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by: Tiara Muller


Tiara Muller
GPA 3.97


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This 34 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Muller on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Cobb in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/201970/hist-2112-university-of-georgia in History at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
oLynching OPronounced in the South in the late 19th century 18821968 OPresented as a spectacle of what39s to come to blacks who misbehave This is meant to remind blacks that whites have power over them OGeorgia and Mississippi lead the country in the number of lynchings of black people Mississippi rst oBooker T Washington 0 Regarded as the leading spokesman and representative of blacks in the South 0 Born as a slave but got himself through school at the Hampton Institute where he later became a teacher then the head of the school OCo founded the Tuskegee Institute which had a curriculum and the rudiments of a college education but it was geared towards training blacks to work for whites later on Many students became teachers due to the lack of educated blacks in the south oThis re ected Washington s views 018957Atlanta Compromise OCotton states exhibitions call in Washington who is head of Tuskegee OFamous speech Washington makes basically saying blacks should stay in the South and work for white people This speech was supposed to address blacks but it mainly addressed the whites in hopes of getting them to contribute to his institute He was pretty much saying that if whites give blacks a chance they will be more reliable employees Washington thought socially the races could be separate but economically together 0WEB Dubois OFirst black man to get a PhD from Harvard DuBois speaks as an intellectual and is concerned that Washington s view having blacks learn a useful trade so they can work for whites was too limited HeBelieved blacks shouldn t settle and preached a doctrine of hard work and staying out of trouble like Washington OHe thought that under Washington s strategy blacks would never progress and only be workers In the Talented Tenth Washington said he believed Washington s plan wouldn39t develop the intelligent individuals that will rise up and be the leaders of the race He wanted to develop skills by virtue of education that would lead black people toward a more promising future oIda B Wells CA courageous black woman who saw things more how DuBois did She spoke out against lynching and the Jim Crow system and she led a lawsuit when she was removed from a train where whites didn t want to ride with her OInvolved in the NAACP 01890 1910 Jim Crow Laws OEven dictated separate bibles for black people to swear in on as witnesses in court OEXtreme restrictions on black people 19097NAACP OFormed by a group of blacks including Ida B Wells and DuBois OPrimarily consisted of members of the black middle class those who had some economic security OMost NAACP chapters in the South were not even known to exist by whites until the 50s ONationally the NAACP embarked on a strategy of challenging Jim Crow Laws in Court 1896 Plessey V Ferguson decided on separate but equal 0193 87Gaines V Canada OCanada was representative of Missouri OGaines wanted to study law but Missouri didn t have a black law school Missouri had a fund for people like Gaines that would contribute to blacks tuition so they could go out of state to other law schools but Gaines didn t want to go out of stateiwanted to stay in Missouri and practice law there so he could get exposure to the Missouri code 0 Supreme Court says Missouri must admit Gaines to the University of Missouri Gaines disappeared a few months later 0 Court is now saying separate MUST be equal ol94liA Philip Randolph OBlack Labor Union Leader who tells Franklin Roosevelt if he doesn t do something about discrimination against blacks in defense he will lead a March on Washington Roosevelt tells Randolph he will create the FEPC by executive order Fair Employment Practices Commission which looked into cases and racial discrimination in defense hiring The FEPC had no real power but was extremely important symbolically Watchdog group 0 Double V campaign ORefers to victory in germany and japan as well as Jim Crow OBlacks drafted but had no right to vote in democratic primaries violation of 15111 amendment OMembership increased 9 times during WWII 019447Smith v Allwright OThe supreme court said blacks should be allowed to vote in democratic primaries For the first time blacks are able to vote in party primaries Democratic Primaries in the South were exclusive and had no oppositionicomplete control 0 1946 was the first primary where this ruling was put in to action but a man said if any black people showed up at the primary he would shoot theminone showed but added a new dynamic 019517McLaurin v Oklahoma OMcLaurin had gone to Court and won his right to be admitted to the University of Oklahoma When he arrived at the university administrators told him he had to sit in a classroom that was joined to the lecture hall but had to be in his own room the whole time He had his own table in the lunchroom library etc Court said it wasn t fair and he had to be fully integrated into the University 019517Sweatt v Painter OSweatt applied to University of Texas Texas said they would create a black law school for Texas but they made it really crappy and cheap only 200 books in black law library vs 78000 in white Court ruled in Sweatt s favor and he was admitted to the University of Texas law school Court hasn t said separate is wrong yet but is enforcing that it MUST be EQUAL oClarendon County South Carolina OPoor county with a majority black population School facilities for blacks were dreadful Black children might have to walk up to 9 miles to get to a ransack school because there was not enough