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Chem 201

by: Gabrielle Scalzo

Chem 201 Chem 202

Gabrielle Scalzo
U of L

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General Chemistry 2
Dr. Kuta
Class Notes
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Scalzo on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 202 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Kuta in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 03/04/16
Ch.8 Chem­201 Thursday, December 3, 2015 3:29 AM stichometry, part 3     The limiting reagent limits the product   under sociometry conditions. The amount of product can be calculated from  any reactants If any reactant is limiting, then me amount of product must be calculated  from amount of reactant   percent yield = actual yield theoretical yield x 100% L,ratio of real versus ideal       Ch.9 Chem-201 Sunday, November 8, 2015 9:45 PM -oichiometry, part 3 homogeneous-a true solution, solution is clear •heterogeneous-a mixture in which one or more components is not truly dissolved •solutions are made up solutes { solvents tactually dissolve in the solvent -a non aqueous solvent is any solvent other than water * percent concentration = mass or volume of solute sum of masses or volume x 100% of all components •molar ivy (M) = moles of solute > molarity is one kind of concentration volume of solute     expression the unit is (molar's   review molar mass = grams of compound moles of compound     Ch.10 Chem-201 Sunday, November 8, 2015 8:38 PM aqueous solutions { Reactions, background solubility refers to whether a compound does or doesn't dissolve ↳an extent)     • you can have solubility without dissociation, but cannot have dissociation without solubility •salvation: the process in which solvent molecules interact with the solute (water is called hydration) •electrolytes: compounds dissolved in water to give ions (conduct electricity)   none lectrol ytes: compounds dissolved in water { don't conduct electricity   'water can dissolve ionic compounds { separate them into ions   >water can dissolve covalent compounds, water can separate some (not all) of these to form ions   *most COVALENT BONDS DO Not involve AN EVEN SHARE * •If the bond of electrons are not evenly distributed over me bond then the charges overall are not evenly distributed L, polarity: uneven distributed charges partial charges: are a fractional charge E, are symbolized using a lowercase Greek delta S it cost energy to overcome ionic bonding in solid compound The strength of me ionic bonding between canons Z all the anions in the ionic network compound   >The strength of the attractions between Ho molecules and me individual canons and anions   >If the hydration interactions are strong enough g itall of These together can pay a sufficient price, then ionic bonding   can be overcome G the compound will be soluble 715 the hydration interactions are not strong enough } they cannot pay a sufficient price, then they will not overcome ionic bonding { the compound will be insoluble.     •The covalent part:   > The strength of the covalent bond between the two atoms in the solute   >The strength of attractions between Half molecules G individual cations } anions which are formed   bond with high polarity are more likely to dissociation To ions •monatomic ☺ ions do not exist in any solution or any compound   * Bonds which are very polar are more easily broken down *   * The total strengths involved in forming It 30 t { #20 t, along with their hydrations, can cover much of the cost of breaking the covalent bond in me solute molecule* dissociation refers to the break up of one chemical unit into two or more others *ionic dissociation: the process Of separating a solute into individual ions in solutions                 Ch.11 Chem-201 Sunday, November 8, 2015 7:43 PM   AQUEOUS REACTIONS. Part 1 (aq) means dissolved in water •spectator ion: ions which do not undergo a change in chemical identity •net ionic equation: only shows the actual reactants an actual products involved in chemical change (does not show spectators) charge balance-the sum of all charges for all reactants on the left must equal the sum of all charges for all products on right (electron balance)   ?dissociated ions are written by their ion formulas 2. insoluble solids cannot dissociated since they are not significantly dissolved   •\ covalent molecular compounds which are not substantially dissociated are also written as their neutral formula (this includes H20, all gases by some solutes) precipitation: Loan insoluble solid which forms as the product of a reaction between soluble reactants   *all precipitates are insoluble compounds { all insoluble compounds are precipitable compounds *   -will not happen every time two solutions are mixed.   