BIOL 304 Feb. 25th, March 1st, and 3rd Notes
BIOL 304 Feb. 25th, March 1st, and 3rd Notes BIO 304
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Casey on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 304 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Garrie Landry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Economic Botany in Biology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 03/04/16
Feb. 25 th Key Box: ***: Know for test besides definitions ***: Definition Tropical Fruits cont. o Musaceae Family ** **: Word origin Musa (Banana family) ***: Titles Origin in South East Asia Bulk of bananas come from Central America Many are boiled and cooked for starch content – like potatoes 1. United Fruit Company Boston a. In 1920s i. began harvesting green fruit and can hold them green for as long as 3 weeks or as they desire ii. Whenever a customer buys bananas, United Fruit Co. exposes the fruits to ethylene gas within 24-48 hours the bananas go from green to being ripe. SO, when they get to the store, their yellow and ready for sale b. Banana republic = the countries that were under control of Fruit Co. i. Nothing bad happened, it was just the name for the countries collectively 2. Biannual crop takes 2 seasons to produce fruit and after it produces fruits, it will die (the trunk will die); but, it will give way to other trunks 3. There are countless varieties of bananas; only one really is commercialized. o Anacardiaceae Family Originates in S.E. Asia 1. Anacardia (genus) = Cashew (common name) a. Originates in Brazil b. Only one seed per fruit c. The seeds are toxic, we have to roast the seed in order to eat it d. Those who grow them eat the cashew apple/fruit 2. Mangfera (genus)= Mango (common name) a. Became a popular or wide spread due to animals liking the fruit and spreading the seeds around wooded areas on islands; whenever they were done eating the plant, they left the remains of it behind and new mango plants sprouted up from there. b. Mango mouth= if one eats too many mangos or eats wild mango skin, the person begins to feel a tingling irritation of the lips. This is due to the toxins in mangos. 3. Pistachia (genus)= Pistachios (common name) a. Mediterranean, California crop b. The shell is the pit of the drupe c. The fleshy part of the fruit is not consider editable 4. Toxicodendron (genus)= Poison Ivy (common name) a. Some people claim to have a resistance to it, but in reality they just haven’t been exposed to it enough b. Everything about it is toxic – Ex: burn it <smoke is toxic> c. 2 forms of poison ivy: i. On the ground- 3 leaf ii. Climbs on trees, and then the foliage changes – it is the only vine that has fibrous roots all over the tree 1. 2 other varieties of poison ivy: Poison Oak (looks like an oak tree leaf) , Poison Sumac (looks like a shrub) Teacher claims that neither oak or sumac occur south of I-10 o Moraceae Family Fig family Antocarpus (genus)= Breadfruit (common name) Grew predominantly in Tahiti; referenced the movie Mutiny on the Bounty The plant does not produce enough fruit to feed a population o Bromeliaceae Family --- Bromeliad Family Common name= Pineapple Named by Christopher Columbus: He thought the fruit looked like a pine cone and tasted like an apple Genus name= Ananas Huge commercial plant in Hawaii; it is now a sterile plant and does not require the original pollination of/from humming birds anymore JD Dole Responsible for cultivating pineapples in Hawaii Pineapple juice has a high level of protein degrading enzymes; meaning it can tenderize meat really well Also, one can harvest the fibers of pineapple leaves for textile companies o Lauraceae Laurus Nobilis (genus) = Noble Lauru leaves dates back to ancient greece when they wore these leaves around their heads It is the ancestor on Bay Leaf Sassafras albidum – gave us filé and the original root beer Persea amercaine = Avacado (it is the Aztec word for testicle; they hung down from a tree in pairs) o Avacados do not ripen on tree, one has to cut it off the tree in order for it to ripen Persea palustris = Red Bay (In Acadiana, this is used for cooking and an insect repellant for one’s flour) o Chinese Gooseberry = Kiwi fruit Native to China, but popular in New Zealand. New Zealand changed the name of the fruit (who really wants to eat goodeberries?); they did this as a national campaign to bring more popularity to the fruit. A clever guy said the fruit looked like a kiwi (the brown, fuzzy bird) and thus the name stuck. Not truly a tropical plant. Kiwis Dioecious plant (have to have both a female and male plant to grow the fruit) Also have large vines that are hard to control o Passifloraceae Family Passiflora= Passion fruit It is cultivated in Hawaii commercially for its juice Wild passion fruits make delicious edible fruit! Local name: May Pop vine/fruit found in swamp; it is a round green fruit, dull, not attractive, but super sweet March 1 st o Palm 2 acceptable family names: 1. Palmae Family 2. Arecaceae Scientific Family name Areca (genus name) A. Coconut Palm Nut a. Home of the coconut= Phillippines i. Islands of the Pacific would have never been colonized by man if it wasn’t for the presence of coconuts on the land 1. Coconuts provide liquid (water) and food Coconut largest nut of any plant Over 160 modern ways to use coconut Coconut Palm = island pharmacy Soothe stomach problems Get ride of worms, etc. During WWII: Doctors relied on cocnut as an emergency liquid for gluclose literally dripped into patients’ vains (the coconut liquid is sterile) Coir= coconut fiber Widespread use of fibers within many industries to produce rugs, bags, twine, cushion stuffing, etc. st Phillipine island = 1 in world rank for coconut production India =2 largest producer U.S. = largest consumer Phoenix Palm All palm trees in Sierra desert are phoenix palms Produces the fruit – dates Dates naturally dry on their own, rather quickly too While they are fresh however, they are crisp like an apple, bright, yellow, grape size Dates