SURVEY SPECIAL EDUC
SURVEY SPECIAL EDUC SPED 2000
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hermann Schneider on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 2000 at University of Georgia taught by Greene in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/201961/sped-2000-university-of-georgia in Special Education at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 1 Person rst language characteristics When identifying a person with a disability say a person with autismquot rather than autistic personquot This focuses on the person not the disability or impairment Special Education terminology disability vs handicap Disability the inability or a reduced capacity to perform a task in a specific way limitation Handicap the impact or consequence of a disability not the condition itself difficultiesimpact De nition of prevalence and incidence Prevalence the total number of individuals with a particular disability existing in the population at a given time Incidence the rate of inception the number of new instances of a disability occurring within a given time frame usually a year The top 3 most common disability categories Specific learning disabilities Speech or language impairments Mental Retardation see table 12 Characteristics of service delivery teams 0 Multidisciplinary Teams professionals of various disciplines that independently conduct their own evaluations It s not as collaborative as other teams 0 Interdisciplinary Teams Similar to multidisciplinary teams they work independently but collaborate An lEP team of educators and parents collaborating together 0 Transdisciplinary Teams Professionals conduct their evaluations and essentially teach their skills to the other team members Team leader usually an educator is chosen as the primary interventionist This is a more coordinated and unified approach SLP might teach the gen ed teacher communication exercises to work with the students Persons of historical interest as discussed in class see powerpoint o ltard French physician who established a systematic educational approach with the celebrated case of Victor of Averyon Father of Special Education 0 Seguin French physician who was a pupil of ltard and developed teaching methods for students with disabilities He founded the first facility for the blind o Gallaudet SIGN LANGUAGE Gallaudet University is one of several dedicated to students with hearing impairments o Dix championed better and humane treatment for the mentally ill Helped establish mental institutions 0 Alexander Graham Bell promoted educating children with disabilities in public schools helped develop speaking skills to those who were deaf o Montessori expert in early childhood education developed educational theory on providing direct sensory experience in learning Transition rules State of Georgia Transition HS graduation post secondary ed or adult services and initial years of employment Transition services A coordinated set of activities for students with a disability designed to improve academic and functional achievement based on the students needs and includes instruction related services community experiences and employment skills lndividualized Transition Plan ITP 16 or entering high school whichever comes first Developmental delay individual states referring to children ages 3 to 9 who perform significantly below developmental norms Atrisk an infant or a child who has a high probability of exhibiting delays in development or developing a disability Cooperative or coteaching models One teach One observe Parallel teaching lowers teacherpupil ratio instruction planned jointly amp delivered by each teacher to 12 of a heterogenous group of learners Alternative teachingone teacher provides instruction to a larger group other teacher provides to smaller group Team teachingteachers share responsibility equally and take turns leading discussion w m u mm Mimi Panin mm I mm mumquot A Sumiedwahwuiukiv 39 slmnmmwulm mun v s momma 791 W Avrmm mrvik SPED documents in which services are provided Infants Toddlers and Preschoolers With Special Needs EHA THE EDUCATION FOR THE HANDICAPPED ACT Amendments of 1986 PL 99457 pushed the rapid development of services and parent partnerships ndividualized Family Service Plan IFSP more family focused and reflective of family s resources priorities and concerns Early Intervention El birth to age 2 Early childhood special education age 35 39 quot 39 39 quot 39 plan must be 39 39 yearly an extremely important document stating what level the child is currently learning in his strengths and weaknesses what is expected in the next year how they intend to educate the child and related services 39ndividualized transition plan must be updated annually it includes postsecondary goals for an individual moving from school to living and working in the community It states linkages andor responsibilities of various agencies eg employment services vocational rehabilitation and the school system to ensure proper services resources supports and activities that each student may require during the transition process Behavioral intervention plan a plan in which the lEPteam must considerthe use of positive behavioral interventions strategies and supports to address the problematic behaviors of students with disabilities The lEP team is able to develop a proactive plan of intervention Required by PL 108446 Chapter 2 Key Court Cases see powerpoints 195070s 0 Brown vs Board of Education separate but equalquot was unconstitutional separate schools for black and white students were unequal struck down segregation in schools 0 PARC vs Commonwealth of Pennsylvania FAPE to all children ages 621 regardless of their impairment parents have right to participate in educational decisions states must engage in child findquot efforts special education preschools must be provided if provided for children without disabilities 0 Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District vs Rowley appropriate education was defined in terms of providing a reasonable education not the maximum possible achievement 0 Daniel RR vs State Board of Education placement is secondary to the need for an appropriate education clarified least restrictive environment 1 determination on whether a child can make satisfactory progress and achieve educational benefit in the general ed classroom with modifications and supports and 2 determination of whether the child has been integrated to the maximum extent possible 0 Oberti vs Board of Education clearjudicial preference for educational integration was established placement in a general ed classroom with supports must be offered to students with disabilities prior to more restrictive settings child cannot be excluded solely because curriculum services require modification LRE Least Restrictive Environment 0 Forest Grove School District vs TA IDEA authorized