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BI102 - Week 9

by: Markhame

BI102 - Week 9 BI 102

GPA 3.45

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About this Document

Contents: Modern Humans: Brain Development Agriculture Infectious Diseases Current Status Individual Behaviors: Innate Learned
General Biology - Genetics
Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery
Class Notes
Biology, bi102, BI101, BI103, Bio102, Science, Oregon State, Oregon State University, OSU, Lesley Blair, Blair
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Markhame on Friday March 4, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BI 102 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Biology - Genetics in Biology at Oregon State University.


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Date Created: 03/04/16
Week 9  Final: Tues, March 15 ‐ 8:00PM  Tuesday, March 1, 2016  9:55 AM  10 cumulative questions + 50 questions weeks 7‐ 10  *Really study weeks 7 + 8; and LAB material  Modern Humans  → "Many factors impact our species' survival"    Brain Development  Agriculture  Infectious Diseases  Current Status  Brain Development  Homo Erectus:   → Disappearing right as our species was beginning; overlapped  → Massive difference in our bodies  Brains in Erectus: Much smaller  Most of our brain development occurred 800tya ‐ 200tya (thousand years ago)    Homo Sapiens → HUGE cerebral cortex compared to other similar species  We have an increased "THINKING" area  More Information Storage (connecting together and forming memories)  Faster Processing Speed  Solution & Abstraction (problem‐solving and thinking of things that don't exist)  We can daydream and conceptualize  Most other animals have huge sensory pieces   Issues with larger brain size:   Childbirth: Difficulty birthing larger heads for humans  Energy: Brains need constantly at least 20% of our energy; need to feed our brain most during the day  What caused this increase in brain size and survival of humans with these bigger brains?  Something about climate or food supply    Differences from primates in our brain growth:   Primates develop most of their brains before birth and it stops at about 2 years of age  Humans develop brains until about 5 years old    → Humans are born with mutations: Mutated "Microcephaly" Genes      Note: ZIKA VIRUS → Turns off the Microcephaly in pregnant women's fetuses, brian stops growing, infants are born with small skulls      BRAIN LINKED TO LANGUAGE    → A large area of your human brain is linked to control of the mouth/tongue and our hands  We have genes that make it easier for humans to communicate  FOXP2 → human FOXP2 gene is different than other mammals  Concentrates brain attention toward communication  Speech and language deficits → Mutated FOXP2 genes  These mutations in humans that make it hard for some people to struggle with speech and language shares similarities with the shape of the gene in other species.     → Increased connectivity in our brain   Agriculture  → Approx 12‐thousand‐years‐ago    Certain types of grains and tools date back that long  Found in the "near East" AKA the Middle East    Earliest Crops    → Near East: wheat, barely, peas, figs, grapefruit  All of these crops have storage potential    →China: rice, Millet    → Americas: Squash, Corn (6tya)      Agriculture + Population    Human population doesn't actually really explode until about the 20th century  The "Green Revolution" within the Industrial Revolution  Fossil Fuels → Mechanization away from human/animal labor  Fertilizer, processing, machinery  Food distribution is not equal; However we have enough food to feed everyone on earth if it was  Infectious Diseases  → 19th Century ‐ Modern Medicine    Sterile Technique → Doctors didn't used to understand that if you worked with a patient, you should wash yourself and your tools before working with any other patient    Anesthesia (Beg. Of 20th century) → Used to just knock people unconscious or drink alcohol    **BIG ONES: KEEPING CHILDREN HEALTHY AND ALIVE**    Vaccines     (1940s) Antibiotics      PATHOGENS → Cause infectious diseases    Viruses (can be carried by other species)  Bacteria  Protists (usually don't cause diseases; but then there's Maleria)  Fungi   Worms (also not typically deadly)    → Vectors: Species that can carry diseases and give them to us      Humans and Pathogens are co‐evolving    Example:  Ascaris ‐ Intestinal roundworm   Reproduce in human intestines  Est. One billion humans are infected with this (most just live with it)  Mostly in tropical/subtropical regions  Human Change: Digestive enzymes  Parasite Change: Fewer lung migrators  More likely to stay in the intestines (host lives longer) and this makes them become less deadly    HIV → Single deadliest pathogen to humans  1.5 million people per year killed  Jumps from simians to humans     VIRUSES:   Inserting their genetic material into our cells  Makes cells produce more viruses    → The human genome contains 100,000 segments of DNA from viruses  Contained in a lot of the Junk DNA  2006: Extinct virus was resurrected from a human genome    ?? When did the earliest virus appear??    → Possibly forever  Current Status  Human Evolutionary Context: What's impacting our evolution now    1.Social Behavior  a.Collective behaviors and attempts to save our species    2.Environment    3.Pathogens    4.Genetic Constraints  a.Rely on medicine to fix our problems  ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐  Individual Behaviors  "Genetics and the environment impact 1.Behavior Defined  behaviors"  2.Innate Behaviors  3.Leaned Behaviors  4.Human learning  Behavior Defined  → When we talk about emotions, is this something confined to humans or does it extend to other species?    → Do animals have "Leisure time"?    → Animal behavior is a new field of study ‐ including human behavior (beginning of last century)      Behavior → What and animal does when interacting with its environment    External vs internal environment   By (late) 19th century: Artificial selection alters animal behaviors  Darwin: Structures and behaviors impact fitness  Fitness ‐ ability to survive      Innate Behaviors    → Genetically Programmed Behavior    Example:  Yawning ‐ trying to get more oxygen to the brain  Contagiousness of yawning???  Aggressive display of teeth??  Cat scratching furniture    Reflex → Immediate, automatic response to specific stimulus  Meadow Vole: scattering and hiding reflex to shadows and predator calls  Reflexes are experienced the most when tired    Grebes (Oregon Water Birds):  Mating Dance → Fixed Action pattern: A series of Reflexes  Grebes respond reflexively to other Grebes' movement ‐ Highly programmed    Cuckoo Bird:  Pushing out eggs of other birds in other bird nests, lays theirs in that nest so that the parent bird of the other eggs can't tell and they raise the Cuckoo offspring  Parent of other bird species has reflex that when it sees an open mouth and shaking and noises, it has to vomit and feed it.     Robin:  "Early bird gets the worm" → Internal Stimulus → Drive: Internal stimulus prommotes behavior  Biological clocks that make sure the bird Is active during certain hours of the day    {Drives → Thirst, Sleep, hunger, sexual reproduction, urinate}    → Humans tend to try to override these drives by learning        Learned Behaviors    → Impacted by experience    Example:  Teaching cats to scratch some things but not others  Walking on a leash    **You need to have the brain power/hardware to be able to store learned behaviors      More examples:               Bengal Mix Domestic Cats  Innate Behavior  Hunting   Learned Behavior  Methods of hunting     Nature   →   Innate  Nurture  →   Nurture    Examples of Learned Behavior:       Imprinting: Learning during sensitive period of time (when the brain is still kinda forming)    Dogs:  Training puppies for sound association with food  Ring a bell when the dog is about to eat, then when you ring the bell the dog will drool and associate the sound with food.     → Associative Learning: Relating one stimulus to another  Reward + Punishment → positive + negative association      Habituation → Learning to ignore specific stimuli    Humans have issues with this sometimes (ADHD)  Touch receptors in our rear ends when sitting for prolonged periods of time    Latent Learning → learning while focused on other activities  Kangaroo rats: eating food but also learning where the escape routes are in their surroundings   Lab rats and the maze: Placing food in specific spots; the rats  go to find it. They're finding food but also learning the maze    Insight Learning → using prior knowledge in a new situation  Chimps stacking boxes in order to get to a hanging banana  Putting together bits of information to learn to do something that you haven't done before          Human Learning    Innate Responses → when we're infants, most everything we do is innate and it's like reflexes    → Larger cerebral cortex = less innate behavior, more ability to learn    Learning:   → Synapse: Connection between neurons (you're trying to make these connections when you learn) 


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