are dioecious Widley cultivated as a food crop in Arizona and California (very dry climates) On a commerical basis; they must be hand pollinated Brazil Nut Palm Every Brazil nut you will consume is from South America wild, NOT A FARM The Brazil forest are harvested by local Indians and brought into market o Malvaceae Family Hibiscus family Thrives under extreme heat – no matter how hot it gets, you can always depend on it for producing crops Hibiscus esculentus = okra African word for Okra= Gumbo Next Chapter o Graminae Family (Greek Gramin= grain) o Scientific name: Poaceae o Genus: Poa each region depended on at least one important grain America: Corn Europe/Middle East: Wheat India/Asia/China: Rice Each grain above was considered essential to the diet A. When planting a grain (besides corn, this does not apply to corn): a. Plant the grain and it germinates – throughout its life, it will constantly produce new stems; over entire season, one stem over the other produce seeds ---- Constantly b. Each stem = tiller B. As we start to cultivate these grains, selection began to ensure the reproduction of certain crops: a. Some of the selections made included: i. Creating grains to mature at the same time ii. Grow at the same height; same tiller height iii. Selected short crops rather than tall to help withstand weather conditions better iv. Selected those with bigger seeds b. Selections and cultivation happened extremely quickly Barley considered to be the 1 grain ever cultivated by man Has been drawn/figured a lot in Egyptian hieroglyphics a. Genus: Hordeum b. Production: feed animals, beer, whiskey, and alcoholic beverages 2. Wheat Wheat replaced barley as the most important grain to us a. Genus: Triticum i. Barley vs. Wheat 1. Wheat has gluten, making the dough more elastic 2. Wheat became favored for baking due to its ability to rise and stretch out/elastic 3. Rye typically thought of as a weed of wheat (Poor man’s wheat) a. Genus: Secale b. Ironically, even though it is considered a weed, it has the same height and color of wheat; so, when selections were made for wheat, rye stuck around and received the same selections too c. Rye is hearty – more tolerant of extreme weather; extremely hot or cold, or extremely wet or dry, this plant can tap into the water tables with their long roots that can grow 3 meters deep If wheat crop failed, rye persisted It isn’t very nutritional and used in: animal feed, preventive of soil erosion, and a favorite for making certain whiskeys and gin 4. Oats Last on to be domesticated a. Genus: Arena b. Secondary crop, not a main crop i. Mostly used for animal feed ii. Also eat oatmeal now, high source of fiber 5. Rice major food source a. Genus: Oryza b. Rice was so important/sacred to people of South East Asia- they threw it at weddings as a symbol of fertility c. Genetic homeland= Northern India d. Rice patties = flooded fields Rice does not have to be grown in flooded fields, but must be grown in very wet places, lots of rainfall o Brazil Rainforests: Upland Rice It is very common that after a forest is cleared of its timber that they put in rice fields in its place for cultivation Oryza satíva var indica long grain “ “ “ japonica short grain (sticks together after cooking) rd Many, many varieties of rice being grown – brown, white, etc. March 3 6. Sorghum (genus name and common name) a. Very popular in dry areas – it has a unique ability for leaves to curl to reduce water loss during drought spells b. Sorghum is one of two grains easily used to make flat breads (not pita breads. A true example: corn bread) It looks like corn, except it produces seeds The brand name for it in stores is Milo Production: A natural broom – the natural plant fibers is called= broom corn Popular in Africa: America uses it for bird seed, but it can also make popcorn/popsorghum, molasses, etc. 7. Millet long shelf life a. Genus: Panicum b. Native to Africa, but cultivated widely in the US Africa: seen as edible; taste like quinou, called= Hullel Millet (named differently because the husk has been removed off the seed to be easily eaten) US: feed pet birds, makes a complete mess- bird removes the husks and eats only the seed Has the longest shelf life of any grain grown by man! o Grains have natural expiration dates; most grains have finite storage abilities due to their oil content o Millet, does not have an oil content and can lasts up to ten years Used to make flat bread and malted to make foreign beers All of the above grains are from the old world. The grains below are from the new world. 8. Wild Rice Native to North America; rare in LA a. Genus: Zizania aquatic (grown in water) b. Grown in lakes, ponds in Northern US (Minnesota, Ohio, etc.) 9. Zea Mays variety of corn – only known through cultivation, not grown in wild/nature a. Zea = genus b. Mays = species High number of varieties= high number of genetic diversity Such a valuable plant to the Indians in Northern America o Grew corn, squash/pumpkin, and beans (2 wives of corn) Corn is an annual crop and is the only grain that does NOT tiller Its wild ancestor does tiller and is a perennial plant= continuous life c. White rock story- New Mexico i. White rocks were ground up and sold- reason why: the white rocks were limestone, calcium carbonate if one would soak the hard grains of corn in a mixture of the white rocks and water, in a matter of a day or so, the corn would soften and if mashed afterward could be used to make tortillas d. Types of corn: 1. Sweet sweet corn is selected for its high sugar content; it is edible, sweet, and never dries on the plant 2. Flour corn flour/corn meal, used in South America, Mexico for tortillas 3. Pop popcorn – contains water, so when you heat it-the water expands and… pops 4. Dent cultivated for alcohol production and animal feed 5. Flint 6. pod pod corn has the leafy things around each fernal of corn e. Corn provides way more than just edible food; it can be used in drinks, car oil, etc. Side note: Quinoa is NOT a grain (not on test) 1.