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PSY 245 Class Notes

by: Kristi Dorsey

PSY 245 Class Notes PSY 245

Kristi Dorsey
GPA 3.871

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Class notes from 3.1.16 & 3.3.16.
Drugs and Behavior
Mark Galizio
Class Notes
PSY 245, Mark Galizio, uncw, Drugs and Behavior
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristi Dorsey on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 245 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Mark Galizio in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.


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Date Created: 03/04/16
3.1.16 Revised Cigarettes & Health  Lung and other cancers  Increased risk of CHD (Coronary Heart Disease)  Emphysema and related lung diseases  Passive smoking o 1970’s & 80’s – second-hand smoking effects on health discovered o Paid a huge role in changes in lifestyles and laws o Risk elevated but not as much as smoking  Smoking prevalence among U.S. adults < 20% o Public Health campaigns to makes consumers aware of adverse effects o 1920’s – correlational studies linking cigarette smoke to lung cancer  No true experimental study to this day  People who smoke rarely develop lung cancer o Coal miners have high rate of lung cancer because of carbons in coal  Lung cancer rare prior to invention of cigarette (worldwide)  Tobacco = causes cancer Smoking  Smoking cigars, pipes, or chewing tobacco has decreased risk of lung cancer (compared to cigarettes) o Don’t inhale frequently or deeply o Increased risk of cancer of the jaw, gums, tongue, & throat  Smoking cigarettes increase rate of cancer of the lungs, throat, and mouth  Experimental data with nonhumans o Self-administer nicotine o Expose tissue to tobacco  High risk of developing tumors Tobacco & Lung Cancer  Several carcinogens (substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue) found in tobacco  The more you smoke and the longer you smoke, the risk of lung cancer increases o If you reduce your smoking, your risk decreases gradually  Cigarette smoking is a CAUSAL agent in lung cancer  Risk of lung cancer due to exposure of tobacco smoke develops gradually and slowly; diminishes gradually and slowly Coronary Heart Disease & Cigarettes  Heart attacks & CHD common among people who smoke compared to those who don’t  Nicotine = causes CHD & heart attacks Nicotine  Sympathomimetic (heart rate & blood pressure)  If you smoke a lot for a long time your heart rate & blood pressure constantly elevated  Risk of CHD drops as soon as a smoker quits (no nicotine in system)  Student Project: o Access to oncologists at New Hanover (married to a doctor) o Granted permission to interview individuals diagnosed with CHD o Most were cigarette smokers o 6 months later half of the subjects (mostly men) had quit smoking Causes of Avoidable Death in the U.S. (PLoS 2009 Study) 1. Tobacco use – 455,000 2. High blood pressure – 390,000 3. Obesity – 225,000 10. Alcohol use – 70,000 World Health Organization (WHO)  At current rates of use, over 1 billion deaths due to cigarette smoking projected within the next 100 years  China– rates of smoking rising rapidly o Targeted by tobacco companies o Largest tobacco market in the world now o China, Europe, & South America allows for smoking in many public places Regulation of Tobacco  Historically not regulated as a drug  2000s – lawsuits against tobacco companies o Insiders leaked company memos; were aware in 60’s & 70s that nicotine was an addictive drug o Those aware included animal scientists  Knew that animals self-administer nicotine and become addicted  Despite this, tobacco companies calculated nicotine levels & added it to cigarettes  Public discussion about tobacco and nicotine – denied knowledge that nicotine was addictive  June 2009 – regulated granted to FDA o Tobacco declared a drug (not nicotine)  Sept. 2009 o Banned flavored cigarettes (targeting youth)  2012 o Graphic label requirement to begin in 2012  Found in South America or Europe o Depicted horrific consequences of smoking o 2011 – Tobacco companies in U.S. appeal this requirement  Found unconstitutional in 2012 (Freedom of Speech)  Oct 1, 2014 o CVS stops selling cigarettes How to Quit Smoking  Easy to quit smoking & hard to prevent relapse  Strategies (all effective): o Nicotine gum o Patch (slow absorption of nicotine) o E-cigs (originally develop as aid to quit smoking) o Quitting cold turkey (best way) o Hypnosis o CBT (prevent relapse by teaching how to manage cravings) o Chantix (generic name: Varenicline)  Nicotine-like compound  Similar to patch or gum o Given placebo instead of active drug  Relapse rates vary between studies o Typically 70% - 90% rate of relapse on cocaine & tobacco  Specialists believe drug treatment should be focused on relapse prevention WHO – Three Step Guide to Quitting 1. Switch brands to a lower dose of nicotine to gradually reduce dependence a. CONS: rate of smoking goes up (unconsciously); inhale harder and hold smoke in longer 2. Set a quit date a. Plan carefully b. Quit during a time when: you’re entertained, have no pressing duties, and little stress c. EX: if you quit during finals you’re going to sabotage your attempt to quit d. If you relapse, set a new quit date and try again 3. Truly Quit a. Don’t smoke AT ALL b. Immediately after quitting rate of craving occurs at high frequencies c. In a few more days frequency of craving drops d. In a few weeks rate of craving has dropped substantially e. Cravings never go away completely but intensity drops over time f. If person takes a puff of a cigarette, rate of cravings increases drastically E-Cigarettes  Fewer college students smoking cigarettes & have turned to e-cigs (at a rapid pace)  E-cig: device that delivers nicotine without requiring the combustion of tobacco o A heating element activated by a sensor detecting airflow o Cartridge containing a nicotine solution is heated & usually refillable o Nicotine is vaporized (an aerosol is generated & inhaled) o Packages usually label amount of nicotine contained but aren’t very accurate (some less or more)  Originally: tobacco companies spent years working on prototypes o Found that people didn’t like them because they didn’t feel the smoke in their lungs o These prototypes never went to market o Created something that produced a visible vapor o Produced additives that changed the flavor  When you puff on an E-cig, it ignites an LED that’s battery operated o Creates heat and vaporizes this materially o Involves nicotine, propylene glycol, & additives o Inhaling nicotine into your lungs Adolescent Use  Highschool tobacco/nicotine use  2011 – vaping introduced; 15% rate of tobacco use  2015 – tobacco use has steadily declined  E-cigs: 2011 – 2015: more young people vaping than smoking  Hookah (water pipe) – increased rate but not as dramatic as vaping Why the Interest in Vaping?  Advertisements claim that vaper’s lungs aren’t black like a cigarette smoker’s lung & it is unlikely to produce tobacco effects on the lungs o Probably true because you aren’t exposing your lungs to tobacco o CHD – there may be a risk of CHD when you’re vaping that’s as high as when you’re smoking cigarettes (depending on how frequently you use it) o Exposing your lungs to nicotine and vapor produced by heating propylene glycol o No one has studied its impact on lungs over an extended period of use  So new that no one knows consequences o Consequences of inhaling propylene glycol?  No evidence for consequences of second-hand smoke  FDA: can make a company provide data on safety/efficacy of a product o Without data, FDA can regulate/hold of access to the product o Concerned about risk of additives/flavors Regulation of E-Cigs  Interest in regulating E-cigs (US & other countries)  Currently lots of independent operators/dealers providing smoking devices and vaping liquids  Advertising is not currently regulated  Sales not restricted to 21 & over  Untaxed in many states FDA (Oct 2015)  Proposed a rule to give FDA power to regulate E-Cigs o Regulate advertising o Limit access to minors o Restrict flavored E-Cigs o Require proof of safety  Proposal not available to the public  Legislators to possibly make decision by March 1, 2016  Implications of this Legislation: o Move from local operations to big business (like tobacco & alcohol) o Put 90% of vendors out of operation o Some states, communities, and institutions now treat E-cigs as tobacco products Alcohol Facts  World’s largest drug business: > $60 billion per year spent on alcohol in the U.S.  8 million junior high and high schoolers drink every week  Undergrads in U.S. spend $4.2 billion on alcohol (more than they spend on textbooks) o Students are targets of alcohol advertising o Multi-billion dollar firms plan these advertisements very carefully  Also targeting black youth, bromances, & women  1 in 12 will develop alcoholism or alcohol abuse disorder (7 or 8 of students in this class will develop one or the other) Alcohol  Ethyl alcohol or ethanol  Refer to alcohol as the chemical “ethyl” (described as ethanol in scientific literature)  More than one type of alcohol o Ethanol – alcohol we drink o Other alcohol products (neurotoxins) may be available  Wood alcohol (methanol)  Rubbing alcohol (isopropyl)  Both smell & taste like ethanol  Should be avoided  Some people crave alcohol so badly they consume one of these  New Hanover Counter; “party juice” o 5 years ago o Everclear added to Fruit Punch