money for buses OThe Locals sign a petition calling on the school board to make equal the facilities A group of parents in Topeka Kansas also petitioned about whether separate could ever be equal The case eventually worked its wayto the Supreme Court in 1952 and the court began to wonder if separate could be equal 019547Brown V Board of Education ORuled that school segregation as required by law was unconstitutional because it was an unequal condition and denied blacks equal protection of the laws under the 14th Amendment Court did not immediately order school districts to desegregate 0195572nd Brown Decision OCourt reaffirmed Brown V Board ruling and said segregation should be dismantled with all deliberate speed The ruling was left open enough so that Southern white leaders felt the Court might have cold feet bout enforcing that decision and so the Southerners decided to put up a stiff show of resistance to integration of schools oEmmett Till 0 Summer and Fall of 1955 014 year old black who grew up in Chicago went to visit his cousins in Mississippi in 1955 He was street smart but did not realize how careful you had to be in the South as a black person Till showed off a little and supposedly whistledmade a comment at a white woman in a country tore OHis cousins were shocked because that kind of behavior was unheard of Within a day or 2 some white men came to where Emmett was staying and took him away He was shot and thrown in the river with a cotton gin blade around his neck OWhite men arrested but an all white jury acquitted themicouldn t be tried again after this trial and admitted to the crime OIntemational public opinion got involvedibig wakeup call for rest of country with what was going on in the South OGalvanizes black people to step forward more aggressively and demand change oDecember 19557Rosa Parks OSeamstressiheavily involved in the NAACP Got on a Montgomery City Bus where blacks are supposed to relinquish seat to whites and Parks refused and was arrested Blacks did a boycott of city buses in Montgomery which had a pretty quick economic impact oMontgomery Bus Boycott OEffected the economy Whites wanted to ban boycotts OCost city bus company money and inconveniences whites OBlacks organize carpools and stick by its guns for over a year The boycott ended because Supreme Court looked into transportation and declared segregated seating on city buses unconstitutional This is the first largescale uprising by blacks for equal rights through group action and showed white people they could achieve results from this kind of action oReverend Martin Luther King Junior OSeen as a spokesperson for boycott movement in Montgomery 0 SCLC OKing created in 1957 OSouthem Christian Leadership Conferenceinonviolent action in response to civil rights OKing modeled after Gandhi and wanted to take a nonviolent strategy to protest and discrimination against blacks ONothing much happens for a while 019567Massive Resistance OWhite Southern leaders got together and formed this policy ODecided to just wear blacks down especially since Court seemed to not want con ictijust refused to comply with court decisions and then blacks would have to take it to the court OTakes money and dealing with White judges OWhite s thought this would sufficiently prevent blacks from being integrated OAttempt to create a solid wall of resistance 019577Little Rock Crisis OLocal segregationists want to follow massive resistance OPlan to integrate high schools in Little Rock eventually works its way into the courts and the courts demand that the school be integrated Opublic generally showed anger that laws were not being complied to in the South 0 Orval Faubus OGovemor of Arkansas ODidn t have a track record of being rigid in his thinking about race OHe was hearing from people that if he wanted to be reelected he would stop integration doesn t really want to get involved OCalls the National Guard to Block implementation of Federal Court order Eisenhower sees this as insubordination OEisenhower federalizes the National Guard and sends backup from the 82nd airborne OThis was the first impressive enforcement role in seeing that the law is carried out in Arkansas OCrisis had bad publicity and the economy suffered because of this OLesson was that if your city was attracting this kind of bad publicity it was bad for your city economically OEffected the ways people did things 0196078itIns Greensboro North Carolina OGroup of black college students start practice of sitting in at local lunch counters Blacks weren t allowed to sit and eat like any other shopper The blacks started occupying seats at the lunch counter and refused to leave this drew a crowd police and some violence 0 Gives Greensboro a bad name and PR problems for Woolworth s stores across the country and puts pressure on corporate headquarters and had stores desegregate their lunch counter because they can t afford the economic loss 0 Sitins became more widespread O Wadeins in segregated pools OPrayins in segregated churches OSit ins got places desegregated without a court order by taking direct actionicounted on public pressure for change 0 l 96 liFreedom Rides OBlacks took buses down through the South to see if places were following Court orders with transportation ONot really following ordersistill segregated OCreated more public opinion pressure OKennedy administration got upset with freedom riders 019607New Orleans OLocal school board of cials pick schools in blue collar white neighborhoods to be integrated OLower income white areas first to be integrated OElementary schoolikids had to be escorted by Federal Marshalls through protesting whites ORuby Bridges was one of the little black girls OPeople won t stand up and do something about the reaction and tourism decreases in New Orleans 0196 liAtlanta OAtlanta schools under court order to integrate OWilliam B Hartsfreld Mayor of Atlanta who had been trying to