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by: Melisa O'Reilly


Melisa O'Reilly
GPA 3.54


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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melisa O'Reilly on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Arts 1 at University of California - Irvine taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 180 views. For similar materials see /class/201956/arts-1-university-of-california-irvine in Arts at University of California - Irvine.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Psych 56L Ling 51 Acquisition of Language Lecture 4 Biological Bases of Language ll Language Localization Why the le hemisphere Le hemisphere may process inluimatiun more analylically Tralned musicians process music in the left hemisphere Normal untrained people process it on the right m Left hemisphere may be better at executng Wellrprac39tlced rou nes while right is better at responding to novel Silmull Language for adults is a Wellrpractlced routine Where is language located Notjustle hemisphere evidence Sometimes aphasia doesn t result when there is left hemisphere damage Sometimes aphasia results when there is right hemisphere damage ln some people usually i leftehanded people i language is controlled by the right hemisphere Where is language located Notjustle hemisphere evidence Emutiunal tune iukes sarcasm figurative language interpretatiun fulluvvirig indireet reddests rnden uf tnis taiis under bragrnaties Evidence rigntnernisbnere iesibn patients Right nernisbnere amivated by sernantie prunessing Wniie left nernisbnere activated primarily by syntactic brbeessing Evidence ERF studies Evidence iate language iearners Wnb aren t as brbtieient Witn syntax and have language ideated primarily in ngnt nernisbnere How does a left hemisphere specialization for language develop Eddibbtentiaiity hyputhesis iettand ngntnernisbneres have edda butential at birtn Predl lun dienbtie iistening and brain inidry in eniidren shuvv iess sbeeiaiizatibn tbr iangdage tnan adults invariance hyputhesis iettnernisbnere sbeeiaiizatibn available at birtn Predictiun dienbtie iistening and brain inidry data trbrneniidren snbdid luuk like tne ebrresbbnding data trbrn addits How does a le hemisphere specialization for language develop How does a le hemisphere specialization for language develop d ie nernisbnere tnan rightrhemisphere activatiun in resbbnse tn sbeeen stirndii as db addits 7 But alsu greaterleftrhemisphere activity in resbunse tn nune sbeeen suunds suggesting generai bias tn brbeess sbdnds in rmunt bids d d it brbeess nunespeech sbdnds Witn ngnt nernisbnere 39 V ad aniag i i ibai inndnin Zeyeareulds Speeen vs nunespeecl Besttiaaa righteear advantage tbr L Cunsunants have rapidly enanging aeuustie bruberties eurnbared Witn vuvvels Cuuld tie in tn le ehemisphere sbeeiaiizatibn tbr seriai brbeessing How does a lelt hemisphere specialization for language develop Summary rrom experlmental studies Language processihg appears to be specialized to the left hemisphere as early as researchers cah test it But the ihfaht braih is hotthe same as the adult braih r matures How does a lelt hemisphere specialization for language develop Chlldhood aphasia Aphasia hearly always results from lert hemisphere damage ahd rarely from right hemisphere damage Woods ampTeuber1978 Howeyeh immature braih is hot orgahized the same Way as the mature bralrl aphasia thah Wernlcke s r childreh tehd to recover betterrrom braih damage With youhger childreh recoverlrlg better thah older childreh Neural plasticity in children Plastlclty the ability or parts orthe braih to take over ruhctiohs over lahguage ruhctiohs it lert hemisphere is damaged However plasticity ish tthe perrect solutioh e lt subtle syhtactic impairmehts ih these cases suggest that the right hemisphere ish t as good at parts of