HDFS 1070 Week 7 Notes (Exam 2)
HDFS 1070 Week 7 Notes (Exam 2) HDFS 1070
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
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Early School Year 1 Earlv School Year 22916 Lecture Notes Early School Year roughly 58 years of age I Not so much about the age more so about the issues that occur during this age period 0 Children are able to think about things in more complex ways rules behavior themselves as a person start to be able to think about self as a boy or girl evaluate self in comparison to others 9 all sophisticated cognitive activities that serve as a foundation for our developmental timeline 0 Developmental Tasks gt Gender Identification develop a view of ourselves as a gendered individual 0 At birth you have a sex assigned to you which most of the time is based upon your underlying genetic makeup Around the early school years you begin to develop a gender identity which has a lot to do with whether or not you identify with being a male or female You then learn and differentiate the behaviors that are unique to those specific sexes o Expectations for behavior based on that sex 0 Somewhere around 34 years of age they understand sex and the permanence of it and understand sex has a genital base to it 0 Understanding the sex and permanence of it provides a platform for everything else that is associated with the sex how should I act etc I Learning gender expectations gt Self Theory self esteem gt Early Moral Development gt Peer Play Gender Identification Gender Schema gt Beliefs attitudes values and behaviors Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation Gendered Expectations For Males and Females socialized to children right from birth a Masculinity masculine behavior 9 as a boy you should exhibit all these characteristics Ex Should be problem solvers and organize identity around being independent masterful competitive I Active I Independent I Competitive I Persistent I When you say to a little boy they should be masculine you are also saying to them that they shouldn t be sensitive and warm Early School Year 2 o F emininity feminine behavior 9 as a girl you should exhibit all these characteristics EX if you are a girl you should be helpful and sensitive to others Open to emotions Helpful Sensitive Warm When socialize girls to be feminine less likely to discourage them actively from being active independent and persistent 0 Inherent emphasis in our society on having boys more so than girls conform to gender expectations society is way more invested in boys conforming to gender expectations than in girls a Androgyny most likely to develop later in life and more of an intentional commitment A person is high in masculinity and femininity Possible for people to understand the value of each in certain situations 0 Advantage of both gender characteristics in different interpersonal situations This is not the norm most men are more masculine than feminine and most women are more feminine than masculine EX When you are talking with your boss be masculine When you are talking with your spouse be feminine NOTE tendency is for males to be masculine and females to be feminine BUT o Males can have a feminine gender orientation 0 Males can be androgynous 0 Females can have a masculine orientation 0 Females can be androgynous Acquisition Process biological or social In spite of years and years of trying to find a biological basis for gender orientations the conclusion remains the differences between males and females are due to social not biological factors 0 No evidence that boys become masculine is a result of genetics 0 No evidence that girls become feminine is a result of genetics 0 Acquisition is a learned process a Byproduct of our interactions with significant others Socialization and doing gender Overview of Social Learning Theory Early School Year 3 gt Reinforcement as shaper of learning a Schedules of reinforcement I Intermittent is good enough I In psychology learning theories are composed of reinforcement 0 Behaviors that are negatively reinforced are not learned and not repeated 0 Behaviors that are positively reinforced are learned and repeated 0 Humans are not reinforced with food they are reinforced with social approval and praise I When talking about the acquisition of gender identity it is learned through social learning 0 Social learning being reinforced by social approval or social disapproval 0 Ex When a father plays ball with his son and the ball hurts his son s finger He tells him not to cry because it s just a game This is a social learning process because the little boy learns that it is not socially accepted for him to cry in that circumstance 0 Kids imitate others in an effort to achieve vicarious reinforcement o How to anticipate getting approval or disapproval from others 0 Children get a lot of modeling around what is gender appropriate behavior I In uences how you think about yourself and others I Very clear that while there are limitations of being feminine for girls and limitations for being masculine for boys all societies appear to be more involved in conforming to boy gender identities than girls Boys grow up with a much more narrower range of behaviors that are acceptable than girls 0 EX I do what my father does and chances