Biology chap 43 Notes/Vocabs
Biology chap 43 Notes/Vocabs BIOL1082
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emmanuel Notetaker on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1082 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Beyette in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Biology II: Evolution, Physiology, and Ecology in Biology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Biology Chap 43:IMMUNE SYSTEM/VOCABS Immune System: an animal body’s system of defenses against agents that cause disease Innate immunity: a form of defense common to all animals that is active immediately upon exposure to pathogens and that is the same whether or not the pathogen has been countered previously. Adaptive immunity: A vertebrate- specific defense that is mediated by B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes Lysozyme An enzyme that destroys bacterial cell walls; in mammals, found in sweat, tears and saliva Toll like Receptor (TLR) A membrane receptor on a phagocytic white blood cell that recognizes fragments of molecules common to a set of pathogens Neutrophil The most abundant type of white blood cell. They are phagocytic and tend to self-destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days Macrophage A phagocytic cell present in many tissues that functions in innate immunity by destroying microbes and in acquired immunity as an antigen- presenting cell. Dendritic cell An antigen presenting cell, located mainly in lymphatic tissues and skin, that is particularly efficient in presenting antigens to helper T cells, thereby initiating a primary immune response Natural killer cell A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells as part of innate immunity Complement system A group of about 30 blood proteins that may amplify the inflammatory response, enhance phagocytosis, or directly lyse extracellular pathogens Inflammatory response an innate immune defense triggered by physical injury or infection of tissue involving the release of substances that promote swelling, enhance the infiltration of white blood cells, and aid in tissue repair and destruction of invading pathogens. Histamine A substance released by mast cells that causes blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable in inflammatory and allergic responses Mast cell A vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger inflammation in response to infection and in allergic reactions Lymphocyte A type of white blood cell that mediates immune responses. The two main classes are B cells and T cells Thymus A small organ in the thoracic cavity of vertebrates where maturation of T cells is completed T cells the class of lymphocytes that mature in the thymus, thy include both effector cells for the cell- mediated immune response and helper cells required for both branches of adaptive immunity Biology Chap 43:IMMUNE SYSTEM/VOCABS B cells The lymphocytes that complete their development in the bone marrow and become effector cells for the humoral immune response Antigen A substance that elicits an immune response by binding to receptors of B cells, antibodies, or of T cells Antibody A protein secreted by plasma cells that binds to a particular antigen; also called immunoglobulin. Memory cells One of a clone of long lived lymphocytes, formed during the primary immune response, that remains in a lymphoid organ until activated by exposure to the same antigen that triggered its formation. Clonal selection The process by which an antigen selectively binds to and activates only those lymphocytes bearing receptors specific for the antigen Antigen presenting cell A cell that upon ingesting pathogens or internalizing pathogen proteins generates peptide fragments that are bound by class 2 MHC molecules and subsequently displayed on the cell surface of T cells Allergen An Antigen that triggers an exaggerated immune response. Immunodeficiency A disorder in which the ability of an immune system to protect against pathogen is defective or absent Autoimmune disease An immunological disorder in which the immune system turns against self Immune system malfunctions Multiple sclerosis T cells attack the immune system myelin sheath of brain and spinal cord nerves Allergies Over- reaction to environmental antigens Four attributes that characterize the immune system Specificity diversity memory ability to distinguish self from non-self Antigen-presenting cell Specialized Cells (B cells, macrophages, and dendritic) that possess MHC II. They are able to digest infected cells and display bits of ingested antigen on their surface in order to activate T cells. See also "MHC" Cytotoxic T cells T cells that can kill other cells. Cytotoxic T cells are important in host defense against viruses and other pathogens, because they recognize and kill the infected cells. Biology Chap 43:IMMUNE SYSTEM/VOCABS Plasma cells: Cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies. Also called effector cells. Active immunity: A form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease- causing antigens Passive immunity An non-permanent form of acquired immunity in which antibodies against a disease are acquired naturally (as through the placenta to an unborn child) or artificially (as by injection of antiserum) Immunization Process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced Vaccination An injection that produces a mild form of a disease in order to help build up an immunity to it Autoimmune disease any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues Immunodeficiency Immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced AIDS: A syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that renders immune cells ineffective, permitting opportunistic infections, malignancies, and neurologic diseases to develop; transmitted sexually or through contaminated blood.
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