solubility Trends   1.compounds containing a Group | metal cation or ammonium tend to be soluble   2.compounds containing nitrate, acetate, chlorate or perchlorate tend to be soluble   3. silver, lead, mercury (I) & cooper (I) compounds-insoluble   4.chlorides, bromides, by iodides = soluble 5.sulfates (except calcium, strontium by barium)-soluble •compounds with anions of 2-or3- char gee-insoluble   7. hydroxides (except calcium, strontium by barium) -insoluble Acids by Bases •acid-base reactions (neutralization reactions) -reaction. between an acid an base 4  many of these reactions involve [It + t 04­7>420]   -acid: any compound that dissolves in water { forms Hit -base: any compound that dissolves in water } forms 0 t   strong Acids   ITN03   HBr   Hal   112504 HIHC104 (an acid lose N to water to form an anion)       #electrolytes strong Bases   Liott   F20 csotl   *The terms strong acid base an weak acid/ base   refer to how many of the dissolved chemical units actually produce Hit { Ott* ca(01t)2   bro   •t3a(ott)2   (a base gives Ott by a cation)     Ch.12 Chem-201 Sunday, November 8, 2015 1:07 AM AQUEOUS REACTIONS, Parts Names by Formulas for Acids Lawater can break up "dissociate's an acid by pulling off ¥ •The anion gives the name to an acid 1.change (rides) to "rich acid" add prefix "hydro" HBr anion: Br-.bromide acid: hy.drobromic acid HEN anion: (N: cyanide acid: hydrocyanic acid 2.mange "-ate)) to "-ic acid" ttC104 anion: 0104, perchlorate acid: perchloride and HN02 anion: (2042, oxalate acid: oxalicacid 3.change cite') to "-ous acid)) Halo anion: (10: hypochlorite acid: hypochlorous_acid HN02 anion: Non, nitrite acid: nitrous acid 4.other: #2504 anion: 5042, sulfate acid: sulfuric acid #3 PO 4 anion: P 043, phosphate acid: phosphoric acid Neutralization: 4 involves an acid and base-the product usually involves a salt and water the canon of salt comes from the base •every neutralization between a strong acid an strong base will end up with a Utt + N +tt20 net ionic equation It's a Gas •acid h compound with (1032, 50325.52, It (05, #503, Hoy) H20+c02 } #2003 1+20+502>52503 Has Balance •Bas 0, (s) = Ba2+(aq) t 5042-(a q) double half arrow-born ways possible •BaS04(s) ++5 Ba2t(aq) +5042-(a q) one direction (left to right) B as04 can be dissolved (in tiny amounts) •B 95045) = = £ Bapt (aq) +5042-(a q) barium ion + sulfate ions can form solid Bas 04 (precipitation) •when you have an ionic solid in contact with water • part of that ionic solid is dissolved, even a tiny part, then you have equilibrium -weak involve equilibrist { strong do not -No acid molecule in water will ever break Its own bond by itself         \       the anion of salt comes from the acid.           Ch.13 Chem-201 Aqueous REACHons.PART3 13.1Redox 4: reactions that involve a net transfer of electrons from one atom or from one chemical unit to another oxidation: is the act Of losing electrons and reduction is the act of gaining electrons example: 2n+citznclo 2n+Cl2->2n2t +205 2n +42+272 + +205 (2n electrons are 30 he-but because of (30) to (36e-)(18e-each) *THE Lost MUST EQUAL THE GAIN* the act-of losing electrons = oxidation. (an) the act of gaining electrons = reduction. (42) THE AGENT CAUSES THE ACT ON ANOTHER REACTANT •The oxidizing agent oxidizes another reactant-it takes (gains) electrons from the other reactant-since it gains electrons, the oxidant (oxidizing agent) is reduced. •The reducing agent reduces another reactant-it gives (loses) the electrons to the other reactant-since It loses electrons, the reduct ant (reducing agent) is oxidized. 13.2 oxnos oxidation number-is a numerical value which is assigned to every atom in a chemical unit according to that atom's electronic arrangement within the unit. assigning oxidation numbers 1. all atoms in an elemental form are assigned ONE 2. The on for a monatomic ion is the same as the ion charge 3. the sum of all ONS of all atoms within a neutral compound must equal 0. The sum of all ONS Of all atoms in an ion must equal the charge of the ion. 4.The on for It is usually +1, except as above. 5. The ON for 0 is usually 2 s, except as above. 6. The on for a halogen is usually -1, except as above. 