are he will approve of me the son 0 significant others a radius of significant others shifts over time I spend most of your time interacting with mothers and fathers I differences between mothers and fathers are very clear to children Early School Year 4 gt observation and imitation o vicarious reinforcement I driven by the desire to obtain approval Socialization amp the Radius of Significant Others gt parents 0 what mothering and fathering communicate about gender I fathers play with their kids in general I mothers deal with sensitive matter 0 housework patterns and gender I fathers fix things I mothers a greater emphasis on boys following culturally prescribed norms gt peers a sex segregated go to a playground and see a bunch of little boys running around and the girls playing together 0 boys being masterful while the girls are talking and sharing gt teachers a most teachers think they treat boys and girls equally in the classroom which is not true I boys interrupt more and they just brush it off because boys will be boys I if a girl interrupts doesn t brush it off and there is more disapproval I give boys more physical tasks than girls 0 by the time kids are in 5th grade in the US boys are on a path with more emphasis on science and math while girls are on a different path I teachers spend much more time emphasizing science and math on boys than girls I societal expectation that there are certain academic paths that teachers are responsible for pushing boys towards gt toys 0 there are gender specific toys 0 pink and dolllike never for boys 0 every toy that is being marketed for boys is active and masterful and masculine looking I for boys action figure I for girls barbies and dolls gt media 0 studies that show that boys will not buy toys books and watch movies if girls are the main protagonist a only changes subtly as you get older Early School Year 5 o for the most part in the world of boys and girls males have to be the main protagonist to get boys engaged With the product a reinforces the idea that females are sidekicks to males I EX Harry Potter is the protagonist in the series While his friend Hermione is just his sidekick sends a message to not identify or act like a girl gt Music 0 Very gender stereotypic 0 Boys get the girl 0 Girls love and relationships Note how all the social agents have a greater emphasis on boys following culturally prescribed norms Early School Year 6 LifeSpan Trajectory Implications masculine pathway and feminine pathway different from each other gt Educational implications 0 Masculine math science business architecture a Feminine nursing teaching allied health 0 Ex This class is a feminine class because it is required for feminine fields A huge proportion of our class in composed of females gt Career implications 0 In our society masculine careers pay more than feminine careers gt Economic implications 0 Channeling people into a lifetime of choices and decisions that results in women haVing less earnings than men 0 Ex At UConn offer less salary to humanities course professors than to business school professors gt Social and psychological implications 0 Boysmen and anger anxiety comes first and then is transferred into a more acceptable form of emotion I Primary emotion anxiety I Males are way more filled with this as a result of growing up in a more narrow set of gender expected roles I Secondary emotion anger I Anger comes from their anxiety I Think this is the only emotion that is acceptable to express I Sources of anxiety that result in anger I Anxious about whether they matter or not I Competence 0 Trust 0 Boysmen and homophobia I Way more homophobic than girls are because society puts so much pressure on them to act masculine and refrain from acting feminine o Boysmen and emotional ooding I Boys and men are way more likely to experience emotional ooding overwhelmed with emotion so cant think or feel in a panic state and just want to withdraw to escape 9 like a panic attack I When given a problem the first thing males do is say they can solve it problem solVing is masculine I Females don t experience this as much because they are used to expressing how they feel to others Early School Year 7 0 Men are at a disadvantage because when con ict comes up they come across like fools and feel that they cant participate in anything that consists of emotion 0 Girls and objecti cation Body image issues at the very beginning objectify girls Girls learn early on that their value has to do With being cute dressing appropriately being a collection of body parts Girls anxiety comes from attractiveness and being good enough physically Selfloathing Which men encourage People grow up as a result of their gender expectation 0 Men made to feel anxious about their competence so they are quick to be a problem solver 0 Women are anxious about their collections of body parts What is the primary emotion that men express 0 Anger What is the primary emotion that females express 0 Anxiety about their body Sabatelli Ronald Early School Year HDFS 1070 University of Connecticut Storrs 29 February 2016 Lecture HDFS 1070 32 Lecture notes Page 1 Early Childhood and SelfTheorV 3216 Lecture Notes Two Dimensions of SelfTheory Who am 1 developing a working model and a set of assumptions about themselves An