Chapter 6 & 7 Notes
Chapter 6 & 7 Notes ASTR-1010-01
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raven Hamilton on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR-1010-01 at Clayton State University taught by Bram Boroson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Solar System Astronomy in Art at Clayton State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Chapter 6 Notes Telescopes are not just for magnification. The two main uses of a telescope are to collect light and to capture images with better angular resolution (greater detail). Resolution is the ability to separate things that are close together. When resolution is low, the two separate objects will look blurred, or like one object instead of two. The area of a telescope can be determined by finding the area of the lens (circle). Aperture- opening in the telescope. Angular resolution- the angular size of the smallest features that a telescope can see. Diffraction limit- the limit on angular resolution. The aperture of the Hubble Space Telescope is 2.4 meters It’s easier to make a telescope with a mirror instead of a lens because lenses are expensive and heavy. Also mirrors are easier to manipulate and reflect light better than lenses. 3 types of information gathering astronomers use: Imaging, Timing, and Spectroscopy Imaging- astronomical detectors can record forms of light our eyes can’t see. Imaging allows us to represent those forms as things that can be seen. Adaptive optics- rapidly changing the shape of the of a telescope’s mirror compensates for some of the effects of turbulence. In other words, telescope with adaptive objects can correct some of the problems with angular resolution that arise from the turbulent atmosphere of Earth. Only radio and visible light pass easily through Earth’s atmosphere. Anything shorter than these wavelengths will not be seen with telescopes placed on Earth. Therefore telescopes in space compensate for what cannot be observed with telescopes on Earth. Focal plane- place where the image is clear and in focus, not blurry. The angular resolution of the human eye is about 1 arcminute. CCD (charged coupled device)- an electronic detector that can be used in place of film. X-ray telescopes are always shown with colors that are not the true colors of the objects that were photographed. Interferometry- allows two or more smaller telescopes to achieve the angular resolution of a large telescope. Chapter 7 Notes All of the planets orbit counterclockwise around the Sun All Jovian planets have rings. Jovian planets are the planets beyond Mars and are sometimes referred to as the gas giants. 98% of the universe is just hydrogen and helium. The Sun is made mostly of these two elements. Mercury orbits every 88 days and rotates every 59 days. Basically, night on Mercury lasts 28 days. During the day, the temperature is 425 C, and at night the temperature is -170 C. Venus is further from the Sun than Mercury but the temperature is 470 C day and night. This is because of the thick atmosphere and an extreme greenhouse effect. There are also clouds of sulfuric acid. There are several theories of where the moon came from. One includes the idea that the Moon came from the Earth. At one point, something collided with Earth, and from the outer layers, the Moon was formed. Mars is believed to have had water at one point in time. We have multiple rovers exploring the landscape of Mars for any evidence of water or life. In many ways, Mars is similar to Earth, but not so similar that it can sustain life. Jupiter has no solid surface, it is an entirely gas planet. Under the intense gravity of Jupiter, the hydrogen is much more condensed. Colors on Jupiter are created mostly by hydrogen compounds like methane (CH4), water (H20), and ammonia (NH3). The four Galilean moons of Jupiter are Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. Jupiter has 65 moons but these four are the largest.
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