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Week of Notes

by: Krista Lindenberg

Week of Notes Soc 3163

Krista Lindenberg
Arkansas Tech University
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture.
Intro to Sociological Research
Dr. Mikels-Schlutterman
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 3163 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Mikels-Schlutterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociological Research in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.

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Date Created: 03/04/16
Tuesday, March 1  Sampling  Two types:  Probability Sampling  Any technique in which samples are drawn based on probability theory  Probability theory is the selection of a random sample from a list containing the names of everyone in the population being sampled.  Sampling methods that allow us to know in advance how likely it is that any element of a population will be selected for the sample.  The goal in random sampling is to ensure that nothing but ‘chance’ influences the selection of cases… low to eliminate systematic bias.  There’s two particular problems encountered in probability sampling  The sampling frame is incomplete  Failed to obtain an adequate response rate  Four types of probability sampling (check the textbook)  Simple random sampling  Systematic random sampling  Stratified random sampling  Cluster sampling  Nonprobability Sampling  Any technique in which samples are selected in some way not suggested by probability theory.  Four types of nonprobability sampling:  The reliance on available subjects  AKA convenience sampling  Does not perform any control over representativeness of the sample  Appropriate when pretesting a questionnaire or a research idea  Purposive or judgmental sampling  The units are selected on the basis of the researchers judgement about which ones will be most useful or representative.  Appropriate when pretesting a questionnaire or when studying a small subset  Snowball sampling  Field research  Each person interviewed may be asked to suggest additional people for interviewing  Appropriate: useful for hard to reach or hard to identify population… no sampling frame  Problem: the initial contacts may shape the entire sample and foreclose access to some members of the population of interest.  Quota sampling  Units selected into a sample on the basis of preconceived characteristics… The sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population.  Problem: You must know the characteristics of the entire population to set the right quotas.  Not everyone is randomly chosen but the proportions match the population.  Modes of operation (methodological approaches)  Experiments  Survey research  Qualitative field research  Unobtrusive research  Evaluation research  We can use any one or more. We are employing survey research for our project  Survey research  Involves collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions  There’s three majors attractions of survey research  Versatility  Efficiency (Cheap and fast)  Generalizability  Survey research is super attractive. It’s the kind of date to ask, “LOL, and then what?” It’s versatile, efficient and generalizable. They’re quick, cheap, and everyone gets a chance…  When appropriate:  Can be used for descriptive, explanatory and exploratory purposes. Best if trying to describe a population too large to directly observe.  Designing a questionnaire:  Build on existing instruments; there’s no reason to reinvent the wheel.  Refine and test questions: cognitive interview asks people how easily understood the questions are.  Behavior coding: a researcher observes several interviews and codes number of times difficulty occurs.  Survey pretest: try it out on your friends, yourself, focus groups  Guidelines for writing questions:  You have questions vs statements (answers vs reactions)  Open ended vs closed ended questions  Make items clear, simple and to the point.  Avoid double barreled questions.  Respondents must be competent and willing to answer.  Questions should be relevant.  Short items are best.  Avoid negative items, biased items and terms Thursday, March3 Group Meeting


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