PSY 245 Class Notes
PSY 245 Class Notes PSY 245
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristi Dorsey on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 245 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Mark Galizio in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
3.1.16 Revised Cigarettes & Health Lung and other cancers Increased risk of CHD (Coronary Heart Disease) Emphysema and related lung diseases Passive smoking o 1970’s & 80’s – second-hand smoking effects on health discovered o Paid a huge role in changes in lifestyles and laws o Risk elevated but not as much as smoking Smoking prevalence among U.S. adults < 20% o Public Health campaigns to makes consumers aware of adverse effects o 1920’s – correlational studies linking cigarette smoke to lung cancer No true experimental study to this day People who smoke rarely develop lung cancer o Coal miners have high rate of lung cancer because of carbons in coal Lung cancer rare prior to invention of cigarette (worldwide) Tobacco = causes cancer Smoking Smoking cigars, pipes, or chewing tobacco has decreased risk of lung cancer (compared to cigarettes) o Don’t inhale frequently or deeply o Increased risk of cancer of the jaw, gums, tongue, & throat Smoking cigarettes increase rate of cancer of the lungs, throat, and mouth Experimental data with nonhumans o Self-administer nicotine o Expose tissue to tobacco High risk of developing tumors Tobacco & Lung Cancer Several carcinogens (substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue) found in tobacco The more you smoke and the longer you smoke, the risk of lung cancer increases o If you reduce your smoking, your risk decreases gradually Cigarette smoking is a CAUSAL agent in lung cancer Risk of lung cancer due to exposure of tobacco smoke develops gradually and slowly; diminishes gradually and slowly Coronary Heart Disease & Cigarettes Heart attacks & CHD common among people who smoke compared to those who don’t Nicotine = causes CHD & heart attacks Nicotine Sympathomimetic (heart rate & blood pressure) If you smoke a lot for a long time your heart rate & blood pressure constantly elevated Risk of CHD drops as soon as a smoker quits (no nicotine in system) Student Project: o Access to oncologists at New Hanover (married to a doctor) o Granted permission to interview individuals diagnosed with CHD o Most were cigarette smokers o 6 months later half of the subjects (mostly men) had quit smoking Causes of Avoidable Death in the U.S. (PLoS 2009 Study) 1. Tobacco use – 455,000 2. High blood pressure – 390,000 3. Obesity – 225,000 10. Alcohol use – 70,000 World Health Organization (WHO) At current rates of use, over 1 billion deaths due to cigarette smoking projected within the next 100 years China– rates of smoking rising rapidly o Targeted by tobacco companies o Largest tobacco market in the world now o China, Europe, & South America allows for smoking in many public places Regulation of Tobacco Historically not regulated as a drug 2000s – lawsuits against tobacco companies o Insiders leaked company memos; were aware in 60’s & 70s that nicotine was an addictive drug o Those aware included animal scientists Knew that animals self-administer nicotine and become addicted Despite this, tobacco companies calculated nicotine levels & added it to cigarettes Public discussion about tobacco and nicotine – denied knowledge that nicotine was addictive June 2009 – regulated granted to FDA o Tobacco declared a drug (not nicotine) Sept. 2009 o Banned flavored cigarettes (targeting youth) 2012 o Graphic label requirement to begin in 2012 Found in South America or Europe o Depicted horrific consequences of smoking o 2011 – Tobacco companies in U.S. appeal this requirement Found unconstitutional in 2012 (Freedom of Speech) Oct 1, 2014 o CVS stops selling cigarettes How to Quit Smoking Easy to quit smoking & hard to prevent relapse Strategies (all effective): o Nicotine gum o Patch (slow absorption of nicotine) o E-cigs (originally develop as aid to quit smoking) o Quitting cold turkey (best way) o Hypnosis o CBT (prevent relapse by teaching how to manage cravings) o Chantix (generic name: Varenicline) Nicotine-like compound Similar to patch or gum o Given placebo instead of active drug Relapse rates vary between studies o Typically 70% - 90% rate of relapse on cocaine & tobacco Specialists believe drug treatment should be focused on relapse prevention WHO – Three Step Guide to Quitting 1. Switch brands to a lower dose of nicotine to gradually reduce dependence a. CONS: rate of smoking goes up (unconsciously); inhale harder and