attract black voters and made concessionsiincreased amenities in black neighborhoods parks etc O Too Busy To Hate Atlanta is too busy and concerned about image Hartsfreld simply thought they should give a little to keep peace oFall 19627James Meredith OAfter court case Meredith is allowed to register at the University of Mississippi oRoss Barnett OGovemor of Mississippi that did not want Ole Miss to be integrated ONight before Meredith shows up for registration massive riots with tear gas take placeiseveral are killed and injured The Kennedy administration had to federalize the Mississippi National Guard 019637George C Wallace OGovemor of Alabama who vowed to maintain segregation When the University of Alabama is ordered to be integrated Wallace stands in the doors in front of the school until the Federal Marshalls come in actually asked them to pull a gun on him so he would look better 019587Emest VandiveriNo Not One OElected Governor of Georgia on the slogan of No Not One Meant no white child would go to school with a black child Showed resistance of Brown decision OJanuary 196 l the Federal Court orders black students to be admitted to the University of Georgia 0 l 96 liSibley commission OLooked into whether or not close public schools if integration were to happen Sibley was a prominent banker and argued that each district should make the decision themselves This got Atlanta off the hook so they didn t have to close down school Schools integrate Fall of 1961 019627Carl Sanders OSegregationist but not an idiot He knew they couldn t keep going against courts and integration would come about oBirmingham vs Atlanta OWhich city would come out as the leading city in the South OBirmingham Bombingham Klan had a large connection with steel oBull Connor OPolice commissioner of the city of Birmingham Known for being hostile to civil rights protest and blacks OTensions start to escalate in 1963 when protests start Protestors want to draw in Bull Connor till he can t take it anymore High schoolers take role of protestors when adults are running low Connor told police to bring out hoses and attack dogs protestors wanted it to be publicized to generate support Public support then increases OBirmingham has bad PR rep OBy their violent response to a nonviolent protest they aided a civil rights bill being passed oSiXteenth Street Baptist Church OBomb explodes killing 4 young girls at this church in Birmingham oMedgar Evers OMississippi OCivil rights leader there is shot by Byron De La Beckwith OBeckwith was tried twice but was acquitted oMarch on Washington OInvolved 250000 people ODr King s I Have ADream speech 019647SNCN7Freedom Summer OEncourage black people to register to vote and organize people OWanted to end discrimination in neighborhoods 019647Neshoba Murders OSherriff was involvedino one was convicted oFannie Lou Hammer OPart of a group called the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Most people couldn t vote but showed they wanted to Sends its protest delegation to the Democrat convention to protest their exclusion OSpoke of how herself and some friends were arrested and beaten Lyndon Johnson tried to get her bumped off TV to take away attention and keep it on him 0 Ultimately the D quot quot o ers Mi i ippi Freedom Democratic Party 2 seats which they don t take in the end oCivil Rights Act of 1964 OForbade discrimination in any form of public accommodations This takes down barriers to integration all over the South 019657Watts later Detroit Newark etc OWattsiblack neighborhood in Los Angeles 0 Black neighborhoods were going up in ames and suffered violence even outside the South oMalcolm X OBlack Muslim leader who was an advocate of separatism and condemned whites as a group Said the whole country was infested with racism and nobody should trust white people 019667Stokley Carmichael 0 Black Power OUnityicriticized King for his nonviolent approach 019687MLK Assassinated oApril of 1968 oBlack neighborhoods erupt in further violence and gives rise to a white backlash 0 Freedom of Choice oldea that said any parent who had a child in a school system could designated the school they wanted their child to attend This put the burden on black parents to send their child to a previously allwhite school and allowed for minimal integration This was a way around the law because they didn t have a segregation policy 019687Green vs New Kent County In Virginia OCourt case ruled that Brown v board wanted schools to actively integrate and ordered schools to take immediate action to integrate Was dif cult to move kids from their neighborhoods to other schools because white and black live separately ol97liSwann v Mecklenburg Obussing was an appropriate measure to demonstrate racial integration in schools oDe Facto v De Jure ODe facto is segregation that eXists other than that caused by law The Court said that regardless of the cause of segregation residential etc schools had to be integrated ODe Jureisegregation by law oDetroit Boston OCourts begin to make decisions that affect the North They must integrate the schools by bussing The KKK takes some action in these cities with acts of violence Pressure builds up in the North to slow down the process of school integration because it is affecting their neighborhoods 019747Milliken v Bradley Involves Detroit 0 Majority of the justices decide that if you have neighborhood segregation in the suburbs it is not connected to school segregation Cannot force school systems to bus children in order to promote integration This ruling undid previous court rulings 019487Dixiecrats 03rd PartyiStrom Thurmond White southerners who don t want to accept civil rights 019567Eisenhower V Stevenson OEisenhower Republican ran and won in 1952 and 1956 against Democratic liberal Stevenson Whites shifted their vote to Republican because Democrats are becoming more liberal in civil rights 019647Goldwater ORepublicans