Japa 152, Week 8 Notes
Japa 152, Week 8 Notes JAPA 152
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynna Williams on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to JAPA 152 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Megumu Burress in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Elementary Japanese II in Literature at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
EXPRESSING THOUGHTS As with quoting something that someone said, expressing your own thoughts is done by conjugating the short form of the verb you want to use and following it with the particle to. The difference is the verb used. For quotes, the verb was the verb for “say”, iu (conjugated as iimashita or itte imashita), but for thoughts, the verb used is the verb for “think”, omou (conjugated at omoimasu). Here is an example of how this works: Watashi wa ashita wa ame ga furu to omoimasu. (I think it will rain tomorrow.) NEGATIVE COMMANDS To command someone to perform a task, the verb associated with the task is conjugated in its te form. However, to command someone not to perform a task, the verb is conjugated in its short negative (nai) form and followed by de. This is different from saying that something is not allowed or that someone does not have permission to do something because this explicitly tells them not to do it. As always, pairing the request with kudasai makes it polite. Here are some examples: Terebi (w)o kasanaide kudasai. (Please don’t turn off the television.) Niku (w)o tabenaide kudasai. (Please don’t eat meat.) Minaide kudasai. (Please don’t look.) TURNING VERBS INTO NOUNS In order to turn a verb into a noun, its short/dictionary form is followed by no. This can be used in multiple ways, namely by saying you like/dislike performing a task wherein the associated verb is the one which has had its dictionary form modified by no or by saying you are skilled/bad at performing a task wherein its associated verb has been modified by no. After changing the verb to function as a noun in one of these circumstances, it should be followed by the particle ga. Here are some examples: Hon (w)o miru no ga suki desu. (I like to read books.) Sentaku suru no ga kirai desu. (I dislike doing laundry.) Ryouri suru no ga jouzu desu. (I am good at cooking.) Oyogu no ga heta desu. (I am bad at swimming.) GA Ga is a particle used alongside certain verbs, such as iru, aru, and wakaru, and in other cases (such as after desu to mean “but”), but it can also be used to place emphasis on a specific part of a sentence. To understand this, think about when you ask someone who has just walked into the classroom. What you care to hear in their answer is who walked into the classroom, not the fact that someone did walk into the classroom; you already know that. In such a situation, ga would be used to place emphasis on the subject, which is whoever your friend tells you has walked into the classroom. For this reason, ga is used with question words. Here is an example: Dare ge heya ni kimashita? Yoshie san ga heya ni kimashita. (Who came into the room? Yoshie came into the room.) SOMETHING AND NOTHING There are two words to indicate nonspecific things, nanika and nanimo. Nanika means something, and is paired with an affirmative verb. Nanimo means nothing, and must be paired with a negative verb. A similar pattern is followed to form other nonspecific indications (dareka = someone, daremo = no one, etc). Here are some examples of nanika and nanimo in use: Nanika motte kimashou ka? (Should I bring something?) Nanimo mimasen. (I see nothing./I don’t see anything.)
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