reimbursement for private special education services when a public school fails to provide FAPE and the private school placement is appropriate regardless of whether the student received sped services a student who had LD ADHD and depression never received SPED services and was found eligibleparents removed their child from the school and placed the student in a private school then sought reimbursement from the school district PL 101476 revisions to Education for all Handicapped Children Act 1 No child left behind reauthorization of the elementary and secondary education act annual testing for all students in certain grades to demonstrate adequate yearly progress in math reading and science public access to schools performance on tests provides for parental choice in schools that do not meet annual progress goals schools not making sufficient annual progress offer additional services to students highly qualified status for teachers IDEA above IDEA vs 504 Provision IDEA Section 504 of Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Purpose provides free and appropriate prohibits discrimination on the public education to children and youth with specific disabilities basis of a person s disability in all programs receiving federal funds Ages Covered 321 years old No age restriction Definition of Disability 12 disabilities defined according to federal regulations plus statelocal definition of developmentally delayed Broader interpretation of a disability than found in IDEA a person with a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits a major life activity who has a record of such impairment or who is regarded as having such an impairment Funding states receive some federal dollars for excess cost of educating students with disabilities Because this is a civil rights law no additional funding is provided Planning Documents IEP accommodation plan 504 planquot Assessment Provisions a comprehensive non discriminatory eligibility evaluation in all areas of suspected disability conducted by a multidisciplinary team revaluations every 3 years unless waived eligibility determination requires nondiscriminatory assessment procedures requires reevaluation prior to a significant changequot in placement Due Process extensive rights and protections afforded to student and parents affords parents impartial hearing right to inspect records and representation by counsel additional protections at discretion of local school district Coordination no provision school district required to identify a 504 coordinator Enforcement US department of education Office of Special Education Programs Office for Civil Rights US department of Education Process of identifying a student for SPED services 0 Prereferral gt Referral gt Assessment 0 Prereferral interventions designed by a support team and implemented within the classroom to assist the struggling child generalspecial educators collaborate to create alternative instructional or behavioral management strategies parents not involved 0 Referral a written request to evaluate a student for a suspected disability 0 Assessment parent permission obtained evaluation is conducted by a multidisciplinary team to determine if a disability is present all necessary information is obtained Assessment accommodations o presentation let students access assignments tests and activities in ways other than reading standard print 0 Response allows student to complete assignments tests and activities in different ways or solve or organize problems using an assistive device or organizer 0 Timing and scheduling give students the time and breaks they need to complete assignments tests and activities and may change the time of day day or number of days over which an activity takes place 0 Setting change location in which a student receives instruction or the conditions of the setting Concept of inclusion in the 1980s regular education initiative REI Term was introduced in 1986 and called for a restructuring of the relationship between general and special education Definition of inclusion students with disabilities spend most or all their time in a general ed classroom with students without disabilities Due Process 2 year statute of limitations on due process resolution sessions are offered prior to a due process hearing attorney fees may be demanded from parents if suits are considered frivolous usually due process hearings occur to resolve disagreements between the parents and the school usually due to failure to implement an lEP that could have resulted in misconduct of the child Chapter 3 Definition and goals of multicultural education Using different racial linguistic social and cultural backgrounds of students to develop improved instruction Educational equity Cultural pluralism Crosscultural competence ntegration of studies on ethnic groups and global issues Social reconstruction Human relations Federal gov t definition of race used to describe groups to which individuals belong identify with or belong in the eyes of the community American Indian or Alaskan Native Asian or Pacific Islander Hispanic Black not of Hispanic origin White not of Hispanic origin Characteristics of macro culture and microculture Teacher considerations for bilingual students information about the language characteristics of learners with a disability and Limited English Proficiency information about cultural factors that influence planning and services culturally and linguistically appropriate instructional strategies and materials and the inclusive learning environment Factors related to and consequences of overrepresentation and underrepresentation Relationship between family socioeconomic status poverty dentification procedures by professionals from culturally dominant backgrounds faulty identification procedures ineffective prereferral strategies test bias inappropriate assessment techniques nstructor Preferences teacher bias different academic and behavioral performance standards for students from minority populations nstructional methodologies reflect dominant culture teachers Field dependentsensitive vs Field independent Dominant may result in an inferior and culture teachers perceptions of diverse students learning needs different cognitive styles less effective educational experience lncreases risk for underachievement and school dropout May create limited employment opportunities fied dependentgroup context learning fied independent dominant culture preference Assessment concerns and culturelanguage issues Disproportionate representation in sped may result from inappropriate assessment measures and evaluation procedures Standardized testing including IQ tests may be inherently unfair to students with cultural and linguistic differences from the majority culture Leads to incorrect assumptions about a student s abilities and inappropriate educational placement Innovations