nominate Goldwater who is against the civil Rights Act of 1964 Helps him to win white Southern voters Go hunting where the ducks are Succeeds in 5 different states oWallaceiThird Party 1968 OSouthem states OWallace also was looked upon favorably in the North because of the white backlash against blacks Only carries 5 southern states Most whites in South said they would have voted for Nixon if Wallace hadn t run This creates Southern Strategy because Nixon decides to not push integration etc 019767Jimmy Carter OCarter manages to put together the old support of the solid South and get Democrats back into the White House Many of those who vote for him are black By this time Democrats have become the party of the black people By 1980 Southerners had gotten over their loyalty to Carter 019807Ronald Reagan OKicked off his campaign in the South at the Neshoba County Fair He spoke for defending states rights aka segregation The south voted for him minus Georgia in 1980 019927Clinton ORoss Peroti3rd Party Candidateihelped Clinton win OClinton ran as a more conservative Democrat He favored a balanced budget and cut back on spending Clinton won support of Southern whites and won 4 Southern States Would still have been elected if he hadn t gotten Southern votes 02000 BushGore OGore Clinton s VP runs against Bush ORalph Nader OSupporters are composed of the people on the far left that aren t satisfied with Gore and takes a significant portion of the vote from Gore OFlorida Dispute 0194519537Hary S Truman O Followed Roosevelt OLittle known Missourian OHe Had to make the atomic bomb decision upon entering office and had to establish himself in relationship to Roosevelt 0 Fair Deal Promises to keep working to improve the rights of workers and safeguard labor OBlack Americans civil rights desegregation of aimed forces and appointed the first black Federal judge 019477TaftHa1tley Act ODesigned to curb the in uence of labor unionsino longer legal for companies to act as closed shops Gave the President the right to order laborers that went on strike to go back to work for 80 days Truman vetoed but it was passed 0 Do Nothing Congress Truman used acts such as the TaftHartley to his advantage and tried to present them as bad pieces of legislation that were trying to undo the work Roosevelt had done for the little people in the country During Truman s campaign he argued Republicans would wipe out Social Security etc and that the country would go back to the Hoover Days 0195319617Dwight D Eisenhower ONational heroispent time before becoming President as the President of Columbia University Since Roosevelt presidency presidents had been seeking more ways to expand the power of their of cei Eisenhower did not try to do this Did not provide leadership on Civil Rights and did not think that changing people s attitudes by changing the law would work in the case of Brown v Board of Education During his second term he had a heart attack I 019577Sputnik The idea that the Russians were beating the US gave people the idea that Eisenhower was losing his grip 019607U2 AUS plane was shot down over the Soviet Union The US denied it was their plane until the Russians told them they had the pilot Eisenhower lies that he DID know about the planes ying over the Soviet Union when he had not 0196119637John F Kennedy OYouthful and handsome well spoken and appeared to have lots of ideas He said Ask Not What Your Country Can Do For You ONew Frontier Man on the moon before the end of the decade OShot in November 1963 In his time he had rebounded from the Bay of Pigs fiasco but nothing domestic had been done He had actually encouraged civil rights leaders to pull back on protests 0196319697Lyndon B Johnson Brought lots of experience in the US Senate and how Congress worked Was able to get the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act through Congress OGreat Society All about wiping out poverty and doing away with civil injustice OWar on Poverty Number of troops and bombing went up and the budget for the war on poverty went down OMedicare OHeadstartTook disadvantaged children and gave them a preschool experience before they entered regular classroomsisocialization program helped to transition kids 0 1969 l97Richard Nixon OPromised to have a secret plan to win the war and Peace with Honor Had a sense of paranoia that he was being looked down uponiadvisors determined they would make sure he would win by a landslide victory OCREEP Committee to ReElect the President Separate from the Republican Party Came up with schemes to harass and embarrass Democratic Candidates 0 019727Watergate Hired people to break into Democratic Campaign Headquarters in the Watergate buildings Taps weren t working the first time so they went back a second time Those who broke in were apprehended and the investigation eventually led to oNixon OOne of the Nixon people let it slip that Nixon taped every conversation in the White House and the Congress subpoenas the tapesiCourt makes Nixon give them the tapes OArchibald Cox Relentless in pursuing the tapes and the investigation The Nixon administration tries to re him but no one wanted toieventually somebody agreed to O Saturday Night Massacre Hurts Nixoniall over the media when Cox is red 185 minutes accidentally erased from tapesiCredibility was ruined OSpiro T Agnew Vice President of Nixon Found guilty of many offenses as Governor of Maryland and is forced to resign OAugust 19747Nixon Resigns 0197419777Gerald R Ford Was appointed VP by Nixon Ford Pardons Nixon this hurts Ford politically 0197719817Jimmy Carter Claimed he would not be a powerhungry President like Nixon He faced economic challenge entering presidency OEnergy Crisis70PEC 01973 war between Egypt and Syria vs Israel 0 US and other nations proclaimed support to Israel Arab countries embargoed the sale of oil to US and other countries OStag ation People are losing jobs economic growth