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Anthropology Week 8

by: McKenna Johnson

Anthropology Week 8 Anth 140-01

McKenna Johnson
GPA 3.53

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About this Document

Covers origins of primates and anthropoids. Times for Cenozoic Era (these years are NEED TO KNOW).
Human origins diversity
Matthew Tornow
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by McKenna Johnson on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 140-01 at St. Cloud State University taught by Matthew Tornow in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human origins diversity in anthropology, evolution, sphr at St. Cloud State University.

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Date Created: 03/04/16
Week Eight Anthropology Human Taxonomy: I. Taxonomy: A. Art of naming species B. Arranging taxa into groups and categories that reflect the history of evolution II. Adaptive Radiation: A. Process of a species diversifying to play a new role in the environment B. Darwin’s study of finches led him to the discovery of adaptive radiation C. We can use adaptive radiation to gain an understanding of origin groups Hypothesis for Primate Origins: I. 1800’s-1900: Many people believed in Arboreal Locomotion A. Primates are only here to live in trees 1972: Cartmill — Visual Predation Hypothesis II. Arboreal locomotion does not explain origins, so perhaps they, primates, are A. visual predators III. 1988: Szalay and Dagosto — Grasp and Leaping Hypothesis A. Study of Tarsiers who leap vertically from trees and have hands that help it eat prey. Suggested that they would leap from tree to tree and grab prey with hands. IV. 1991: Sussman — Coevolution with Angiosperms Hypothesis A. Earliest primates and flowering trees both evolved around 65 mya (Million years ago) which suggests that primates are responsible for fruit bearing trees (some of these trees seeds won’t germinate until they have been digested V. 2002: Bloch/Boyer — Fruit Eating Hypothesis A. Although some primates eat insects, most eat fruit. Those who eat fruit are selective of which fruits they eat. 1 o 7 Week Eight Cenozoic Era: I. Quaterary Period — 1.5 A. Holocene Epoch — 10 thousand years ago (kya) - present B. Pleistocene Epoch — 1.8 - .o1 mya II. Neogene Period — 23 A. Pilocene Epoch — 5 - 1.8 mya B. Miocene Epoch — 23 - 5 mya III. Paleocene Period — 65 A. Oligocene Epoch — 34 - 23 mya B. Eocene Epoch — 55 - 34 mya C. Paleocene Epoch — 65 - 55 mya *** NEED to know this ^^^ *** I. Paleocene A. Dinosaurs Disappeared B. Mammals are most abundant C. Temp 1. Warm uniformly 2. Cooler than cretaceous period a) Higher sea levels 3. Less dry land in Europe and North America I. Plesiadapformes (Archaic Primates) A. These primates had many primate like features including: 1. Teeth — molars 2. Ears — some had petrosal bulla 2 o 7 Week Eight 3. Thumb Nail — some had flattened and broad nail instead of claws 4. No post orbital bar — but some had post orbital process 5. Eyes were on the side of head 6. Ankle specialization — suggests they were jumpers and leapers 7. Small brains II. Euprimates (Primates of modern aspect — new primates) A. Arrived/developed in the early Eocene (55mya) B. Arrival, or appearance, was sudden in… 1. North America 2. Europe 3. Asia C. They are true primates 1. Have Nails 2. Have Post - Orbital Bar Have Petrosal Bulla 3. 4. Have Opposable Hallux (big toe) D. There were two groups 1. Anapoidea a) Strepsirrhine (wet nosed) b) Relatively large (cat sized) c) Diurnal (active during the day) d) Fruit and leaf eaters 2. Omomyoidea (1) Haplorines (dry nosed) (2) Small (1 - 2 lbs) (3) Nocturnal (active during the night) 3 of7 Week Eight (4) Fruit and insect eaters Early Primate Relationships: I. Omomyoidea are thought to be more closely related to the tarsiers and anthropoidea groups II. Adapoidea are thought to be more closely related to the strespsirhines Anthropoid feel of Development (Grade) I. Large Size Fused Frontal Bone II. III. Fused Mandible IV. Bunodont Teeth V. Small Orbits VI. Large Canines Grade Vs. Clade I. Grade: A. Ancestor and all it’s decedents II. Clade: A. How evolved or un-evolved we think something is. A level of development in a group Origins of Anthropoids: I. Eosimiidae (family) A. From early Eocene in East Asia B. Do not meet expectations of anthropoids, but seem to be more closely related to anthropoids than strepsirrhine, adapoidea, oromomyoidea 4 of7 Week Eight C. Characterized by: 1. very small size 2. Sharp teeth 3. Unfused Jaw 4. Vertical incisors 5. Large canine 6. deep Jaw 7. Small orbits Fayum, Egypt: I. Was once a jungle/forest area II. Rich location for fossils A. Lots of primate/anthropoid/ancestral fossils B. Examples from Eocene-Oligocene: Parapithecidae 1. a) Apidium: Could possibly have given rise to New World Monkeys(NWM) 2. Oligopithecidae a) Possibly have given rise to Old World Monkey’s (OWM) and anthropoids 3. Propliopithecidae a) Aegyptoithecus I. Sweepstakes Dispersal: It is by chance that some group of a species happens to end up in some location A. I.E: NWM ending up in South America Possibly by floating land masses that moved across the Atlantic Ocean from 1. Africa to South America 5 o 7 Week Eight Early Platyrrine (NWM) fossils: I. Mostly junky parts of fossils A. Examples: 1. Branisella - thought to be terrestrial (ground dwelling) 2. Tremacebus Catarrhine Origins (OWM, Apes, Humans) I. Propliopithecidae A. Aegyptopithecus 1. Characterized by: a) Teeth (1) Y-5 condition dental pattern Thought to be good ape (a) Refers to molas characteristics, but then found to be primitive traits, not derived. (b) 5 cusps ‘Y’ shape furrows (c) (d) Primitive i) as opposed to Bilophodont found it OWM (1) 2 crested Teeth b) Bone Structure (1) Primitive as well Cercopithecoid: I. Prohylobates (early Miocene) II. Victoriapithecids (Middle Miocene) A. Incipient Bilophidonty 1. Incomplete 2 crested teeth 6 of7 Week Eight B. OWM, Apes, Anthropoids ancestors were fruit eaters and terrestrial Earliest Ape comes from end of oligocene 7 of7


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