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Human Anatomy and Physiology

by: Tia Spears

Human Anatomy and Physiology Biol 2120

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 2120 > Human Anatomy and Physiology
Tia Spears
GPA 3.0

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About this Document

These notes cover the respiratory system
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tia Spears on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/04/16
Respiratory System  The respiratory system is made up of the trachea, lungs, ribs, and diaphragm.  The respirator system is set up to take full advantage of bulk flow and simple diffusion. o Bulk flow – quick movement of large numbers of molecules that filter down into  the cells in the lungs to get into the blood  o Diffusion – when a material automatically flows from an area of high  concentration to low concentration o Bulk flow and diffusion together creates cellular respiration.  The lungs act like a pump while the diaphragm, a set of muscles that separates the thorax  from the abdomen, relaxed and pushes the lungs upward kind of squishing them.  The rib cage’s weight pushes on the lugs which decrease the volume of the lungs.  By breathing, the diaphragm contracts while it pulls itself flat. Then the external  intercostal muscles lifts the ribs up and out by contracting which causes the chest cavity  to expand. o The pressure inside of the lungs becomes lower than the air outside of the body. o Moving from an area of high pressure to low pressure, the lungs get filled up with the air outside. o The diaphragm relaxes again, and the weight of the ribs settles in. o The pressure inside of the lungs then becomes higher than the air outside, thus  making the air rush out of the lungs.  Conducting zone – funnel the air in the body o Nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, nose, mouth, larynx, lungs o Nose – supported by bone and cartilage with bristly hairs and mucus inside it that  filter out dust and other particles  It warms and moisten incoming air so that it doesn’t dry out those  sensitive lung cells that must remain wet.  Water is needed for oxygen to dissolve into before I can diffuse across the phospholipid  bilayer membrane of the body’s cells.  Respiratory zone – where the gas exchange occurs o Includes: the bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli o Bronchioles – smaller branches of the bronchi that progress into narrower tubes o Alveolar ducts then lead to the alveolar sacs which is where the bulk of the gas  exchange occurs.  Each sac contains a cluster of alveoli – tiny cavities lined with super thin,  wet membranes made of simple squamous epithelium tissue  Oxygen molecules dissolve in the wet mucous, diffuse across the  epithelial cells, and then cross the single layer of endothelial cells lining  the capillaries to enter the bloodstream.  Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood and then follows the same route  back up to the nose and mouth where it is exhaled. o Alveoli – where diffusion meets bulk flow  Carbon dioxide maintains homeostasis in the body.  o Can affects the blood pressure, pH level, and temperature  Hypocapnia – the drop of carbon dioxide when one hyperventilates that signals a break  down in the exchange of gases inside the blood cells  Molecular O2 is carried in the blood  o 1.5% dissolved in plasma o 98.5% loosely bound to each Fe of hemoglobin (Hb) in RBCs o 4 O2 per Hb   Oxyhemoglobin (HbO2): hemoglobin­O2 combination   Reduced hemoglobin (HHb): hemoglobin that has released O2   Oxyhemoglobin – Hb bound to oxygen  Deoxyhemoglobin – Hb after oxygen diffuses into tissues (reduced Hb)  Loading and unloading of O2 is facilitated by change in shape of Hb  o As O2 binds, Hb affinity for O2 increases o As O2 is released, Hb affinity for O2 decreases  Fully (100%) saturated if all four heme groups carry O2  Partially saturated when one to three hemes carry O2  CO2 is transported in the blood in three forms o 7 to 10% dissolved in plasma  o 20% bound to globin of hemoglobin (carbaminohemoglobin) o 70% transported as bicarbonate ions (HCO3–) in plasma  CO2 combines with water to form carbonic acid (H2CO3), which quickly dissociates:  Most of the above occurs in RBCs, where carbonic anhydrase reversibly and rapidly  catalyzes the reaction  HCO3– in plasma is the alkaline reserve of the carbonic acid–bicarbonate buffer system   If H+ concentration in blood rises, excess H+ is removed by combining with HCO3–   If H+ concentration begins to drop, H2CO3 dissociates, releasing H+


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