stops but prices start to rise domesticallyCarter administration raised interest rates and had no real handle on what to do oIranian Hostage Crisis Seize American hostages at the American Embassy in Iran Rescue failed miserably 0198119897Ronald Reagan Charming and everything Carter wasn t O Moming in America Great times great opportunity O Reaganomics Supply Side Economics Government policy commits to producers so that they will have incentives to expand and create new jobs and stimulate supply to help stimulate demand Cuts tax rates and does everything it can to maximize income for producers Creates a gap in income 0 Evil Empire Communism viewed as an evil empire OSDI Strategic Defense Initiative Used lasers to guide missiles and weaponry controlled by satellite Russians feel the need to rebuild their army because they are worried the US won t simply use the SDI fro defense 0198919937George HW Bush Berlin Wall DestroyedUSSR starts to unravel OIraqiSaddam Hussein Invades Kuwait led to operation 19917Desert Storm 0 Read My Lips No new taxes Bush reluctantly agreed to raise taxes EXAM 1 NOTES Reconstruction Period 1860 Election 1 Republican Lincoln 180 o 3 Democrats Douglas 12 Bell 39 Breckinridge 72 o 1863 Lincoln s 10 Plan Radicals Thaddeus StevensPA Charles Summer MA Benjamin Wade OH 1864 WadeDavis Bill majority declared allegiance only ironclad could vote or hold office January 1865 13th Amendment banning involuntary servitude speedy ratification by North before South reentered the union March 1865 Freedmen s Bureau helps former slaves resettle work education NEW IDEA of government assistance April 9 1865 Lee Surrenders April 15 1865 Lincoln dies changes everything Andrew Johnson TN poor circumstances little education bad start intoxicated at inaugural southerner remained loyal to Union Black Codes set to reinstate slavery did have some protective rightscourt property most restricted black activity advancement helped radicals in congress by politically unwise actions ofwhite southerners ExConfeds to Congress denied seats Johnson sides with south increases tension between radicals amp Johnson 1866 Vetoes Freedmen s Bureau extension pisses people off override Johnson s veto Johnson vs Radicals 1866 Civil Rights Bill all nativeborn except Native Americansnot taxed legal protections and benefits of citizenship if denied rights Feds shall come after you 1866 14th Amendment 1868 o no STATE may abridge the privileges and immunities of citizenshipor deprive any person of life liberty property without due process of law or deny any person THE EQUAL PROTECTION OF THE LAW First to referto a state 14th Amendment becomes a requirement for readmission to the Union 1866 campaign Johnson v Radicals goes on speaking tour campaign for candidates radicals respond by sending hecklers Johnson threatens hecklers does not help image candidates not successful 1867 First Reconstruction Act radicals plan divides South into 5 military districts within each district military government s could establish law former confeds not allowed to vote slaves OKto vote radicals devise plan to get rid of Johnson lf impeached powergt leader of Senate Wade At odds w Edwin M Stanton 1867 Tenure of Of ce Act president may not remove any official appointed by Senate without approval by Senate fires Stanton anyway 1868 Impeachment accusation of misdemeanors and other crimes comes down to a single vote in HOR loses all poer TN is back in Union 1868 Grant Electedcommander in chief of Union radicals hold power 1869 15th Amendment 1870 race color or previous condition of servitude Right to Vote still does not include women amp indians gt kicks off movement Union intended to provide land to former slaves to start off 40 acres and a mule quickly resended by Johnson idea that never got anywhere question of property rights infringement slaves get nothing but freedom out of reconstruction NO economic independence Carpetbaggers and Scalawags exploit situation northerners who moved south and southerners who went radical steady campaign of violence ensues ViolenceKKK force out blacks intimidate blacks amp Republicans from voting or running in elections Grant Scandals riddled by corruption stealing money from the government railroad scandals Grant was not a politician Administration disaster Panic of 1873 Jay Cooke and Company collapse of major bank banking shaky in late 19th century huge bank failures business collapses unemployment 1874 Democrats regain control of Congress Early 1875 Civil Rights Act extends protection against racial discrimination in public accommodations last gasp of reconstruction last radical idea Eleciton of 1876 democrats have a chance for a 1st time in 20 years Tilden D vs Hayes R Samuel J Tilden 184 Rutherford B Hayes 165 o 20 electoral votes in dispute Tilden was 1 vote short Hayes was 20 votes short SC LA FL turned in two sets of ballots 1 for Tilden 1 for Hayes Electoral Commission 15 members 5 Senate 5 HOR 5 Supreme Court David Davis IND resigned from Supreme Court to run for Senate Democrats enraged 8 Republicans 7 Dems in electoral commission All 20 disputed votes go to Hayes in an 87 vote Old 87quot corrupt election Compromise of1877 Dems would accept recommendation of hayes as president with incentives form N republican Troops to be removed from the South Southern Republicans Carpetbaggers were free to be persecuted End of Reconstruction Retreat from Reconstruction congress amp supreme court undue or neutralize accomplishments of Reconstruction narrow interpretation of Constitution o 1883 civil Rights Cases discriminated African Americans bring suit under 15th Amendment declared Civil Rights Act of 1875 had been unconstitutional state not individual is worded paves the way for Jim Crow laws Jim Crow segregation laws prevented colored and whites from sharing spaces and interacting esp on railroads sep seating for black people extra car Jim Crow car 1896 