understanding of themselves 0 Children develop an internalized gender standard and the capacity to re ect on their work competencies and abilities One of the critical developmental abilities that arise is development of sense of self Ex Think of self as attractive ordinary exceptional etc This is a blessing and a curse at the same time because it becomes a part of how an individual s life is constructed This ability to think about ourselves is relevant to numerous careers because we rely on the fact that people develop a personal narrative about themselves and their lives and have the ability to change that story 0 These are interrelated people with a high selfesteem tend to be high in selfefficacy gt Self Esteem O O The emotional judgments that we place upon ourselves the attitudes we have about ourselves Are we loveable or not Attractive or not This is a continuum Self Esteem Continuum gt Relatively High SE 0 O O O O O Likingloving oneself Respecting oneself Trust that you can be successful Trust you re competent that relationships are possible and that people are kind Views about ourselves spill over into our relationships with others thoughts about others and what we can expect from others Relationships can be a source of joy gt Relatively Low SE 0 O O Negative internal dialogues all infused with a lot of negativity 39 See selves as ineffective defective incompetent unlovable unattractive etc Negative expectations of others and about life in general Self critical self loathing I Ex I m not worthy I m not good enough gt These working models serve as a foundation for development 0 Change is possible yet low self esteem at a younger age is a pretty good predictor for low self esteem throughout life HDFS 1070 32 Lecture notes Page 2 Developmental Shapers of Self Esteem gt Messages of love support and approval from significant others is an important determinant of selfesteem The attitude that you develop for yourself stems from how people view and treat you If people view you as worthy you view yourself in that way as well 0 Volume of information children receive in terms of how they interact with their parents and significant others all behavior is communication All communication conveys information of how we see ourselves others and the relationship between I Content messages what parents and significant other s say I Metacognitive messages information that is conveyed in how we interact with others EX Eye contact behaviors that surround the literal words we use to communicate with others 0 Become way more important as a determinant for selfesteem than what parents simply say We get more information from others through their behavior than their dialogue 0 Provide us with feedback on how others see us 0 Con rmation Communication through behavior that you respect value and care for that person That they matter Even when you disagree with a person you can confirm them EX When asked for help and the parent smiles and takes your hand this is a confirmation EX Hold and comfort you when scaredupset o Rejection behavioral messaging that we send to the people we interact with Saying you are not valuable not respected don t matter and are not important Some parents do say things through dialogue content messages that convey a child isn t important Behavior sends way more information in every day life than words do From a rejection feedback view all this arises from ignoring the other when talking rolling eyes looking at the phone while someone is talking about their day putting hands up a Disconfirmation destructive form of rejection Message that is conveyed is you don t exist on a behavior level By ignoring someone giving the silent treatment Discounts the very existence and importance of the person by communicating that to them through behavior main behavior is ignoring o If an individual is given more confirmation messages he or she internalizes that view that they matter and therefore develop a higher selfesteem Develop model HDFS 1070 32 Lecture notes Page 3 of how we see ourselves re ected on how others treat us and view us gt Success Experiences 0 In toddler years surrounded by assertion and mastery Start to become confident in things Once you move into school years there is more competence needed through schoolwork and social mastery Can be judged as being competent and effective or incompetent and ineffective of these things How we judge our own success experiences in terms of how we compare to others becomes a big part of our selfesteem o ParentsTeachers need to provide ageappropriate opportunities and guidance I Our responsibility is to provide kids with the tools they need to succeed so that they see themselves as competent Success in childhood is mastered through the guidance of others When people provide guidance for you they provide messages of love and support that makes you feel important and competent 0 Not all competencies are equally valued I In different cultures different competencies are valued differently I Ex If you have a 7 year old that is really good at basketball and you have a 7 year old that is excelling at ute Whichever skill is valued more depends on the culture In the US sports are valued more often times 0 PseudoSuccess Experiences I We are unique cohorts that are growing up in a time where