Psych Notes Chapter 10
Psych Notes Chapter 10 PSYC 110 - 008
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PSYC 110 - 008
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Mayes on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 110 - 008 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Alexander Malik Khaddouma in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Psychology - in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
3/2/16 Psych Notes 3/2/16 Chapter 10: Developmental Psychology *Red Words – Important terms to remember* Developmental Psychology - Study of how behavior changes over the life span - Methods of study: o Cross-sectional research “Snap-shot” that analyzes data from people at different age ranges at the same time o Longitudinal Research Analyzes data from a cohort of people measured at multiple occasions over time Conception Pre-Partum (Before birth) - Stages of life - Baby growth - Culture is the biggest part of a baby’s life and how they turn out Post-Partum (After birth) - Synaptic Pruning 3/2/16 o Neurons connect through synapses o As you grow older, your brain has to get ride of unimportant connections o Explanation video: https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=rxPT78F_ZVE Issues in Prenatal Developments - Teratogens o Environmental factors that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development - Links between maternal pregnancy behaviors and later childhood outcomes o Intake of chemical compounds that require complex metabolic processing Example: alcohol, nicotine, illicit drugs, certain medications, certain natural substances o Stress Acts the same way as a poison, because the mother isn’t at a state she needs to be in order to have a baby o Embryonic Diapause Condition of temporary suspension of development of the mammalian embryo (Doesn’t give birth right away – has control of when giving birth) Motor Development - Infant reflexes 3/2/16 o Moro reflex Response to falling backwards o Grasping Reflex Response to stimulation on palm of hand o Stepping Reflex Response to pressure on bottom of foot Preparation for walking Babies generally have a desire to start walking - Babies have an instinct to care for themselves enough to survive, even when a mother isn’t near 3/4/16 Psych Notes 3/4/16 Chapter 10: Developmental Psychology Human Development Cognitive Development - “Tabula Rasa” o Latin term for “blank slate” o Idea that babies came into the world with out knowing anything - Piaget o Early Childhood Theorist o Assimilation Organizing new information into existing knowledge structures Example: Having the ability to understand what different objects are – having a set of rules for understanding what something is o A pencil: Yellow Long Writing Utensil o Accommodation 3/4/16 Part of adaptation process involving altering one’s existing schemas, ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences Gyroscope task with bilingual children Place two objects in front of a child (some bilingual, some not) Tell one of the kids that only speaks English to pick up the gyroscope o Most pick up the gyroscope, because they know what a cup is, so they go towards the other Tell a bilingual child to pick up the gyroscope o Most ask “which one”, because they understand there can be multiple labels for an object o Stages of Cognitive development in children “Operational” – Ability to acquire the skills (ex. Preoperational) Sensorimotor skills Studies rely on looking time to measure babies’ habituation to novelty o “looking time” – how long a baby looks at something Infants show surprise at fears of object permanence o Babies know that things shouldn’t appear and then disappear Explains why babies love peek-a-boo Preoperational Skills Egocentrism is hallmark of this stage o Egocentrism – only focused on self experience, kids have a hard time understanding what others want/need/feel But children can begin to think in timelines Accept fully that object can exist outside of their immediate awareness o Better understanding for object permanence Around 4-5 Years old, develop theory of mind o Ability to reason about what others know/believe Concrete Operational Skills 3/4/16 Begins around age seven and continues until approx. eleven Children gain a better understanding of mental operation Begin thinking logically about concrete events, have difficulty understanding abstract/hypothetical concepts Formal Operational Fourth and final stage Begins approx. years 11 to 12 Continues throughout adulthood Can think creatively Use abstract reasoning Imagine outcome of particular actions Vvgotsky Scaffolding o Pattern by which parents provide initial assistance in children’s learning but gradually remove structure as children become more competent Zone of proximal development 3/4/16 o Phase of learning during which children can benefit from instruction