Week of Notes
Week of Notes Soc 3163
Arkansas Tech University
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Krista Lindenberg on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 3163 at Arkansas Tech University taught by Dr. Mikels-Schlutterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociological Research in Sociology at Arkansas Tech University.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Tuesday, March 1 Sampling Two types: Probability Sampling Any technique in which samples are drawn based on probability theory Probability theory is the selection of a random sample from a list containing the names of everyone in the population being sampled. Sampling methods that allow us to know in advance how likely it is that any element of a population will be selected for the sample. The goal in random sampling is to ensure that nothing but ‘chance’ influences the selection of cases… low to eliminate systematic bias. There’s two particular problems encountered in probability sampling The sampling frame is incomplete Failed to obtain an adequate response rate Four types of probability sampling (check the textbook) Simple random sampling Systematic random sampling Stratified random sampling Cluster sampling Nonprobability Sampling Any technique in which samples are selected in some way not suggested by probability theory. Four types of nonprobability sampling: The reliance on available subjects AKA convenience sampling Does not perform any control over representativeness of the sample Appropriate when pretesting a questionnaire or a research idea Purposive or judgmental sampling The units are selected on the basis of the researchers judgement about which ones will be most useful or representative. Appropriate when pretesting a questionnaire or when studying a small subset Snowball sampling Field research Each person interviewed may be asked to suggest additional people for interviewing Appropriate: useful for hard to reach or hard to identify population… no sampling frame Problem: the initial contacts may shape the entire sample and foreclose access to some members of the population of interest. Quota sampling Units selected into a sample on the basis of preconceived characteristics… The sample will have the same distribution of characteristics assumed to exist in the population. Problem: You must know the characteristics of the entire population to set the right quotas. Not everyone is randomly chosen but the proportions match the population. Modes of operation (methodological approaches) Experiments Survey research Qualitative field research Unobtrusive research Evaluation research We can use any one or more. We are employing survey research for our project Survey research Involves collection of information from a sample of individuals through their responses to questions There’s three majors attractions of survey research Versatility Efficiency (Cheap and fast) Generalizability Survey research is super attractive. It’s the kind of date to ask, “LOL, and then what?” It’s versatile, efficient and generalizable. They’re quick, cheap, and everyone gets a chance… When appropriate: Can be used for descriptive, explanatory and exploratory purposes. Best if trying to describe a population too large to directly observe. Designing a questionnaire: Build on existing instruments; there’s no reason to reinvent the wheel. Refine and test questions: cognitive interview asks people how easily understood the questions are. Behavior coding: a researcher observes several interviews and codes number of times difficulty occurs. Survey pretest: try it out on your friends, yourself, focus groups Guidelines for writing questions: You have questions vs statements (answers vs reactions) Open ended vs closed ended questions Make items clear, simple and to the point. Avoid double barreled questions. Respondents must be competent and willing to answer. Questions should be relevant. Short items are best. Avoid negative items, biased items and terms Thursday, March3 Group Meeting
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