society has given more thought about selfesteem and the development of self esteem than ever before One of the consequences of this is that some people have adopted the conclusion that all you have to say to your kids is that they will be successful and praise them even when you shouldn t They believe they need to create an environment where you should always tell a child they have been successful Because of this those children don t develop the competencies needed to be successful later in life Ex Teacher tells a child that failed a spelling exam that they did great So the child develops a false view on their success 0 The correct way to do this is to give them the correct tools to succeed rather than telling them they have succeeded when they haven t gt Favorable Social Comparisons 0 Part of the development of selfesteem 0 Kids develop the capacity to compare themselves to others social comparisons I Grounded in how we view ourselves in terms of reference groups ex I suck at this compared to others I m better at this compared to others I Self esteem is grounded in our reference group HDFS 1070 32 Lecture notes Page 4 0 Important because you cant control this This is why we should give them the tools to selfsucceed rather than tell them they have succeeded when they have not compared to others 0 The best environment for kids is to put them in an environment where they can compare themselves to others and are given the tools to succeed 0 Children s personal models of themselves are provided by how they compare themselves to others SelfEfficacy Continuum 0 Siblings o The disadvantage at being a younger sibling is that you are always comparing yourself to someone who is older and more competent Parents have to work very hard to buffer these social prophecies We assume that siblings get along and love one another forever this is not the case because there are a lot that don t Negative social comparison is what creates most tension between siblings I Younger siblings are always feeling less competent gt Relatively High Self Efficacy a Trust capacity to perform and produce desired results 0 Has to do with beliefs about mastery and competency 0 People with a high selfefficacy believe that they are masterful and high in competence o The more you succeed the more you have the tools to succeed the more you believe you can succeed at things 9 the more enjoyable challenges and mastery become 0 Important subset of selfesteem gt Relatively Low Self Efficacy o A lot of anxiety and doubt about their competency o Doubt their competency to take on new tasks and challenges 0 Can have lifespan consequences 0 Global versus Domain Specific SelfEfficacy 0 Some people talk about selfefficacy as a global construct Also thought that as some of us get older we develop selfefficacy concepts about different domains Ex Not good a math but good at music In the early years it takes a lot of experience with yourself and the world to develop domain specific selfefficacy Shapers of SelfEfficacy gt Mastery experiences by far the most important 0 Give kids these experiences more likely to succeed again 0 Need to succeed to feel smart and competent HDFS 1070 32 Lecture notes Page 5 gt Vicarious experiences provided by social models 0 Children learn through imitation and take in so much information about competency through this If kids are around people who model success they develop mastery expectations gt Social persuasion you have what it takes to succeed o Interrelationship between self esteem and self efficacy 0 The best teacherspeople who have in uenced competency views are those who say you have what it takes and provide you with the tools to succeed gt Favorable social comparisons 0 Children can compare themselves to others and conclude if they are better or worse at certain things Trajectory implications of SelfEsteem and SelfEfficacy gt Conceive of self esteem and self efficacy as developmental assets 0 Developmental tools are carried throughout life and in that there are self esteem and selfefficacy expectations Pull out tools when needed to promote competence and selfesteem 0 These assets increase the probability of success but don t guarantee it Each Stage of life is characterized by the challenge to develop stagespecific skills and competencies gt mastery is related to self esteem and efficacy gt epigenetic assumptions you do well in school you develop the expectation that you are competent and expect to do well in school but could be given bad teachers that develop negative selfconcept which results in low selfesteem and low competency gt If the teachers don t give the skills and tools needed you are not on the path to success gt esteem and efficacy are related to mastery gt selffulfilling prophecies Can intervention change levels of esteem and efficacy 0 Yes but not easy gt Promoting and instilling developmental assets is always easier than changing negative selfappraisals gt Once develop those negative working models create an environment where they are not set up to succeed gt Therapy is a trust building exchange that replicates the relationships you have with parents and significant others in life 0 Need to give the skills and knowledge to succeed HDFS 1070 32 Lecture notes Page 6 Sabatelli Ronald Early Childhood and SelfTheory 2 March 