CRITICAL ISSUES ED
CRITICAL ISSUES ED EFND 2110
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noah Nikolaus on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EFND 2110 at University of Georgia taught by Brian Dotts in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see /class/201967/efnd-2110-university-of-georgia in Foundations of Education at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
EFND 2120 Midterm Study Guide Bigotry Extreme negative attitudes leading to hatred of a group and persons regarded as members of the group Discrimination actions or practices carried out by a member or members of dominant groups or their representatives that have a differential and negative impact on a member or members of subordinate groups Denial rationalization a response to a social problem such as injustice toward a minority group that does not acknowledge the existence of a problem but insists instead that no injustice has occurred as in that s not discrimination men have always been the boss its just the way things are meant to be Dissonant acculturation children learn English and American values and beliefs and lose their culture at a different and faster rate than do their parents Stereotypes positive or negative traits or traits ascribed to a certain group and to most members of that group Values combinations of attitudes that generate action or the deliberate choice to avoid action lVIinority group a subordinate group whose members have significantly less power to control their own lives than do members of a dominant or majority group Exceptionalist Perspective views social problems as private local unique exclusive and J 39 of 39 quot 39 39 39 defect accident or unfortunate circumstance which requires that all proposed remedies be tailored to fit each individual case Prejudice a negative attitude toward a group and persons perceived to be members of that group being predisposed to behave negatively toward members of a group White flight the migration of white families from an urban to a suburban location because of court rulings to desegregate urban schools Reification Universalist Perspective views social problems as public national general conclusive and predictable a consequence of imperfect and inequitable social arrangement which require research to identify their patterns and causes so that remedial institutional action can be taken to eliminate these problems and prevent them from reoccurring Cultural chauvinism belief that one s own culture is the best superior to all other cultures feeling no need to learn about other cultures Refugee person who is outside their country of origin or habitual residence because they have suffered persecution on account of race religion nationality etc Selective perception paying attention to behaviors of another person that reinforce our expectations for that person Self ful lling prophecy prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true by the very terms of the prophecy itself due to positive feedback between belief and behavior Pioneer Fund American nonprofit foundation established in 1937 quotto advance the scientific study of heredity and human differences tied to eugenics and white supremacy Eugenics the study of agencies under social control that may improve or repair the recial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally Know Nothing Party movement by the nativist American political faction of the 1850s characterized by political xenophobia antiCatholic sentiment and occasional bouts of violence against the groups the nativists targeted It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants who were often regarded as hostile to republican values and controlled by the Pope in Rome Avoidance rationalization propose partial or false solutions or are intended to distract attention from racism as a cause of some problem Nativism an antiimmigration ideology that advocates the protection of native inhabitants of a country from immigrants who are seen as threatening or dangerous Oppression when any entity distributes resources inequitably refuses to share power imposes ethnocentric culture or maintains unresponsive and in exible institutions Xenophobia fear of or prejudice against people from nations other than one s own Institutional discrimination established laws customs and practices in a society that allow systematic discrimination between people or groups based on skin color White privilege a set of options opportunities and opinions that are gained and maintained at the expense of people of color Ethnocentrism the belief that one s race nation or culture is superior to all others Indigenous people a racial or ethnic group that is well established in an area before the arrival of a new group a group that may be but does not need be native to the area in which it is established Internal colonialism theory explains contemporary discrimination as the maintenance of inequities resulting from historic exploitation of subordinate groups by the dominant group Victim blaming a response to a social problem such as injustice toward a minority group that identifies the problem as a deficiency in the minority group and not a societal problem as in if poor people want to escape poverty they just have to be willing to work harder Five Pillars of Islam Ethnicity identification of an individual according to her or her national origin and or distinctive cultural patterns Consonant acculturation occurs when parents and children learn English and the new culture at approximately the same time Cultural imperialism creation and