Plessy V Ferguson denied access on LA railroad court rule sep facilities were constitutional as long as equal facilities Separate But Equalquot almost never ever ever equal southern states already looking to disenfranchise Disenfranchisement states can set standards but not based on race way to avoid the 15th Amendment Poll tax required to pay tax in order to vote keep receipt poll tax accumulated extremely effective on limiting voters Secret Ballot you d have to read the ballot allowed for some privacy most slaves illiterate any mistake throw ballot out Literacy Test prove you could read read and interpret section of constitution unequal standards Property Requirements must own certain amount of property Grandfather Clause lfyou re grandfather would have been eligible to vote Jan 1867 then you were eligible to vote less and less voters 1898 Williams V Mississippi convicted of murder by all white jury denied constituional right ofjury by peers selecting jury in Mississippi was discriminatory bc jury picked from voter list ruled constitutional Williams executed Crop Lien tough economy cotton growth began declining Lienclaim on piece of property no cash most on credit land was rarely accepted as collateral mortgages future crop to get funds to grow crow RISKY high interest rate other option Sharecropping work for share of crop more high interest rate a lot of slaves had no other option had to grow cash crop Cash V Credit Price crop reliable sold for cash no choice but to grow cash crop cotton trending downward yet forced to grow more cotton In Georgia 1880 13 farmed on land they didn t own 1920 23 on land they didn t own Control of Marketing laid in hands of creditor creditor controlled when and for how much crop was sold Lack of Urban Markets no demand in South for commercial food market No economic alternative Not enough industry to drawl labor away labor surplus no pressure Urbanization 18601910 Rural 2X Urban 7X immigrants Southern amp Eastern Europe religion language barriers overcrowding amp health hazards congestion lth amp corrupt politics city bosses Industrial Revolution 186090 Manufacturing capital 1Billion10 Bil work force 4X Railroad Milage 30K mi in 1860 gt 193K mi in 1890 chaotic unstable and corrupt cut throat competition Rebates granted selectively designed to draw in businesses problem connected w railroad expansion contributes to growth of big businesses and squeezing out of smaller businesses Jay Gould Erie RR V Cornelius Vanderbilt New York Central RR competed to ship cattle from west to Buffalo to NYC fought dirty Rate per car of New York Central about 125 Gould drops rate and begins bidding war w Vanderbilt Gould finally drops to 25 Vanderbilt to 1 per car Gould brings prices back after buying cattle ranches 1887 Interstate Commerce 1st government agency designed for economic regulation ACTICC has powerto investigate anyone engaging in interstate commerce doesn t have powerto enforce any guidelines set up by ICC unless violating any law even then must go to court railroads smart lawyers Conservative time no government interference Trusts multitude of arrangements business arrangement where separate entity is created to govern and regulate companies Board of Trustees ran companies as if they were ONE capital stays under trust advantageous no money goes outside framework EX oil pipeline barrels all linked Bessemer Process crude irongt steel process mass steel production 186013Ktons gt188014 Million tons Andrew Carnegie saw steel industry vital to industrial revolution identi ed ef cient ways to REDUCE COST vertical integration EX steel own iron ore deposits mines from rawgtfinished goodgtcontro all levels JD Rockefeller pushes idea tool US Steel eventually produced more steel than all of Great Britain alone JP Morgan head of largest banking syndicate wants to acquire Carnegie Steel Carnegie is willing to sell 480 million for US Steel John D Rockefeller moves to control oil vertical integration Standard Oil owns 95 Refining in US 1882 Standard Oil Trust Rockefeller runs monopoly Outcry against trusts cooperationperson under 14th Amendment Redeemers amp Bourbons powerful conservative whites reestablish white power and overthrow reconstruction 1890 Sherman Antitrust Act congress hesitant to bc industry leaders offer support to political parties any kind of business combination was illegal if in restraint oftrade 1895 US V EC Knight controlled 95 sugar refining industry in US courts allowed refining does not equal trading Protective Tariff tax on imports protects against foreign competition prices go up limited competition farmers hurt by protective tariff depresses export market often today we devalue the 1866 National Labor Union mass reaction to organize labor negative association of Unions better wages amp working conditions unions ineffective in economic panic 1869 Knights of Labor excluded lawyers bankers gamblers amp alcohol dealers Anarchists apprehensions about labor union no government 1886 Haymarket Riot attempt at national strike 8 police dead 8 demonstrators dead and 8 arrested Chicago blamed on Knights of Labor 1892 Homestead Strike Pinkertons protect property workers attack governor sends in National Guard surrounded by violence 1894 Pullman Strike cuts wages by 25 does not cut rent American Railway also goes on strike shut RR down no mail Grover Cleveland calls army to restart trains Ends strike 1886 American Federation of Labor led by Samuel Gompers former head of Cigar Union wanted skilled labor prototype for labormovement for 20th century not about reform 18771881 Rutherford B Hayes parties so closely matched pop vote margin 250K typically dems carried 8 and REps carried N and W 18811881 JamesA Garfield 39K gtshot 18821885 Chester A Arthur fired as collector in customs spoils system appoint those who nancially show support 1883 Pendleton Civil Service Act placed all federal employees to an extent