o Highly alcoholic o Concocted using rubbing alcohol o 2 individuals went blind Computer Blood Alcohol Concentration  1 Standard drink = 0.5% pure ethanol (alcohol)  One 12 ounce beer = 1 standard drink & 4-7% ethanol o Brewed from grains o North American & European beers brewed from malted barley and rice o Light beers are less feeling because they have lower caloric intake and less alcohol content o Heavy beers (Kraft) are malted barley or wheat beers & some are more alcoholic o Fermentation Process:  Allow fermentation process to go as far as it can go  Mash up grains and expose them to yeast (unicellular microorganism)  Yeast consumes carbohydrates/sugars in grains to make beer and in fruits to make wine  After it consumes the sugar, it excretes the alcohol  CON: when alcohol concentration in liquid reaches 15% the yeast dies and fermentation stops  Four ounces of wine = 1 standard drinks and has 12-15% ethanol  1 ounce of 100 proof liquor = 1 standard drink & 40-50% ethanol o Distilled liquor o Beer-like mash of fermented grains or fruits o Grains used to make malt whiskey, scotch & Canadian Whiskeys o Juice of fermented potatoes used to make Vodka o To get an alcoholic beverage with > 15% concentration of alcohol, you heart the 12% alcohol made from yeast and it evaporates  Alcohol evaporates at low temperature than water  A still collects the alcohol vapor and separates it  Creates liquid with higher alcohol concentration  Origins of “Proof” as measurement of alcohol concentration in liquor o Concept developed during Prohibition o Smugglers trying to get as much money as they could by making drinks with a higher alcohol concentration o Dealers would water down the whiskey so customers began to demand proof that there was 45-50% alcohol in the product  When the dealer watered down the whiskey, they would add peppers, jalapenos, etc. to the whiskey to make it taste stronger than it actually was o Standard test was to put a small amount of gun powder on the table and pour whiskey over it; if you put a match on it and it ignites, then you know the whiskey has an alcohol concentration of about 50% o Proof = 5 of alcohol x 2  45% alcohol in a bottle of whiskey = 90 proof  50% alcohol in a bottle of whiskey = 100 proof  Ever clear is the most pure form of alcohol you can get (95% alcohol)  One mixed drink with 2 shots of alcohol = 2 standard drinks  Long Island Iced Tea: half a shot of 5 clear liquors = 2.5 ounces Alcohol Metabolization – 2 thing you need to know to calculate your BAC  As you’re drinking alcohol, your BAC is rising  As soon as it gets into your system, it’s broken down  Broken down in the body and bloodstream at a pretty constant rate  Three ways to measure alcohol metabolization 1. Metabolize about 1 drink every 2 hours – if you have a standard drink at the end of a shot, your BAC will approach 0 about 2 hours later 2. BAC drops about .01% every 40 minutes 3. BAC = # of standard drinks * 0.25% (rate at which your blood alcohol level is rising) minus the # of hours drinking * 0.015% (rate at which alcohol is being metabolized Breathalyzers  Widely available and inexpensive  Not completely accurate  When you have alcohol in your bloodstream, your lungs are constantly exchanging what’s in your blood with gases in your lungs  When you breath out, there is a measurable amount of alcohol in your breath  When you blow into a breathalyzer, it measures the concentration of alcohol in your breath that is roughly proportional to the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream  If you are given a breathalyzer at a traffic stop, you can demand a blood test (most accurate way to measure BAC) BAC, Drinks, & Effects when Consumed in a 1-Hour Period/Body weight = 140-180 pounds & Based on People who are not Tolerant BAC Drinks Effects Miscellaneous Information 0.04% 1-2  Relaxed  Dose at which most people first feel the effects of alcohol  More social  Minimal effects on reaction time 0.08% 3-4  High  Current legal limit > 0.08%  Intoxicated  DUI at this level of BAC  A little drunk  Clearly measure a delay in reaction time 0.15% 7-10  Drunk  Exaggerated emotional responses  Impaired perceptual motor coordination  Area Postrema (vomit center) of brain is activated (dizzy, nauseas, & throw up) – if the BAC gets to 0.15% and you haven’t vomited, your Postrema has become inhibited and you can’t vomit 0.30% 11-15  Dead drunk  Most fatalities occur at this BAC level or higher  Semi-Comatose state  0.40% 16-20  Dead  LD50 (dose at which 50% of animals administered a given dose of drug died in within a stated time) for alcohol  Fatalities most common in college students engaged in binge drinking/chugging games  Legal limit used to be 0.10%  Discussion about lowering legal