maintenance of unequal relationships between civilizations favoring the more powerful civilization Functionalist theory order stability and cooperation in society are based on value consensus that is a general agreement by members of society concerning what is good and worthwhile Cultural deprivation theory absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept Conflict theory perspectives that emphasize the social political or material inequality of a social group that critique the broad sociopolitical system or that otherwise detract from structural functionalism Con ict theories draw attention to power differentials such as class con ict and generally contrast historically dominant ideologies Prescriptive belief a belief which leads to employing a tactic because of its believed benefits Self serving bias attribution of one s successes to internal or personal factors but attribute their failures to situational factors beyond their control Symbolic interactionism theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals Social distance scale scale to empirically measure people s willingness to pa1ticipate in social contacts of varying degrees of closeness with members of diverse social groups such as racial and ethnic groups Nature of language madeup Dogmatic to accept beliefs one has been taught without questioning them One drop of blood rule idea that anyone who is even slightly of color is not white General informationideas Fullinwider s three tributaries that make up multiculturalism James Banks s view of what multicultural curricula should include Objective V subjective culture Race as a social and legal construction Potential harm caused by the power to label Evangelical Christians in Waldman s The Founders and the Faithful as well as his overall themes General understanding of Judaism as presented in class General understanding of Eck s Afraid of Ourselves Tim Wise s understanding of overprivilege and underprivilege While all African Americans supported overturning Plessy v Ferguson understand what was lost in the African American community because of school integration General theme of Hart s Barefoot Heart Stories of a Migrant Child General understanding of the issues revealed in Precious Knowledge Supplemental Readings Understand how the Iroquois Nation in uenced the American Founding Understand the problems experienced by Edwina graduation tests included cultural information rather than strictly academic material which prevented her from passing testing bias Paul Kivel s understanding of how fear is generated Mythical norm as it is understood in Beverly Tatum s reading How Barack Obama learned to slip back and forth between his black and white worlds Legislation Affirmative Action a written plan required of businesses and institutions of higher education to reduce discrimination in hiring public contracting and college admissions English Only a movement in various states demanding that legislatures make English the official language of the state with the eventual goal of having the federal government make English the official language of the US Bracero Program initiated during QQII this program continues to import Mexicans into the US for 22 years as manual laborers Indian Removal Proposition 200 Arizona s law that requires proof of citizenship be presented to apply to vote or use public services 1790 immigration lawlimited naturalization to immigrants that were free white persons 1 Spring presents three models of schooling that have been used to arguably provide equality of educational opportunity Understand each model and discuss their purposes assumed strengths and weaknesses 0 Common School Model every student receives an equal and common education 0 All students regardless of background receive an equal education so that they can compete equally in the economic system 0 Advocates believed that all inequality in the school system would disappear because everything was equal 0 New York Workingman s party argued that regardless of equality in education the students home life would ultimately be unequal I Rich students have more resources books involved parents I Poor students have no money for tutors books and parents are working class so less involved 0 Advantages are that the students would not be treated differently while at school and would be given an equal opportunity to learn the material 0 Sorting Machine Model claims that equality of opportunity is guaranteed by impartial decisions made by teachers counselors and standardized tests and it will overcome the unequal influence of family background 0 All students are tested and placed into groups based on results and follow quottracksquot that lead to jobs that are appropriate to the students abilities I This ensures that competition takes place within the school 0 Weaknesses students were tested at the beginning of grade school where they have not had a proper chance to learn material thus leading to inaccurate results I Students were tested again in their early teens to determine what kind of jobs they should have and whether or not they should ever go to college 0 The intelligence tests used are biased because they are based upon Benet s theory of Inherited Intelligence and cannot accurately depict what an adolescent is capable of achieving academically o HighStakes Testing Model through this model variation of Sorting Machine students academic capacity is tracked by achievement exams 0 These achievement exams determine a student s placement in class whether or not they graduate and what their future schooling and career