2016 Lecture HDFS 1070 34 Lecture Notes Page 1 Middle Childhood Peer Relations 3416 Lecture Notes Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Model identified various stages of development in which there are specific social demands that create anxiety specific to that certain stage When that crisis is successfully managed we gain positive coping skills When not we end up with disruptive behavioral patterns and negative coping strategies StageSpecific Sources of Anxiety Trust infancy9 Autonomy toddler lnitiative lndustry Mistrust shameDoubt excessively anxious about competence 9Guilt91nferiority Infancy Trust versus Mistrust 0 If gain negative coping strategy mistrust then breeds pessimism withdrawal and nervousness about people and the environment Toddler Years Autonomy versus ShameDoubt 0 So involved with mastering new skills and tasks would be easy to see that someone would believe they are a failure in someone else s eyes 0 All about developing competencies 0 Positive believe in your competence enjoy challenges 0 Negative Shame is the result of us feeling like a failure in the eyes of others professor insisted this term is known Early Childhood Initiative versus Guilt gt What is the dominant tension in this stage 0 Revolves around the theme of selfregulation We pressure children at this age excessively to regulate their behavior and emotions To succeed in the school and peer world individuals need to regulate behavior and emotions There are 2 types I Behavior Regulation I Emotion Regulation gt What is being communicated by the use of the term Initiative 0 Kids who internalize rules of behavior and commit themselves to self regulation are taking the initiative that they need to succeed in the world 0 Initiative I m willing to embrace the rules of emotion and behavior willing to conform to social expectations and demands about how I should deal with all the social interactions that go on throughout those years 0 Negative outcome of this crisis guilt Central Process Identification gt Relationship between Identification and Guilt HDFS 1070 34 Lecture Notes Page 2 o Guilt you feel like you have failed to live up to your internal standards of behavior I Key to understanding guilt should 0 Being taught how you should regulate your emotion behavior how you should do things When you internalize should s and when you believe that it is what you should be doing and fail to live up to your internal standards you experience guilt 0 Identification learning from people who teach and model behavior to you learning how you should behave and how you should regulate emotion Identifying with others and internalizing standards for behavior I The metacognitive abilities that are required to identify with gender and to have selfesteem are required to think about what you are doing Internalizing a system of should s Prime Adaptive Ego Quality Purpose 0 For initiative vs guilt 0 People live their life in a constructive way with a sense of purpose take control over their lives and live intentionally Choosing to live the way that they do Core Pathology Inhibition o The byproduct about being anxious about competency the ability to regulate emotion and regulate behavior That shame doubt and guilt the person has excessive anxiety When you challenge the child they respond by being inhibited don t trust their competence Their anxiety gets in the way of them expressing their competence or trying to master things 0 Sense of mastery and selfesteem are all caught up with having anxiety 0 Person is so anxious that they are reluctant to trust that they can live according to the system of should s that we are establishing for them 0 Have a disabling consequence in the extreme case a Related to gender identity and selfesteem efficacy sense of mastery all caught up around anxieties about competencies Middle ChildhoodMiddle School 912 years Industry versus Inferiority gt What is the dominant tension of this stage 0 Challenges around competence remain consistent 0 Industry having a positive attitude towards work liking work valuing work and enjoying the challenges of work What we challenge kids to do heavily invested in school and learning and their attitudes towards their world a Inferiority feeling like you are not competent in relationship to your peersothers I Feel like you re a failure in relationship to your peers reference group HDFS 1070 34 Lecture Notes Page 3 o The radius of significant others shifts more to the peer world I Compare selves to others in terms of our competence and performance capabilities 0 School years involve us not only having to learn a lot but to compare ourselves to others I Develop industry when you perceive yourself to be just as successful as your peers I When you don t measure up to others you lose your commitment to doing work and develop inferiority negative attitude towards work I We are driven to evaluate ourselves in terms of how our significant other s and our peers perceive us Central Process Education why education 0 Kids need training in knowledge and information in order to measure up and be as competent as others around them To develop a positive attitude towards work 0 Need to be educated in order to have the opportunity to master skills teachers become important not just school teachers so many