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Pharm Chem 03 _ extra notes

by: Lavender94

Pharm Chem 03 _ extra notes Pharmaceutical science A346

GPA 3.83

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These notes covers the important points of lethal reaction
Pharmaceutical Chemistry (A346)
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lavender94 on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Pharmaceutical science A346 at Republic Polytechnic taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views.

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Date Created: 03/04/16
Notes for problem 3 Chemistry Polar protic solvent  SN1 Polar protic solvents are often used to dissolve salts. In general, these solvents have high dielectric constants and high polarity. Common characteristics of protic solvents : osolvents display hydrogen bonding osolvents have an acidic hydrogen (although they may be very weak acids such as ethanol) osolvents dissolve salts cations by unshared free electron pairs oanions by hydrogen bonding Polar aprotic solvents  SN2 Polar aprotic solvents are solvents that will dissolve many salts, but lack acidic hydrogen. These solvents generally have intermediate dielectric constants and polarity. Although discouraging use of the term "polar aprotic", IUPAC describes such solvents as having both high dielectric constants and high dipole moments, an example being acetonitrile. Other solvents meeting IUPAC's criteria include DMF, HMPA, and DMSO. Common characteristics of aprotic solvents: osolvents that can accept hydrogen bonds osolvents do not have acidic hydrogen centers (acetone and esters fail this criterion) osolvents dissolve organic salts such as tetraethylammonium iodide Polar aprotic solvents are often essential for reactions that involve strong bases, such as reactions involving Grignard reagents or n-butyllithium. These reagents react with protic solvents: C4H9Li + HOCH3 → C4H10 + LiOCH3 An example of a dipolar aprotic solvent is methylpyrrolidone Iodine is the best leaving group within halogen: it have a larger atomic size, that it can helps to stabilize the negatively charged anions when it leaves. or it have the lowest bond strength, hence you need the least energy to break the bond, thus it can leave much easier, hence the best leaving group or the group 7 periodic table as it go down the column, bascity decreases, hence leaving group ability increases. Electrophile In chemistry, an electrophile (literally electron lover) is a reagent attracted to electrons. In general, electrophiles are positively charged species that are attracted to an electron rich centre. It participates in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair in order to bond to a nucleophile.


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