will entail 0 Unlike intelligence tests used in the Sorting Machine Model these tests show what a student has learned in school thus far Results of the test determine whether or not the student can advance 0 to the next educational level in their school career I Tests place an extreme amount of pressure on students and do not necessarily properly depict the student s knowledge level 0 Students may become distressed due to anxiety over test failure ramifications and perform poorly 2 Explain the strategy used by the NAACP leading up to the Brown vs Board case in 1954 In your discussion include a description of the kinds of cases filed by the NAACP before Brown the issues involved in these initial cases followed by a description of the social science research presented by Dr Kenneth Clark in the film and the Court s final decision in Brown vs Board and why it made this decision 0 NAACP Strategy Houston and Marshall targeted graduate and secondary schools Argued against the separate but equal clause established by the courts ruling in Plessy v Ferguson stating that schools could not possibly be separate and equal 0 Thurgood Marshall took on cases that he knew would lose so that they could be appealed and taken to the Supreme Court 0 Defended black students that were denied admittance into white law schools I Chose to defend law schools so that the judges could relate and understand that the black law schools were not equal 0 Briggs vs Elliott 1949 I NAACP and Thurgood Marshall s first quottestquot case against segregation in public schools I Clerendon County South Carolina black schools were unequal to white public schools 0 Davis vs County School Board of Prince Edward County 1951 I Black students protested against their underfunded black schools and the NAACP took the case I The case was rejected and appealed to the Supreme Court 0 Gebhart vs Belton 1952 I Parents of 6 black children argued that the schools they were attending in Delaware were too far away and inferior to that of the closer white school I First case in which the court allowed the 6 black children to be integrated into the white school I Segregation still in effect 0 Bolling vs Sharpe 1953 I District of Columbia black students against segregation I Argued that segregation was unconstitutional under the Due Process Clause 0 Kenneth Clark Doll Experiment I Presented psychiatric evidence when he testified in the Briggs vs Elliott case I Clark gave white and lack dolls to black children to analyze the psychological ramifications of being black and children s attitudes about race Court s Ultimate Ruling 0 Even if segregated black and white schools were of equal quality in facilities and teachers segregation by itself was harmful to black students and unconstitutional They found that a significant psychological and social disadvantage was given to black children from the nature of segregation itself drawing on research conducted byKenneth Clark 0 Why 0 That the only reason to sustain segregation was an honest belief in the inferiority of Negroes Warren further submitted that the Court must overrule Plessy to maintain its legitimacy as an institution of liberty and it must do so unanimously to avoid massive Southern resistance 3 Explain the purposes of common schooling according to David Labaree and the contradictions he sees between civic republicanism and the free market 4 In Jonathan Kozol s chapter five llThe Road to Romequot he presents several problems with high stakes testing Explain what these problems are in depth and why he views them as problematic Acutely negative for innercity children because the resources necessary to do well are not available oftentimes this leaves the children at a disadvantage because they are shoved into classrooms of 2830 students and are not able to voice their thoughts and opinions Rather their ideas are squelched and the students begin to foster a sense of dreadhatred towards the school system as well as testing Classrooms spend more than 25 of their time on test preparationgt some schools shift their calendar so that students have more time at the beginning of the year to prepare for the tests This also leads to less information being taught recess and the arts being cut and teacher scripting to occur Oftentimes students will be forced into after school programs or summer schools just so that they can quotexcelquot at the test Extreme pressure to pass tests creates stress and anxiety among students gtin his research Kozol found that even kindergartners were being tested and that oftentimes students were found breaking down wetting themselves or having anxiety attacks all for fear of failure Subjects not tested are often removed from the curriculum or deemphasized gtarts are a main one Also in many new york schools subjects such as history are removed which leaves the children uncultured Recess has been abolished in several schools to make time for test prepand students who do not perform well on tests must return to school during summer break to prepare for more tests This takes away a child s time for play ans healthy socialization and physical activity Most of the time these test results are not returned to the teachers until the school year is over This doesn t help the students or the teachers at all because they are either moving on to the next grade or getting held back because they failed the high stakes test Teachers have no way of knowing where their students strengths and weaknesses lie in the classroom so no individualized help can be given
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