lahguage as the le hemisphere is 7 Neural plasticity in children gt How plasticity Works cohhectiohs Maturatioh pruhihg uhhecessary cohhectiohs What s hecessary What gets used Where Chlld s braih actiyity is ohce cohhectiohs are pruhed reduhdahcy is lost ahd particular functlorls become locallzed Neural plasticity in children The Critical Period Hypothesis yewcurbwmy quotZEEE er my Critical amp sensitive periods Critical amp sensitive periods crltlcalperlodforlanguage p a nu aru n or r durlrlgvy rcn language acoursmon mustoccurln orderror language to be learned rully and correctly Other blologlcally determlrled oeaolrnes e lmprlrltlrlg chlcks amp duckllngs follow nrsunrng they see roreyer ls llkely thelr mommy rvlsual cells n numans lfcellsforboth eyes don t recerye yrsual lrlput ounng the flrst year orso or llfe they lose the ability to respond to ylsual input sensltlve perlod blologlcally determlrled perlod ounng Wnlcn learrllrlg must occur ror oeyeloomenuo mosl llkelyhapperl correctly Critical amp sensitive periods deprlve ehlldreh at all llhgdlstle Critical amp sensitive periods Huvv do We testfur a erltleal perlpd fur language acqulsltl 7 Same hlsturleal eases that have uhlhtehtluhally pruvlded laellt uf llhgdlstle lhpdttp ehlldreh Wlld ehlldreh like Vletur utAveyruh Problem the lack of language may be duetu ptherreasphs Critical amp sensitive periods a lltlalplldll Critical amp sensitive periods sprhe hlstprleal eases thathave unlntEntanally pruvlded lack of llhgdlstle lhpdttp ehlldre LErlrlEbErg lam frumtn rhdltltdde pr repprts is lle h dark lusets Wulves dens forests ur sadlstle parents backyards ls hut EDNduElVE tn guud health prhprrhal developme t Ohe dLllllLdlpEHUu lUl sdeeess stury fur lack pr llhgdlstle lhpdt Wlth a ypdhg ehlld lsabeHe laaus Beyeareuld lsapelle dlscuvered rhute rhuther as her uhly euhtaet she wastadghttp speak and by age El appeared tn pe hurrhal F39uterltlal lrhplleatlph lsapelle dlscuvered befure erltleal perlpd Was pver Critical amp sensitive periods A more thorough study Genie 1970s 13yearold Genie brought by her mother to social services alter escaping mentally ill father until mothe s s I cape had no language input and very horri c living conditions By age 17 she had a 5yearold s vocabulary and could express meanings by combining words together How do we test for a critical period for language acquisition Critical amp sensitive periods How do we test for a critical period for language acquisition A more thorough study Genie Howeversyntactic skills lagged far behind de cient in both production and comprehe si Mama wash hair in sinkquot Like go ride yellow school busquot At school scratch facequot Father take piece wood Hit Cryquot I want Cur iss play pianoquot Dichotic listening tasks showed language was a right hemisphere activity for her Critical amp sensitive periods How do we test for a critical period for language acquisition A more thorough study Genie Potential Implication Genie discovered alter critical period was over However Genie may have had other cognitive disabilities Critical amp sensitive periods How do we test for a critical period for language acquisition Late acquisition of sign language ASL deafof hearing children who on t know sign language Children ar e eventually exposed to sign language when they encounter other deaf children Good individuals have normal early childhood experience except for lack of language inp t Critical amp sensitive periods Critical amp sensitive periods auiiiiuaipeiiuu iui a iiiiaipiiuii ii pe bettertnan eniigren wnp learned lateretnis isvvhat NewpunlBBDfuund n n m Exposed were far super r in theirslgn language abllltytu eniigren wnp were Exposed after age i2 L wneise parents dun t knuvv sign language cniigren are mner deaf eniigren Alsu impunant nmiust abuut npwipng sign language speakers nag knuvvn the language Speakersvvnu