people have the opportunity to be a teacher for kids 0 Brothers sisters neighbors etc 9 if you have people who provide you with the educational and informational tools that you need to succeed you develop industry If not develop inferiority 0 Ex When someone sucks at math it is because they were not provided with the proper tools to succeed from significant others and teachers Prime Adaptive Ego Quality Competence o If competent believe can deal with challenges Core Pathology Inertia gt Inertia and Procrastination o Inertia get ooded and stop Will not challenge selves because their anxiety gets the best of them Try to find out ways to avoid the work will not do it o Procrastination a mild form of inertia I Temporarily paralyzed by the anxiety of your competence 0 Having a positive attitude toward work is an extremely adaptive life skill I If you start to organize early years around anxiousness about work and avoiding it work becomes unenjoyable Life is dominated by the negative anxious emotion Focus on Play and Peers 0 We become more dependent on our peers for information about ourselves 0 Most of this is in the form of play Peer Relationships and Play as Developmental Tasks gt Children become less egocentric become aware that other people s thoughts matter HDFS 1070 34 Lecture Notes Page 4 0 Become more aware of norms 0 Become more aware of conformitypeer pressures 0 Peers become much more important gt Peers become significant others Symbolic Interaction Theory and the Looking Glass Self 0 Looking glass self Become heavily in uenced by how we see others seeing us 0 Becomes more and more powerful as peers become more important gt Identity and Interaction are Interdependent gt Symbolic Nature of Interaction gt gt This is How I see Myself gt This is How I see You gt This is How I see You seeing me Conclusion As peers relationships become increasingly more important the self is increasingly in uenced by and in uences the nature of social interactions with friends Sabatelli Cliques and Peer Groups gt What is a Clique a Each of your peer groups is unique A stable peer group is a clique They have their own points of emphasis and differentiate themselves from other peers by having unique values and identities Groups are reassuring but restricting constrains you to conform to the ideals of the group but doesn t allow you to challenge yourself in other ways Ex I m a jock not a smart person have to be one or the other gt What are the functions of Cliques and Peer Groups 0 Peers and Gender Schemas I A lot of gender training goes on in the peer world 0 Peers and Self Esteem 0 Peers and Identity I This is what I m good at what I m not good at what I have the capacity for 0 Peers and Values I What we expect what is important to us I Beginning working model of what s important to them 0 Peers and Sexual Scripts I Most of the important socialization that goes on in your life around sex is mediated around your peers I Happens long before you are sexually active 0 In the context of peer relationships 0 Peers and Prosocial Development how to behave yourself and regulate yourself and act in social situations I Basic social skills I Managing competition HDFS 1070 34 Lecture Notes Page 5 I Learning Cooperation I Dealing with EnvyJealousy I Dealing with con ict What Factors Contribute to Successful and Unsuccessful Peer Relationships gt Physical Appearance 0 Kids who deviate from the norms of attraction are disproportionately bullied ridiculed more involved in negative peer relationships 0 The more you sway from the norms the more they go up gt Social Skills and Attributes o If you cannot regulate emotion and behavior you become stigmatized within the peer world cast as an outsider gt Success Experiences in the realm of children a Lead to successful peer relationships 0 We admire people who are successful and embrace those who are successful a Don t like to be around those who are not so successful 0 Kids who succeed are at way more of an advantage than those who don t gt Tolerance for Differentness societal community values a Certain social systems tolerate differentness better than others a The more anxious a social system is the less tolerant they become of differentness a When people are predominantly more successful they are more tolerant Developmental Trajectory Difficulties with Peers Short and LongTerm Significance 0 Change is always possible 0 Note probabilistically people who have difficulties with peers are 2x likely to have conduct disorders disproportionately represented among children with depressive anxious etc disorders 0 These kids are more likely to 0 Have difficulties with peer relationships are twice as likely among children referred to clinicianssocial workers 0 Have very problematic peer relationships children with conduct disorders and ADHD tend to o Disproportionately be represented among children with anxiety disorders 0 Be at higher risks for depression 0 Be more likely to have social problems gt what is necessary to reduce anxiety is giving kids the tools to be competent HDFS 1070 34 Lecture Notes Page 6 o the more you reduce anxiety about competence the more successful their peer relationships Will be Sabatelli Ronald Middle Childhood Peer Relations HDFS 1070 University of Connecticut Storrs 4 March 2016 Lecture