hold smoke in longer 2. Set a quit date a. Plan carefully b. Quit during a time when: you’re entertained, have no pressing duties, and little stress c. EX: if you quit during finals you’re going to sabotage your attempt to quit d. If you relapse, set a new quit date and try again 3. Truly Quit a. Don’t smoke AT ALL b. Immediately after quitting rate of craving occurs at high frequencies c. In a few more days frequency of craving drops d. In a few weeks rate of craving has dropped substantially e. Cravings never go away completely but intensity drops over time f. If person takes a puff of a cigarette, rate of cravings increases drastically E-Cigarettes Fewer college students smoking cigarettes & have turned to e-cigs (at a rapid pace) E-cig: device that delivers nicotine without requiring the combustion of tobacco o A heating element activated by a sensor detecting airflow o Cartridge containing a nicotine solution is heated & usually refillable o Nicotine is vaporized (an aerosol is generated & inhaled) o Packages usually label amount of nicotine contained but aren’t very accurate (some less or more) Originally: tobacco companies spent years working on prototypes o Found that people didn’t like them because they didn’t feel the smoke in their lungs o These prototypes never went to market o Created something that produced a visible vapor o Produced additives that changed the flavor When you puff on an E-cig, it ignites an LED that’s battery operated o Creates heat and vaporizes this materially o Involves nicotine, propylene glycol, & additives o Inhaling nicotine into your lungs Adolescent Use Highschool tobacco/nicotine use 2011 – vaping introduced; 15% rate of tobacco use 2015 – tobacco use has steadily declined E-cigs: 2011 – 2015: more young people vaping than smoking Hookah (water pipe) – increased rate but not as dramatic as vaping Why the Interest in Vaping? Advertisements claim that vaper’s lungs aren’t black like a cigarette smoker’s lung & it is unlikely to produce tobacco effects on the lungs o Probably true because you aren’t exposing your lungs to tobacco o CHD – there may be a risk of CHD when you’re vaping that’s as high as when you’re smoking cigarettes (depending on how frequently you use it) o Exposing your lungs to nicotine and vapor produced by heating propylene glycol o No one has studied its impact on lungs over an extended period of use So new that no one knows consequences o Consequences of inhaling propylene glycol? No evidence for consequences of second-hand smoke FDA: can make a company provide data on safety/efficacy of a product o Without data, FDA can regulate/hold of access to the product o Concerned about risk of additives/flavors Regulation of E-Cigs Interest in regulating E-cigs (US & other countries) Currently lots of independent operators/dealers providing smoking devices and vaping liquids Advertising is not currently regulated Sales not restricted to 21 & over Untaxed in many states FDA (Oct 2015) Proposed a rule to give FDA power to regulate E-Cigs o Regulate advertising o Limit access to minors o Restrict flavored E-Cigs o Require proof of safety Proposal not available to the public Legislators to possibly make decision by March 1, 2016 Implications of this Legislation: o Move from local operations to big business (like tobacco & alcohol) o Put 90% of vendors out of operation o Some states, communities, and institutions now treat E-cigs as tobacco products Alcohol Facts World’s largest drug business: > $60 billion per year spent on alcohol in the U.S. 8 million junior high and high schoolers drink every week Undergrads in U.S. spend $4.2 billion on alcohol (more than they spend on textbooks) o Students are targets of alcohol advertising o Multi-billion dollar firms plan these advertisements very carefully Also targeting black youth, bromances, & women 1 in 12 will develop alcoholism or alcohol abuse disorder (7 or 8 of students in this class will develop one or the other) Alcohol Ethyl alcohol or ethanol Refer to alcohol as the chemical “ethyl” (described as ethanol in scientific literature) More than one type of alcohol o Ethanol – alcohol we drink o Other alcohol products (neurotoxins) may be available Wood alcohol (methanol) Rubbing alcohol (isopropyl) Both smell & taste like ethanol Should be avoided Some people crave alcohol so badly they consume one of these New Hanover Counter; “party juice” o 5 years ago o Everclear added to Fruit Punch o Highly alcoholic o Concocted using rubbing alcohol o 2 individuals went blind Computer Blood Alcohol Concentration 1 Standard drink = 0.5% pure ethanol (alcohol) One 