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ABAS 3450 Monogastric system

by: Allison Collins

ABAS 3450 Monogastric system ABAS 3450

Allison Collins
GPA 3.88

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About this Document

These notes cover the pig GI tract dissection and the discussion of monogastric digestive systems.
Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals
Dr. Kevin Downs
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Collins on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ABAS 3450 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Kevin Downs in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology of Domestic Animals in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 03/04/16
Monogastric  Digestive  Anatomical  Terminology   •   Salivary  glands  –  produce  salivary  amylase,  which  begins  digestion   o   Not  present  in  all  species   o   Saliva  =  mucus  +  water  (serous  fluid)     o   4  types  of  salivary  glands   §   Parotid  –  largest  glands     •   Produces  only  serous  fluid   •   Located  just  in  front  of  each  ear   §   Mandibular  –  medium-­‐sized   •   Produces  mix  of  mucus  and  serous   •   Located  along  jawline   §   Sublingual  –  medium-­‐sized   •   Produces  mix  of  mucus  and  serous   •   Located  beneath  tongue   §   Buccal  –  small   •   Produces  only  mucus   •   Branches  off  of  parotid  gland  toward  nose  –  multiple   branches   •   Esophagus  –  transportation  of  ingesta  from  mouth  to  stomach  by  means   of  peristalsis  (peristalsis  works  in  a  variety  of  systems)   •   Cardiac  sphincter  –  prevents  chyme  from  re-­‐entering  esophagus     o   Low  pH  from  stomach  would  burn  esophagus   o   Opens  and  closes   o   Opens  to  esophageal  region   •   Esophageal  region  of  stomach  –  produces  nothing   •   Cardiac  region  of  stomach  -­‐  food  enters  from  esophageal  region   o   Expanding  pouch     o   Produces  mucus,  stores  chyme  (stomach  contents)   •   Fundic  region  of  stomach  -­‐  food  enters  from  cardiac  region   o   Largest  portion  of  stomach   o   Produces  mucus,  pepsinogen,  HCl   o   Has  thick  tissue  (more  cells)  that  aids  in  acid  production   •   Pyloric  region  of  stomach  –  food  enters  from  fundic  region   o   Chief  cells  –  produce  pepsinogen   o   Parietal  cells  –  produce  HCl   o   Pepsinogen  inactive  until  it  combines  with  HCl   §   Pepsinogen  +  HCl  =  pepsin   §   Pepsin  breaks  peptide  bonds,  thereby  digesting  protein   •   Pyloric  sphincter  –  controls  movement  of  chyme  into  duodenum   o   Between  pyloric  region  and  duodenum   o   Too  much  chyme  will  overload  the  neutralizing  system   •   Stomach  mucosa  –  lining   •   Duodenum  –  digestion  of  nutrients   o   Closer  to  right  body  wall   o   Attached  to  pancreas  and  gallbladder  –  chyme  enters  here   •   Pancreas     o   Produces  NaHCO  (sodi3m  bicarbonate)  which  acts  as  a  buffer   by  neutralizing  chyme   §   Discharges  into  duodenum   o   Produces  enzyme  that  digests  carbs,  proteins,  lipids   o   Much  smaller  than  liver,  yellowish  in  color ,  has  one  or  two  lobes   2   o   Endocrine  component  produces  insulin  and  are  also  important  in   carb  digestion   •   Liver   o   In  most  cranial  part  of  the  abdomen   o   Largest  gland  in  the  body,  reddish-­‐brown  in  color   o   Produces  bile  and  plays  in  protein,  carb,  and  fat  metabolism   o   Products  of  digestion  pass  through  hepatic  cells  before  entering   into  bloodstream   o   Discharges  into  duodenum     •   Gall  bladder  –  stores  bile,  emulsifies  fat  –  i.e.  suspends/separates  lipids   to  increase  surface  area   •   Small  intestine   o   Mesenteric  fat   §   Mesentery  conveys  vessels  and  nerves     o   Jejunum  –  absorption  of  nutrients   §   Identifiable  by  mesenteric  fat  and  villi  (tiny  projections   that  increase  surface  area  for  absorption   o   Ileum  –  absorption  of  nutrients   §   Identifiable  by  villi   o   Jejunum  and  ileum  tissue  layers  (deep  to  artificial):     §   lumen  à  epithelial  cells  à  villi  à  mucosa  à  muscularis   mucosae  à  submucosa  à  circular  smooth  muscle  à  cells   of  Auerbach’s  nerve  plexus  à  longitudinal  smooth  muscle   à  serosa   •   Muscularis  mucosae  –  thin,  weak  muscle  that  moves   villi   3   •   Cells  of  Auerbach’s  nerve  plexus  –  coordinates   circular  and  longitudinal  smooth  muscle  to  contract   –  i.e.  controls  peristalsis   •   Submucosa  –  produces  NaHCO     3 •   Large  intestine   o   Cecum  –  fiber  fermentation   §   Dead-­‐end  pouch  at  junction  of  ileum  and  colon   §   Much  larger  in  horses  and  rabbits  (fibrous  diets)   o   Ascending  coil  of  large  intestine  –  shorter  –  first  part  of  colon   o   Descending  coil  of  large  intestine  -­‐  longer  –  last  part  of  colon   o   Ileo-­‐colonic-­‐cecal  junction  –  regulates,  by  particle  size,  where   particles  should  go   §   Large  particles  go  to  large  intestine   §   Fine  particles  go  to  cecum   o   Rectum  –  most  dorsal  of  GI  tract  –  opens  to  anus   •   Anal  sphincter   o   Internal  –  thickening  of  circular  smooth  muscle  –  involuntary   o   External  –  striated  muscle  –  voluntary  control                     4               5                                             6                                             7                       8                   9  


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