to address assessment bias Nondiscriminatory assessments eg provide and administer tests in student s native language no single procedure shall be the sole criterion for placement trained personnel communication to parents in their native language Test revisions newer tests normed on a wider group of students with different cultural backgrounds Multiple lntelligences verballinguistic musicalrhythmic bodilykinesthetic interpersonal logicalmathematical visualspatial intrapersonal and naturalist nurturing and relating information to one s own natural surroundings Gardner 19932006 Portfolio assessments relies on students learning experiences and evaluates realworld tasks using different indicators such as writing samples speeches artwork video internet work samples overtime then placed in portfolios Strategies materials and procedures which address cultural and linguistic diversity Assess a child in both English and in the native language before administering othertests A student must exhibit a disability when evaluated in the native language Schools should use multiple assessment tools Evaluators should use unbiased tools and techniques An interpreter may be used if bilingual education is not available Parents should be involved in developing assessments Chapter 4 Changes in parentprofessional relationships From regarding parents and other family members as part of the child s problem to regarding them as partners in addressing the challenges of exceptionality From insisting on passive roles for parents to expecting active partnership roles for families From regarding families as consisting only of a motherchild dyad to recognizing the preferences and needs of all members of a family From responding to family needs in a general way to individualizing for the family as a whole and for each member of the family Contemporary attitudes taken by professionals on various issues in dealing with parents lssue Traditional Attitude Contemporary Attitude Vision parents greatest need to Families need to be which professional encouraged to dream about counseling and advice is what they want for geared is to accept the themselves and their child burden of raising their child with a disability and they and to become realistic about need assistance in making his or her limitations and the those dreams come true fact that disability necessarily These dreams and future results in secondclass plans should lead to citizenship expectations that all members of the family are entitled to full citizenship Vision replaces despair Support and Assistance parent s difficulties in coping with the child are largely psychological or psychiatric in nature and the proper interventions are psychiatric or psychological counseling Families can benefit from one another One benefit that almost all families need is the emotional resiliency and information that other families have acquired about life with disabilities Socialization Mothers need respite to alleviate the stress and burden of caring for their child Families need the child with disabilities to have friends amp integrated recreational opportunities in order to respond to the child s needs for socialization affection and identity Hope for the future Mothers need clinical information about disability Families need information about and inspiration from people with a disability who are successfully integrated into community life Instructional Emphasis Mothers need training related to skill development and behavior management so they can be followthroughquot teachers for their child and implement homebased lesson plans Families need encouragement and ways to ensure that the child has a functional education taught in natural environments This encouragement and help should assist families to enlist the support of the natural helpers in those environments family friends store clerks bus drivers scout leaders Social Support Many families are financially unable to meet their child s needs and should seek out ofhome placement Many families need new policies to provide for example direct subsidies and new tax credits to help meet the financial demands associated with disability in the home and family setting Family systems model having an underlying belief that a family is an interrelated social system with unique characteristics and needs Family characteristics features that make the family unique Inputs family size culture socioecon status geographic location health status special challenges facing the family poverty substance abuse parents who have a disability Famiy interaction cohesion degree of freedom and independence amp adaptability ability to change in response to a crisis or stressful event Famiy functions affection self esteem economics daily care socialization recreation education Famiy life cycle developmental changes that occur in most families over time Changes alter structure of family may be predictable Characteristics of Stage theory parental reaction to a disability includes three stages and encompasses a wide variety of feelings and reactions i if 39 shock denial grief and depression ambivalence guilt anger shame and embarrassment bargaining adaptation and reorganization acceptance and adjustment Impact on the family relationships when having a child with a disability depend on parents marital integration religious beliefs and values financial resources cultural heritage and external support system Marital Relationships some end in divorce and difficulties other relationships are strengthened Mothers feel overwhelmed concern about family finances physical and mental exhaustion impaired relationships with other family members and employment is impacted Fathers discrepant feelings less emotional than mothers focus on the longterm consequences affected by visibility of disability Siblings can be a positive or negative experience depression social withdrawal anxiety jealousy sadness lower selfesteem poor peer relationships greatertolerance toward others increased compassion and higher levels of empathy Grandparents often viewed as the alternative caregiver may be the glue that holds family constellation togetherquot may provide needed levels of emotional support not found elsewhere Issues when parents do not have a meaningful relationship with schools LEP Limited English Proficiency Previous negative experiences Lack of knowledge of rights and responsibilities Deference to educators as the decision makers Lack of trust in the educational system Teachers and cultural sensitivity Use the family39s desired language and preferred mode of communication Recognize the importance of extended family members Use culturally competent interpreters Learn about culturally relevant variables Participate in the local community Learn a working knowledge of the language Address family members using formal titles
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