on merit Pinkertons secret service provision president could increase the of civil service employees by 1910 23 employees were on civil service worked to eliminate those appointed based on support shown and money raised 18891893 Benjamin Harrison 9K 18931897 Grover Cleveland Decline in farmer s economic and social status neither congress nor white house very responsive farm prices down interest rates up 1860 1200 BU wheat 1000 1880 2300 BU wheat 1000 Tariffs raised prices reduced export demand 1867 Grange agricultural midwest association formed cooperatives buy in bulk and sell in bulk lobbied for laws favorable to farmers esp RR 1880s Farmers Alliance and Colored Farmers Alliance formed cooperatives beyond Grange in politics wanted to expand currency supply Alliance Coops buy in bulksell in bulk Expand currency expanding population Greenback Party issued during Civil War supposed to be exchanged for gold inflation 1875 Specie Resumption Act recall all greenbacks redeemed for gold 1878 Bland Allison Act silver money back in rotation 2 million4 million of silver coins per month farmers and silver miners lobbied silver put in circulation no expansion essentially 1890 Sherman Silver Purchase Act required gov to buy 45 million ounces month issued silver certi cate redeemable in gold or silver ration goldgt silver sixteen gt one Mary Yellin Lease lecturer and organizer for FA farmers should produce less corn more hell 1890 McKinley Tariff highest tariff ever passed severe blow to farmers 1892 Populist Party FA backed populist James B Weaver presidential candidate Omaha Platform free and unlimited coinage of silver 161 Subtreasury Plan farmers deposit crops in gov warehouses and receive credit with crops serving as collateral National Ownership of RR telegraphs and telephone RR top concern Postal Savings Bank bank by mail gov banker Secret Ballot intimidated by rich Direct election of Senators reeked w corruption Initiative Referendum Recall get it on the ballot petition 1st make laws more power in hands of people Panic of 1893 o no faith in silver drain on gold supply Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed Outrages populists 1895 JP Morgan Bond Sale buys 62 million gov bonds in gold to replenish gold supply Cleveland worried by little gold in treasury William Jennings Bryan silver main issue democrats adopt silver platform Sen from Nebraska Cross of Gold speech at Democratic Convention populists endorse Bryan Thomas E Watson populist from GA supposed to be VP candidate Arthur Sewall former banker from MA VP candidate Goldbug William McKinley from OH only wants Gold Standard Goldbugs Dems lose conservatives Full dinner pail dull ran campaign from home 1901 McKinley assassinated Leon Golgosz assassinated McKinley bestows Theodore Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt wealthy NY family cousin FDR investigates corruption VP Candidate in 1900 Progressive Reform Era look to gov to regulate economy and society for the common good New approach Bully Pulpit use presidency to further nation o if its not specifically said not allowed he CAN do it 1902 Northern Securities Case RR create near monopoly Roosevelt pushes for prosecution under Sherman Antitrust Act dissolves company Anthracite Coal Strike TR threatens to send troops to open mines settle strike mediator 1903 Elkins Act outlaws rebates or under the table deals by RR Bureau of Corporations regulates formation of corporations not destroy rather control 1906 Hepburn Act extends power of ICC no longer have to go to court muckrakers wrote exposes on corruption in corporations Upton Sinclaire The Jungle meat packing industry 1906 Meat lepection Act more expensive only bigger corporations were able to survive reduced competition Pure Food and Drug Act TR extremely effective at passing progressive movements chose not to run for office again 19091913 William Howard Taft lawyer from Yale integrity TR expected Taft to continue movement however Taft more conservative concerned w constitution s powers of presidency 1909 Payne Aldrich Tariff reduction of tariff rates Politically tone deaf 1910 Gifford Pinchot fired by Taft for raising hell over land Taft s rejection of conservation 1912 new Mexico Arizona Statehood Taft vetoes statehood over initiative referendum recall in state constitution 1912 TR Progressive Bull Moose Party landslide victory of Taft w people for REp However w influence Taft Rep Nominee TR creates new Progressive Party DWoodrow Wilson New Freedom Wilson V New Nationalism TR TR can t get enough votes to support him Wilson elected President 1913 UndenNood Tariff tariff reform enabling legislation for 16th amendment 16th amendment establishes direct income tax progressive tax 1 gt3K surtax 20K500K up to 7 Federal Reserve Act establishes Federal Banking System aimed to reduce of bank failures had to keep certain amount liquidated begins regulating economy 1914 Clayton Antitrust Act outlawed interlocking directorates or restrictive business agreements 1916 Federal Farm Loan Act low interest loans for farmers 1919 18th Amendment prohibition takes effect 1920 manufacture transportation or sale of intoxicating spirits on a national level gov regulating morality 1920 19th Amendment women s suffrage Manifest Destiny to become the world s greatest nation influence the world Religious Zeal obligated to be enlightenment to world evangelize send missionaries Markets Raw Materials large GDP find new markets for products acquire new raw materials Racial Paternalism control over lesser people white man s burden US more involved in world affairs 1890 Hawaii loses favored trade status Americans want Hawaii annexed to US 1893 Liliukilani overthrown Hawaiian native 1898 Hawaii Annexed under McKinley emphasis on powerful navy convenient fortrade w China 1895 Cuban insurrection against Spain use of massjournalism Joseph Pulitzer New York World William Randolf Hearst New