13.3 uses Of oxnos •An oxidation-reduction reaction is any reaction which involves a change in oxidation an umbers •The acts of redox: oxidation-involves increase (more (4) or less (-0) in on reduction-involves decrease (less (t) or more (-3) in ON •the agent of redox: oxidant's ON decrease during redox reductant's on increase during redox Tuesday, November 3, 2015 11:03 PM       the at charge the product 2112+15200-5) (28e-) to (34e-)(17e-each)                 example: 5032-+42+1+203>201-+41+1+504 S 02-+Cl2 + H20 +24 n t H 504 it is To ¥ k I, t, +4 t is sulfur (+4 to +6) is oxidized chlorine (0 to-I) is reduced K oxidation-reduction reactions are not limited to aqueous chemistry. They can occur in any phase { their reactions often fall under categories as well." * CHARGE BALANCE Is REALLY ELECTRON BALANCE* example: cr?tt_2+Cr3t+2tt 225 idea, be itinerates →in 1285 2 Craft + IQ +2 Crest +2 I' →in 150e-total 1506-404 A you cannot achieve full balance unless the number of electrons is the same on both sides 129 he-total     Ch. 14 Chem-201 Thursday, November 5, 2015 2:52 AM   AQUEOUS REACTIONS, PART 4 14. | some preliminaries *THE KEY To BALANCING RED ox is ELECTRON BALANCE { THE KEY To ELECTRON BALANCE is To GET THE NUMBER of ELECTRONS Lost EQUAL to THE NUMBER Of ELECTRONS GAINED* red OX couple: is that reactant and that product which contain the atom(s) undergoing a change in oxnos. 14.2 oxnos method                   Ch. 15 Chem-201 Thursday, November 5, 2015 3:49 AM   precipitate neutralization example 2(pg141) Titration   (soon         Ch.16 Chem-201 Sunday, November 8, 2015 11:52 PM   gases, part! •three common phases: solid, liquid, gases •most-of the space of any gas phase sample has no matter init At all *be cause the molecules in the gas phase are widely separated from each other. To *THE MOLECULES Of GAS PHASE ARE WIDELY SEPARATED, THEY MOVE RAPIDLY AND. RANDOMLY ABOUT THEIR own VOLUME is VERY LITTLE of THE ACTUAL VOLUME of Mt ESAMPLE, AND THEY Do NOF INTERACT with EACH OATER* •particles of the gas phase are boundless by can travel the entire volume allowed to them •since the particles of the gas are so far apart, the density of a gas sample is typically hundreds or thousands times smaller than the density of liquid or solid samples •Gases are compressible pressure •The pressure of a gas is a result of concentration •unit of pressure is psi latm = 760 mmHg = 760 Torr= 161,325 Pa = 29.92 in Hg = 14.70 psi these are all exactly defined PV=nRT (pressure)? volume) = (mol) (0.080206 mot it (temperature) the gas sample can either be a single compound by itself or 01 mixture of many different gases together -general gas equation: P, V, rearran ge Pa = 1 This says pressur e an mole ratio are equal betwee n compon ents within any gas mixture (also applies between any one component q The total) p=EXRXT increase the concentration of me gas tine pressure will raise (do this by increasing moles or reduce volume) 'decrease the concentration of gas 4 decrease in pressure) directly related } heat the gas increaser) increase P •decrease the Tin gas ^ decrease P STPhd standard pressure: exactly one atm At 0° C example: find grams of argon contained in 1.024 h tank @ STP n = (oneatm)(1.024L) (0.08206 "aim           r constant Latin   NIII, = P2.V2 N2T2 Pa no   :   mol. F) (273.15k) •molar volume: the volume occupied by one mole of that Thing 0.04461 mot 4 any gas at STP (0.08206 imitator) (273.15k) although moles per volume (mot) is same for all gases, mass per volume is different for different gases " gas density does depend on identity my =d = RI as T increases, d decreases gas density is a way to measure molar mass experimentally Mixtures PA t p B + PC = p total = pressure of A + pressure of B "pressure of C = total pressure) X: mole traction of some component = more traction of some component sum of moles of all components because all gas components in the same container have me same V.T, R, then mole fraction relates directly to pressure fraction vapor: 'sagas; obeys pun RTE all other relationships above 1=P. V Rt. (one aim)   n.' FRT Am ↳           Ch.17 Chem-201 Monday, November 9, 2015 11:56 PM   gases. parts N 02 + 4th" (aq) +2 CT-lag) +Mn2+(aq) +2112014) +412 (g) •you react 4.786 y Mon 02, } collect all of the chlorine gas in a 458 ml vessel@19oc.wnatispressurelatmgotchorinecollecrunderthesecondions step 1: balance equation step: converrgMn02, using molar mass of MN 02 +mo\Mn 02 Step3:convertmoimn02Nomolcl2,usingrxnratio g Mon 02 " mol MN 02+ mol Cls Step 4: convert mol dato aim Cls. using PVn R T gmnotmolMn022+moick+atmcls Molecules in motion pressures the grand product of the collisions of molecules k velociiyispeed) L, mass L, frequency ☺ *the kinetic energy of a gas sample is determined by temperature only* •the pressure Ota gas is proportional To its concentration x its temperature •arms speed'): "root-mean-squared') ↳M increase, then Vrms decreases (as mass increases, speed decreases) Last increases, then Vrms increases (molecules move faster when sample is hotter then they hit harder { they hit more often ^ more pressure) •example: 25.004, 02 weighs in at 32.00 g/mol 4 25.0 t 273 8= 298. 15k 3\samoik) (298.15k) = 482.1 m/s 32. 