nag been i ning furrnuretnan 3 y we hi i renee those Exposed yuungervvere rar superipr in their language skills in those Exposed wnen they were u er Critical amp sensitive periods Critical amp sensitive periods auiiiiuaipeiiuu iui a iiiiaipiiuii ianguage wnen they rreirn their nativerburn pee an are young men peeprne indistinguishable rs e 0 age pr arrival was better predictur ufaccenttnan neiw yearstne immigrant nag been speaking Engiisn s betterpredicturuf eprnprenensiein than nu nptiustapput muturskill learning ability yarna i 976 testing ltalian immigrants iearning Engiisn e Oyama i978 age ufarrivalvva rnper ufyears speaking the language Critical amp sensitive periods a iiiiaipiiuii Testing age differences in SEEDHd language acqmsiiicin e Singletun e NEWpun i989 testing grammatical cumpetency cir cninese e Kurean natives living in tne US Heard reccireed VDlEES speaking sentences and had tci iuege wnetnertney were curre turncit Tne rarrnerpciugnttwci pig at tne market Tum is reading bunk in bathtub lfthere is Critical vs sen sitive revisited a truly a critical pErlDd uflanguage acqu lEIH pecipie learning language a erthis pErlDd uid ncii succeed very Well at all Wniie pecipie Wiinin the critical pErlDd snciuie up very Well language acquisitiun perfurmance critical pErlDd arrival n n uiArrlval Critical vs sensitive revisited Huvvever Experimental Evidence Hama Bialystok is Wiley 2 ma suggests thatthere is a srnciciiner rcipecirri and e aisci a relatiun El Educatiunclevel Suppurtfursensltlve ieiiii i39m nr imii Mii Micruiisin NiisiiW i iiiicn sin So why are younger children better One lgea genetlcally determlned rltlcalsensltlve perlud Anutnerfactur dumlnant language sztcn l lyputhesls Yu nger enlluren are better able in make the new language thelrdumlnant language betterat newlanguage than plu language Anutnerfactur selfecunscluusness about maklng errurs e lgennneanpn With the new language So why are younger children bettel Less is mere hyputhesls Newppn lBBl cnllgren ean rernernper less than adults and have mner ugnltlve llmltatluns llke less attentlun Pernaps language samua yeaser ure e lnputlsllrnltegm smallercnunks Adults rernernperrnpre ang ean s mre lunger chunk Wnlen makes thElr analytlcal task narger Studies supppnlng a llmltatlurl pn Enlldren s lrlput leaglng m penerlearnlng penprrnanee Pearl ample1 ln prep Pearl ZEIEIE F39earl ampWelnberg ZEIEI7 Dresner laaallgncrpm laaallgncrpm lBBl Genetic Basis of Language Development H eritability of individu al differen ces TWln studles assess huvv slmllardlffererlt munuzygutl lgenneal ang dlzygutl fraternal Wins are Strumsvvuld Zuul herltable facturs accountfuri e Wn pr a anee ln nurrnal Enlldren s language aplllues mamn pr varlance ln lrnpalreg Enlldren s language apllmes Heritability of individual differences Genetics of language impairment ang dizyguti fraternai tWins are ufvariance ameing vucabuiary Strumsvvuid zuua n generai ti d pipipgieai epntriputipn tei synta e Eveiupmentisgreaterthan pipipgieai epntriputipn tei iEXiEai deveiupment e ianguageimpaireg eniigren are rarmeire iikeiytu have ianguageimpaireg famiiy members 7 meineizygeitietwns are meire iikeiytu snare a ianguage impairment Genetics of language impairment Language impairment runs in ramiiies raffected mempers nag ppprianguage apiiities and severe ginieuities Witn tne meiteir skiiis invuived Witn speeen preiguetiein e singie duminantgene appearedtu be tne eause mutatiun zuua npweven tnis is uniy pine genetie part pr ianguage deveiupmem In summary Tnere dues seemtei be a streing pipipgieaigenetie eeimpeinent pr inVDiVEd Maneuver wniie at ieast eine speeitie genetie eeimpeinent invuived i its stiii unknuvvri hEIW this umpunent interacts With the rest Elf the genetie makeup ufan individuait preiguee nurmai iinguistie deveiupment quot


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