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Date Created: 07/04/14
Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology I The Sciences of Anatomy and Physiology A Anatomy 1 Gross Anatomy 0 Macroscopic anatomy visible with unaided eye 0 O 0 Surface anatomy study of general form Regional anatomy internal features in a specific region Systemic anatomy organ systems 2 Microscopic Anatomy 0 Need magnification limited by equipment 0 O B Physiology 0 Study of the function of anatomical structures 0 O O O 0 II Levels of Organization 0 Chemical or Molecular Level 0 Atoms gt molecules shapes determines function 0 OOOOOOOO O Cytology analyzes internal structure of cells Histology examines tissues used to form organs studies that makes hisher field gross anatomy Human physiology study of the functions of the human body Cell physiology study of the functions of living cells Special physiology study of physiology of specific organs Systemic physiology function of specific organ systems Pathological physiology pathology effects of diseases on organsystem functions Cellular Level Molecules form larger structures specific function 0 Tissue Level 0 Similar cells working together for perform a specific function 0 Organ Level 0 Two or more tissues working together for perform a specific function 0 Organism Level 0 all organ systems work together 0 Organization determines structural characteristics and functions of higher levels 0 Something that effects a system will affect all of the system39s components the rest of the bodywhatever it interacts with III An Introduction to Organ Systems 11 systems Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endoc ne Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive o Urinary o Reproductive IV Homeostasis and System Integration Organ systems depend on each other change sets it out of balance Homeostatic Regulation Homeostasis existence of a stable environment mechanisms work to prevent changes Homeostatic regulation adjustments in physiological systems that preserve homeostasis o Receptor sensitive to a particular stimulus change o Control center integration center receivesprocesses information from the receptor o Effector responds to the command of the integration center I Opposesreinforces the stimulus 1 Negative Feedback 0 A variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation o Thermoregulation I Altering the relationship between heat production and heat loss I Control center is in the brain receptors are in the skin and in the CC I Ways to fix overheating 372 0 Smooth muscles in the walls of blood vessels supplying the skin o Blood vessels widen increase blood flow to lose heat to the environment 0 Sweat glands o Speeds up the process of losing heat to the environment I When back to normal everything goes back to normal resting levels I Ways to fix underheating 367 0 Same two reasons and skeletal muscles 0 Blood flow to the skin declines 0 Sweat production decreases o Reduces rate of heat loss o Heat production continues rise I Until everything is back to normal I Shivering is caused by contractions of skeletal muscles 0 No set body temperature normal range some can be underabove normal range too 2 Positive Feedback 0 The initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces that stimulus strengthens stimulus 0 Positive feedback loop way to stop the stimulus o Regulation of a dangerous process that must be done quickly B Homeostasis and Disease 0 Infection injury or abnormality can harm homeostatic mechanisms o Feel effects of disease Jgt o If homeostasis cannot be reached survival is questionable V The Language of Anatomy A Surface Anatomy 1 Anatomical Landmarks Anatomical position hands at sides palms facing forward feet together Laying down in anatomical position when face up supine Laying down in anatomical position when face down prone 2 Anatomical Regions Abdominopelvic quadrants imaginary perpendicular lines intersect at umbilicus o Used for describing aches and injuries o Ex RLQ right lower quadrant o Nine regions I Epigastric I Umbilical I Hypogastric I LeftRight hypochondriac I Leftright lumbar I Leftright inguinal 3 Anatomical Directions Anterior front Ventral belly Posteriordorsal back Leftright sides of subject B Sectional Anatomy 1 Planes and Sections 0 Sectional planes slice through 3D object o Traverse plane divides the body into top and bottom sections superior top and inferior bottom cut in plane traverse section o Front plane coronal plane cuts body into front and back sections anterior to posterior o Sagittal plane divides body into left and right sides I Midsagittal doesn39t cut through legs 2 Body Cavities 0 Protect delicate organs 0 Allow for significant changes in size and shape of organs contract and expand 0 Ventral body cavity o Coelom o Contains organs of the respiratory cardiovascular digestive urinary and reproductive systems 0 Diaphragm divides the ventral cavity into the superior thoracic cavity and inferior abdominopelvic cavity 0 Organs change shape and they perform their functions o Surrounded by moist internal space I Permit expansion I Limited movement 0 Viscera o Organs within the these two cavities Serous membrane lines the walls of the cavities o Moistened by watery fluid reduces friction Visceral layer portion of membrane that covers a visceral organ Parietal layer lines the inner surface of the body wall Thoracic cavity o Three internal chambers I Pericardial cavity I Two pleural cavities I Lined with membrane o Heart pushes into the pericardial cavity hand pushing into balloon I Pushes into membrane pericardium I Layer covering heart visceral pericardium 0 Opposing surface mediastinum
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