0 g mol Diffusion: is the natural mixing of one gas into another. example: the deflation of a ball on because of me atoms in the container wall) (molecules can go through rubber by plastics ↳two factors: size of gas molecule, thickness of ballon skin effusion: involves one gas by itself, starting in some container which has as manhole effusion rate of terms (A) Irina effusion rate of B vrms (B) Reality check * The molecules of the gas phase are widely separated, They move rapidly & randomly, Their own volume isvery little of the actual volume of the sample, and do not interact with each other X at high concentrations, you have a 10 t more molecules crammed together van dlr Waals equation P(tan_'v2) (v-nb) on RT was bare constants guanos imolmn02 1 molds 4.786gmn02X 86.94 y Minos mol Mn02 Pen ☺ = (0.05505 mol) (0.08206m int) (292k) (0.4582) mol MN 02 x mol Cl2=0.05505 mol €12   =2.88 aim     zillions { zillions of extremely minute masses striking some surface area At very high speeds every split second.   vermiform'     Vrms = 8,314 g.m2     diffusion is mixing } effusion is escaping             Ch.18 Chem-201 Tuesday, November 10, 2015 2:00 AM energy, part! Economics having energy means something can happen, but it does not necessarily mean that it will happen. If energy is not used, it is stored. (whether something can happen R weather something will happen) transaction amount-final assets-initial assests Joules different forms of energy; heat or thermal energy, electrical energy, radiant energy, mechanical energy, chemical energy •energy-mass equivalence: energy { mass have an equivalence to each other, both are conserved -SI unit for energy is Joule Jess •calories vs. Calories 1=1000 cars or I kcal thermodynamics: general study of energy; the study of the motion or how of energy -energy now is the transaction amount two terms for energy: internal energy & enthalpy symbolic," involve closed container or fixed volumes G pressure is able to change there are concerned with energy flow between sample and the surroundings* -: Greek delta; symbolizes a change in anything ↳= Ufina-Uinitiae •'s can be negative or positive •exothermic VS. endothermic J'sintotsystem system gets J's from surrounding enthalpy Of the system increases It fina l t It initi al H is pos itiv e Nermocnemicas examples thermodynamically, we say combustion releases a lot of energy to me surrounding u exothermic 2tts(g)t Ong) +211201 g, + heat) 2tta(g)+02(g)+21t20(g)+483.66J endothermic example 112019+1+2018) it heat) 44.00 KJ t H20 (e) +1120 (g) •The difference in the energies between the phases is equal to the transaction amount for the phase change •gas always packs more energy than liquid phases, even when they are at the same temperature •If heat J's go into a system, then the system can get hotter, but it those same J 's are converted to chemical Jis or electrical J's, then the temperature need not change * J's ARE NOT HEAT* •energies of the molecules themselves orrises from me fact that different molecules have different bonds with different energies ^ during a reaction some bonds are broken Hrxn = It final -H initial (we do nor need to know H final or It initial to measure It) •It doesn't matter how you do it or how many steps. The overall, net difference is the same. example: 21120 (g) t 02 (g) +21120 5 +483.665 21+20 (g) +021 g) +2120 (g) 14=- 483.665 exothermic reaction releases, gives off 483.665 an you take the heat? heat is an actual amount of thermal energy temperature is actually a function of three parameters 1. Thermal energy possessed by the sample •C a-the size of the sample 3. The identity of the sample change in the thermal energy T = T final-Tinnie of masse c=specific heat capacity-proportionality constant (based on identity) •+ the amount of J's transferred-defined for heat transfers only •the specific heat capacity (c) by mass are always positive. •everything is proportional *THE ONLY POSSIBLE Two OUTCOM E 5 WHEN TRANSFERING J's INTO OR out of A SYSTEM* -a transfer of J's can result in or result from ex0orendo process temperature need not change it no endo or ex0 process occurs, than a transfer Of J's must result in change in tempera problems: 1.T, F, T, F, F 2.T, T, F, F, F 3.Given: 940got 356 water +0° C, 5=4.21 Jag. F) C= of mass. At 4.215/(g.k)= q=-138509 l -140 KJ 4.Given: 4.8 of of ( (g.k) find calories K of 2.45119 t of mass "At     Kg. ms   to 4.184 J   symbolist" fixed pressure 4 volume able to change > U as It often called "state functions')     It-Hainaut-Hindi tar to J'sex_it system system ives J's to surroundings enthalpy of system decreases It final L H initial It is negative •             L > He 483.665   (for specific objects sample size hit identity are constant; thermal energy can change)   ☹   of 1940 g) (-350)     (4.8g)(15%) of =172.8 J X I car =41 car 4.184 J


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