ABAS 3450 Monogastric system
ABAS 3450 Monogastric system ABAS 3450
Popular in Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals
Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Collins on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ABAS 3450 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Kevin Downs in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Monogastric Digestive Anatomical Terminology • Salivary glands – produce salivary amylase, which begins digestion o Not present in all species o Saliva = mucus + water (serous fluid) o 4 types of salivary glands § Parotid – largest glands • Produces only serous fluid • Located just in front of each ear § Mandibular – medium-‐sized • Produces mix of mucus and serous • Located along jawline § Sublingual – medium-‐sized • Produces mix of mucus and serous • Located beneath tongue § Buccal – small • Produces only mucus • Branches off of parotid gland toward nose – multiple branches • Esophagus – transportation of ingesta from mouth to stomach by means of peristalsis (peristalsis works in a variety of systems) • Cardiac sphincter – prevents chyme from re-‐entering esophagus o Low pH from stomach would burn esophagus o Opens and closes o Opens to esophageal region • Esophageal region of stomach – produces nothing • Cardiac region of stomach -‐ food enters from esophageal region o Expanding pouch o Produces mucus, stores chyme (stomach contents) • Fundic region of stomach -‐ food enters from cardiac region o Largest portion of stomach o Produces mucus, pepsinogen, HCl o Has thick tissue (more cells) that aids in acid production • Pyloric region of stomach – food enters from fundic region o Chief cells – produce pepsinogen o Parietal cells – produce HCl o Pepsinogen inactive until it combines with HCl § Pepsinogen + HCl = pepsin § Pepsin breaks peptide bonds, thereby digesting protein • Pyloric sphincter – controls movement of chyme into duodenum o Between pyloric region and duodenum o Too much chyme will overload the neutralizing system • Stomach mucosa – lining • Duodenum – digestion of nutrients o Closer to right body wall o Attached to pancreas and gallbladder – chyme enters here • Pancreas o Produces NaHCO (sodi3m bicarbonate) which acts as a buffer by neutralizing chyme § Discharges into duodenum o Produces enzyme that digests carbs, proteins, lipids o Much smaller than liver, yellowish in color , has one or two lobes 2 o Endocrine component produces insulin and are also important in carb digestion • Liver o In most cranial part of the abdomen o Largest gland in the body, reddish-‐brown in color o Produces bile and plays in protein, carb, and fat metabolism o Products of digestion pass through hepatic cells before entering into bloodstream o Discharges into duodenum • Gall bladder – stores bile, emulsifies fat – i.e. suspends/separates lipids to increase surface area • Small intestine o Mesenteric fat § Mesentery conveys vessels and nerves o Jejunum – absorption of nutrients § Identifiable by mesenteric fat and villi (tiny projections that increase surface area for absorption o Ileum – absorption of nutrients § Identifiable by villi o Jejunum and ileum tissue layers (deep to artificial): § lumen à epithelial cells à villi à mucosa à muscularis mucosae à submucosa à circular smooth muscle à cells of Auerbach’s nerve plexus à longitudinal smooth muscle à serosa • Muscularis mucosae – thin, weak muscle that moves villi 3 • Cells of Auerbach’s nerve plexus – coordinates circular and longitudinal smooth muscle to contract – i.e. controls peristalsis • Submucosa – produces NaHCO 3 • Large intestine o Cecum – fiber fermentation § Dead-‐end pouch at junction of ileum and colon § Much larger in horses and rabbits (fibrous diets) o Ascending coil of large intestine – shorter – first part of colon o Descending coil of large intestine -‐ longer – last part of colon o Ileo-‐colonic-‐cecal junction – regulates, by particle size, where particles should go § Large particles go to large intestine § Fine particles go to cecum o Rectum – most dorsal of GI tract – opens to anus • Anal sphincter o Internal – thickening of circular smooth muscle – involuntary o External – striated muscle – voluntary control 4 5 6 7 8 9
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