12 ounce beer = 1 standard drink & 4-7% ethanol o Brewed from grains o North American & European beers brewed from malted barley and rice o Light beers are less feeling because they have lower caloric intake and less alcohol content o Heavy beers (Kraft) are malted barley or wheat beers & some are more alcoholic o Fermentation Process: Allow fermentation process to go as far as it can go Mash up grains and expose them to yeast (unicellular microorganism) Yeast consumes carbohydrates/sugars in grains to make beer and in fruits to make wine After it consumes the sugar, it excretes the alcohol CON: when alcohol concentration in liquid reaches 15% the yeast dies and fermentation stops Four ounces of wine = 1 standard drinks and has 12-15% ethanol 1 ounce of 100 proof liquor = 1 standard drink & 40-50% ethanol o Distilled liquor o Beer-like mash of fermented grains or fruits o Grains used to make malt whiskey, scotch & Canadian Whiskeys o Juice of fermented potatoes used to make Vodka o To get an alcoholic beverage with > 15% concentration of alcohol, you heart the 12% alcohol made from yeast and it evaporates Alcohol evaporates at low temperature than water A still collects the alcohol vapor and separates it Creates liquid with higher alcohol concentration Origins of “Proof” as measurement of alcohol concentration in liquor o Concept developed during Prohibition o Smugglers trying to get as much money as they could by making drinks with a higher alcohol concentration o Dealers would water down the whiskey so customers began to demand proof that there was 45-50% alcohol in the product When the dealer watered down the whiskey, they would add peppers, jalapenos, etc. to the whiskey to make it taste stronger than it actually was o Standard test was to put a small amount of gun powder on the table and pour whiskey over it; if you put a match on it and it ignites, then you know the whiskey has an alcohol concentration of about 50% o Proof = 5 of alcohol x 2 45% alcohol in a bottle of whiskey = 90 proof 50% alcohol in a bottle of whiskey = 100 proof Ever clear is the most pure form of alcohol you can get (95% alcohol) One mixed drink with 2 shots of alcohol = 2 standard drinks Long Island Iced Tea: half a shot of 5 clear liquors = 2.5 ounces Alcohol Metabolization – 2 thing you need to know to calculate your BAC As you’re drinking alcohol, your BAC is rising As soon as it gets into your system, it’s broken down Broken down in the body and bloodstream at a pretty constant rate Three ways to measure alcohol metabolization 1. Metabolize about 1 drink every 2 hours – if you have a standard drink at the end of a shot, your BAC will approach 0 about 2 hours later 2. BAC drops about .01% every 40 minutes 3. BAC = # of standard drinks * 0.25% (rate at which your blood alcohol level is rising) minus the # of hours drinking * 0.015% (rate at which alcohol is being metabolized Breathalyzers Widely available and inexpensive Not completely accurate When you have alcohol in your bloodstream, your lungs are constantly exchanging what’s in your blood with gases in your lungs When you breath out, there is a measurable amount of alcohol in your breath When you blow into a breathalyzer, it measures the concentration of alcohol in your breath that is roughly proportional to the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream If you are given a breathalyzer at a traffic stop, you can demand a blood test (most accurate way to measure BAC) BAC, Drinks, & Effects when Consumed in a 1-Hour Period/Body weight = 140-180 pounds & Based on People who are not Tolerant BAC Drinks Effects Miscellaneous Information 0.04% 1-2 Relaxed Dose at which most people first feel the effects of alcohol More social Minimal effects on reaction time 0.08% 3-4 High Current legal limit > 0.08% Intoxicated DUI at this level of BAC A little drunk Clearly measure a delay in reaction time 0.15% 7-10 Drunk Exaggerated emotional responses Impaired perceptual motor coordination Area Postrema (vomit center) of brain is activated (dizzy, nauseas, & throw up) – if the BAC gets to 0.15% and you haven’t vomited, your Postrema has become inhibited and you can’t vomit 0.30% 11-15 Dead drunk Most fatalities occur at this BAC level or higher Semi-Comatose state 0.40% 16-20 Dead LD50 (dose at which 50% of animals administered a given dose of drug died in within a stated time) for alcohol Fatalities most common in college students engaged in binge drinking/chugging games Legal limit used to be 0.10% Discussion about lowering legal BAC from 0.08% - 0.05% o Clearly measure delay in reaction time at 008% o