BAC from 0.08% - 0.05% o Clearly measure delay in reaction time at 008% o Measure:  Look for a colored light on a computer screen  Click mouse when you see the light  Simple reaction time = react in 200-300 milliseconds  Alcohol slows this down slightly  If you’re traveling 60 or 70 mph, it translates into hundreds of feet longer break time  Start having a decrease in reaction time at 0.05%  With a large individual, 2 drinks could put them over the 0.05% level and with a small person, 1 drink could do that o Pursuit Roder Task  Measures perceptual motor coordination  1” circumference dot moves around computer screen  Participant keeps cursor on dot as it moves around  Measure % of time the cursor stays on the dot  No matter how bad your original coordination is, it gets significantly worse at the 0.08% BAC level  Since your body metabolizes about two drinks in an hour, if you stay at a 4 hour party and consume 5-6 drinks, you only metabolize 2 of those drinks so if you leave in 4 hours, you will be driving under the influence Binge Drinking  4-5 drinks in a single setting (3-4 hours)  College students reported an average of 9 drinks in a typical binge episode Alcohol & Tolerance  Functional tolerance – tolerance of the brain; brain has changed and is less responsive to the depressant action of alcohol & tolerance of the liver; metabolize alcohol more efficiently Drinking & Driving  44% of all traffic fatalities on the highway in 2011 were caused by a drunk driver  44% = the relative probability that you will CAUSE an automobile accident  0.06% BAC = we see a slight increase in probability of causing an automobile accident  0.08% BAC = 5x more likely to cause an accident  0.10% BAC = 7-8x more likely to cause an accident Memory Blackouts  All depressant drugs can inhibit/interfere with memory  Alcohol impairs memory at certain high doses  Don’t understand this very well  Conscious while drinking but unable to remember anything that happened while intoxicated Hangover  Not well understood  Widely believed by people who have hangovers is that alcohol is the best medicine to make you feel better  Hangover is a withdrawal symptom (presence of the drug makes it go away) Effects of Chronic Drinking  Toxicity in virtually every organ in your body  Cirrhosis of the liver/fatty liver o Liver cells diminished, but not completely dead o Frequently fatal consequence of heavy drinking o One of the leading causes of death in the U.S.  If a person stops drinking they won’t get better but they won’t get worse Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome  Typically observed in street alcoholics  Kind of dementia where the ability to remember information is lost or badly damaged in heavy alcoholics  Directly related to lifestyle and we can measure the nature of the damage  Not always caused by alcohol  People who suffer from this have severe nutritional deficiencies (Vitamin B12)  Severe cognitive deficits  Sometimes we see “wet brain” o A normal brain has small fluid-filled spaces called ventricles o In the brain of a heavy drinker with this syndrome, there are several inches of ventricles o Not much brain left because the tissue has been lost and fluid has filled those spaces o If an individual stops drinking, the brain tissue will return; the brain cells aren’t dead  A lot of the volume of a neuron located on the dendrites  In heavy drinkers, the cell stays alive but dendrite is stunted or lost/cell isn’t functioning  If a person stops drinking, there’s restoration of structure and function  Debate over whether or not the function of recovery is complete Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  Discovered in the 1970s  What distinguishes it from similar disorders? o Severe intellectual disability o Characteristic facial features – wide set eyes and cleft pallet/disorders of the mouth  Doctors tell you not to drink during pregnancy because we don’t know what the safe levels are  In rats a pretty low level of alcohol can cause damage to the pups Delirium Tremens  Captures symptoms of alcohol withdrawal  Delirium – confused, hallucinate, severe cognitive deficits  Tremens – person begins to shake in the limbs/mostly hand o Usually the first symptom of alcohol withdrawal  Anxiety  Insomnia  Seizures & convulsions – most dangerous/deadly withdrawal symptom (of any drug) o Rebound syndrome o After depressing CNS activity for years in a chronic drinker, if they stop drinking every part of the brain becomes excitable o If a person is experiencing this withdrawal symptom they should be brought to a clinic or hospital right away o Often administration of any depressant drug (typically valium or Xanax) can prevent seizures


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