ages 8 Ioremzian scatter model R1500 Jim 11 11L Mm Jud M a 15m Introduction to fibre Bragg gratings What is an FBG A single mode fibre with a periodically varying refractive index FBGs reflect a narrow band of wavelengths depending on period A of varying refractive index AB 2 noA Periodic refractive index is printed on fibre core by UV interference Refractive index increases in proportion to UV flux Refractive index core Position along fibre IIIIIlllllllllllllllll IO OH grating design 9E judEb qgm o 5 M i i 9E f f i ll fi5Ef qzEb0 E 3 till 9z i l a J k 6 normalized frequency 7 i i i i r W KZ6Xpi 9Z 7 Wm mu BlandHawthorn Englund amp Edvell 2004 Our initial prototype tackles 36 lines 18 doublets in the H band at R10000 Prototype 1 SMF wanlength My 54 m l reflaclmn as E a l l o l 4000 zuuo euua 4000 zuuo 4 I6 wavelenng Dim BlandHawthorn Englund amp Edvell 2004 R O OOO Seems ideal R30 000 OH doublets resolve R150 000 OH lines resolve Application Ideally matched to dif 39action limited performance since spot size in microns is P 122F The future We now believe we can knock out all lines in JHK with a single FBG design Prototype 2 MMF First ever demonstration of FBG in multimode fibre ail MMF transition SMFICWE Continuum structure has nothing to do with grating i 39 in Measured response from FBG inserted directly into MMF OHSAO vs JWST SNR 0395 b 0395 D 2 8 X g g s g SNRS gs bg DS Telescope JWST 65m Diameter XT emperate Magellan 65 032 016 006 25 82 Grantecan Keck SALT 101 076 038 015 BLT 30 67 34 14 OWL 100 75 37 15 Telescope JWST 4m Diameter XT emperate Magellan 65 084 042 017 82 39 Grantecan Keck SALT 101 20 10 040 BLT 30 18 89 36 OWL 100 198 99 40


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