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by: Betsy Carter


Betsy Carter
GPA 3.7


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Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Betsy Carter on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EPID 4070 at University of Georgia taught by Ebell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 87 views. For similar materials see /class/201958/epid-4070-university-of-georgia in Epidemiology at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Final Exam Competencies December 5 2011 Mark Ebell MD MS Old content 60 to 65 of exam Be able to define epidemiology Epidemiology is the scientific study of the distribution and determinants of healthrelated states or events in human populations and the application of this study to the prevention and control health problems Know epidemiologic triangle of environment host and agent which helps us identify strategies for combatting infectious disease Know Koch s postulates Types of immunity active vs passive natural vs artificial From an epidemic curve is an epidemic likely to be from a common source or propogated Define and apply infectious epidemiology terms like fomite vector reservoir agent virulence zoonosis endemic epidemic and pandemic Be able to interpret a p value and a confidence interval Define and use and distinguish between incidence and prevalence Be able to define and apply the rates for birth fertility total fertility etc and death ie neonatal post neonatal infant agespecific causespecific crude and so forth discussed in chapter 6 Understand association between fertility and poverty greater fertility associated with greater poverty 39 quot 39 quot 39 39with lowerfertility and life expectancy lowerfertility more associated with longer life Be able to calculate years of productive life lost YPLL and quality adjusted life years QALY given an example Understand the design of casecontrol prospective cohort and retrospective cohort studies and know which measure of association to use for each ie OR for casecontrol RR for cohort Understand difference between a statistically significant association and causality the former is necessary but not sufficient for the latter Also understand which study designs are best for determining causality RCT best cohort second best then casecontrol then everything else Be able to calculate strength of association given a study description by creating a 2 x 2 table and calculating OR or RR as appropriate Understand the design of an experimental study parallel and crossover designs and describe the key elements of a well designed study oRandomization oMasking oAllocation concealment oAdequate followup Define and apply types of selection bias ie loss to followup healthy worker effect marriage effect and information bias ie recall bias interviewer bias Be able to recognize examples of possible confounding Given the results of a randomized controlled trial experimental study calculate absolute risk reduction relative risk reduction and number needed to treat Understand what is meant by the placebo effect and that subjective outcomes like pain or fatigue or depression are most susceptible to it Given a description of a field investigation for example percentage ill who eat different types of food identify the most likely cause of the outbreak Also be able to use this information to draw a 2 x 2 table and calculate the odds ratio Know Hill s 9 criteria for causality and be able to identify examples of each Basic principles regarding chronic diseases long latency multifactorial risk factors include age genetics and environmental eg physical biological chemical social Define primary secondary and tertiary prevention and the effect of risk level on the degree of benefit from prevention greater risk means greater benefit from prevention and screening New content 35 to 40 of exam ldentify limitations of current practice and use of information by healthcare professionals information overload inconsistent adoption of new interventions overreliance on tradition expert opinion and local practice culture overvaluing informal observations in practice intentional and unintentional bias and overreliance on pathophysiologic reasoning Define evidencebased practice Making a conscientious effort to base clinical decisions on research that is most likely to be free from bias and using interventions most likely to improve how long or well patients livequot Distinguish patient oriented outcomes morbidity mortality symptoms quality of life from disease oriented outcomes blood pressure blood sugar peak flow rate and other things that do not directly measure how long or well someone lives Given a 2 x 2 table for a diagnostic test be able to calculate sensitivity specificity and positive and negative predictive value Be able to interpret a likelihood ratio do not have to be able to calculate them Understand what is meant by a false positivequot and false negativequot test lnterpret a receiver operating characteristic curve for example identifying which of three studies graphed on an ROC curve is most accurate overall Be able to identify examples of lead time bias length time bias and overdiagnosis Given a graph of incidence and mortality distinguish a successful screening program from an unsuccessful one Define spectrum bias and verification bias and understand that they may result in an inflated estimate of test accuracy Define the test and treatment thresholds from the threshold model of diagnosis lf probability of disease is below the test threshold above the treatment threshold or between the two know what a logical action would be rule out disease rule in disease or gather more information respectively


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