Measure: Look for a colored light on a computer screen Click mouse when you see the light Simple reaction time = react in 200-300 milliseconds Alcohol slows this down slightly If you’re traveling 60 or 70 mph, it translates into hundreds of feet longer break time Start having a decrease in reaction time at 0.05% With a large individual, 2 drinks could put them over the 0.05% level and with a small person, 1 drink could do that o Pursuit Roder Task Measures perceptual motor coordination 1” circumference dot moves around computer screen Participant keeps cursor on dot as it moves around Measure % of time the cursor stays on the dot No matter how bad your original coordination is, it gets significantly worse at the 0.08% BAC level Since your body metabolizes about two drinks in an hour, if you stay at a 4 hour party and consume 5-6 drinks, you only metabolize 2 of those drinks so if you leave in 4 hours, you will be driving under the influence Binge Drinking 4-5 drinks in a single setting (3-4 hours) College students reported an average of 9 drinks in a typical binge episode Alcohol & Tolerance Functional tolerance – tolerance of the brain; brain has changed and is less responsive to the depressant action of alcohol & tolerance of the liver; metabolize alcohol more efficiently Drinking & Driving 44% of all traffic fatalities on the highway in 2011 were caused by a drunk driver 44% = the relative probability that you will CAUSE an automobile accident 0.06% BAC = we see a slight increase in probability of causing an automobile accident 0.08% BAC = 5x more likely to cause an accident 0.10% BAC = 7-8x more likely to cause an accident Memory Blackouts All depressant drugs can inhibit/interfere with memory Alcohol impairs memory at certain high doses Don’t understand this very well Conscious while drinking but unable to remember anything that happened while intoxicated Hangover Not well understood Widely believed by people who have hangovers is that alcohol is the best medicine to make you feel better Hangover is a withdrawal symptom (presence of the drug makes it go away) Effects of Chronic Drinking Toxicity in virtually every organ in your body Cirrhosis of the liver/fatty liver o Liver cells diminished, but not completely dead o Frequently fatal consequence of heavy drinking o One of the leading causes of death in the U.S. If a person stops drinking they won’t get better but they won’t get worse Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Typically observed in street alcoholics Kind of dementia where the ability to remember information is lost or badly damaged in heavy alcoholics Directly related to lifestyle and we can measure the nature of the damage Not always caused by alcohol People who suffer from this have severe nutritional deficiencies (Vitamin B12) Severe cognitive deficits Sometimes we see “wet brain” o A normal brain has small fluid-filled spaces called ventricles o In the brain of a heavy drinker with this syndrome, there are several inches of ventricles o Not much brain left because the tissue has been lost and fluid has filled those spaces o If an individual stops drinking, the brain tissue will return; the brain cells aren’t dead A lot of the volume of a neuron located on the dendrites In heavy drinkers, the cell stays alive but dendrite is stunted or lost/cell isn’t functioning If a person stops drinking, there’s restoration of structure and function Debate over whether or not the function of recovery is complete Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Discovered in the 1970s What distinguishes it from similar disorders? o Severe intellectual disability o Characteristic facial features – wide set eyes and cleft pallet/disorders of the mouth Doctors tell you not to drink during pregnancy because we don’t know what the safe levels are In rats a pretty low level of alcohol can cause damage to the pups Delirium Tremens Captures symptoms of alcohol withdrawal Delirium – confused, hallucinate, severe cognitive deficits Tremens – person begins to shake in the limbs/mostly hand o Usually the first symptom of alcohol withdrawal Anxiety Insomnia Seizures & convulsions – most dangerous/deadly withdrawal symptom (of any drug) o Rebound syndrome o After depressing CNS activity for years in a chronic drinker, if they stop drinking every part of the brain becomes excitable o If a person is experiencing this withdrawal symptom they should be brought to a clinic or hospital right away o Often administration of any depressant drug (typically valium or Xanax) can prevent seizures
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