York Journal seize on story in Cuba yellow journalism tabloid journalism Valeriano Butcher Weyler commandant in Cuba tried separating rebels from civilians in concentration camps DeLome Letter describes President as weakwilled 1898 Rememberthe Maine explosion killing 260 people DeweygtManila Spain crumble in face of war US declares War on Spain capture Philippines Guam amp Puerto Rico Educate Uplift Christianize Instruction from God to McKinley 1899 Philippine Insurrection Emilio Aguinaldo leader against Spanish amp Americans 1901 Platt Amendment Guantanamo Cuba nonentanglement establish protection amp in uence passed as a rider to another bill Cubans instructed to add to Constitution maintain permanent naval base Philippines lead to China 1899 amp1900 Open Door Notes spheres of influence Chinese territorial integrity free trade 1901 HayPauncefote Philippine BunauVarilla French company that has lease for canal across Panama I took Panama TR shows authority in Presidency 1823 Monroe Doctrine no more European colonization or intervention in Americas 1904 Roosevelt Corollary US assumes lease power in Western Hemisphere 1905 RussoJapanese War TR plays peacemakerto prevent domination in Asia 1906 San Francisco yellow peril Japanese immigration into California segregated Americans amp Japanese 1907 Gentleman s Agreement cut down on immigration and San Francisco would cut back segregation 190709 Great White Fleet Round the world cruise to show power ofthe navy Congress refused to appropriate funds TR pushes congress s hand once again Japanese knew the motives behind TR s GWF 1908 RootTakahira Agreement both countries respect Asian status quo 2 interpretations 187071 FrancoPrussian War Germans had taken away AlsaceLorraine from France Germany Unites By 1905 Triple Entente Britain France amp Russia Triple Alliance Germany AustriaHungary amp ltaly Russia Serbia Bosnia Montenegro Slavic 1914 Franz Ferdinand assassinated in Serbia Serbia rejects AustHung ultimatum to accept AH as gov or war backed by GY AH declares war on Serbia Russians mobilize gt Germans mobilize gt French mobilize German invade Belgium gt GB declares war on GY GB establish blockade on North Sea US proclaims neutrality German UBoats submarines sink ships carrying supplies to GB 1915 Lusitania Germans sink British liner carrying about 200 Americans Popular opinion against GY 1916 SasseX Pledge stated Germans would not sink unmarked ships wo advanced warning January 1917 unrestricted submarine warfare February 1917 Zimmerman Note shows attempted alliance btw GY and Mexico April 1917 US enters war world must be made safe for Democracy November 1917 Russian Revolution poverty starvation gt establishment of communist government March 1918 separate peace w GY takes Russians out of war GY can concentrate on Wester front Exam 2 Notes 1920 Warren G HardingR harding ran Back to Normalcy opoor presidential choice Roaring Twenties so much activityrebellion against tradition ogrowing hatred toward foreigners Sacco amp Vanzetti arrested for robbery suspected of anarchy became a rallying cry for Europeans feeling prejudice in US 18th AmendmentProhibition 1919 sets up for organized crime 19th Amendment Women s Suffrage 1920 1925 Scopes Trial oencourage Scopes to discuss DanNinism to attract publicity to small town in TN Clarence Darrow agrees to defend Scopes oWilliam Jennings Bryan leading spokesman for religion oAdds to publicity with Darrow pitted against Bryan oBryan s last hurrah Scopes convicted yet position ridiculed of fundamentalists oMan amp Machine not Man vs Machine Henry Ford Assembly Line Model T basic car omade affordable for mass America 820 gt 260 ono electric starter no fuel tank ogrants mobility to America ospurs suburbanization oEXplosive Popularity of films Evolution of Sexualism Clara Brown The it girl oRudolf Valentino pushing the envelope oRadio oExtremely popular spreads rapidly oEX KDKA made history w 1st broadcast Tea Pot Dome oGovernment oil reserves were leased out to private companies to the highest bidder Harding has affair in the White House cannot escape scandal Harding dies in office Coolidge Business of America is Business cutting taxes maintaining wages ominimal gov t activity oAndrew Mellon secretary oftreasure probusiness 1922 FordneyMcComber otariff on several key imports brings rates back to prewar times oWar Debts 10 billion owed to USS Europe couldn t be an adequate trading partner otariff limits exports 1923 Dawes Plan oreschedules payments USgtgtGYgtRepgtAlliesgtDebtsgtUS otariff hurt European economics market speculation oMaldistribution of income opoor really poor orich filthy rich no middle class really 1923 Minimum wage declared unconstitutional o19231 929 average worker output up 32 wages only up 8 Corporate profits up 65 o1929 Top 1 income bottom 42 80 of families had no savings demand from rich satiated oinstallment buying 60 cars 80 radios Farm prices plummet 13 of income of national average oExports Fall oDecline ofauto and construction oMargin Buying makes it too easy to get into the stock market EX Buyer pays 10 and borrows 75 from broker buys RCA 1 share 85 buyer sells 420 420 minus original 10 and 75 loan5 interest owed the broker 33125 return on a 10 investment oAlready set for the depression not just stock market crash 1929 Agricultural Marketing Act appropriated federal money to buy farm products to raise prices 1932 Reconstruction Finance Corp money to help rejuvenate the economy 1930 HawleySmoot higher tariff supported by Hoover again cuts markets outside US ocuts much needed demand 1932 Bonus Army WW vets lobbied for their bonus in advance set up camp outside Washington omilitary generals convince Hoover Bonus Army was a threat Hoover sends calvary unit to break up army gt PR nightmare Happy Days are Here Again Roosevelt s campaign slogan worked to restore confidence in presidency Fireside chats oradio broadcasts where FDR spoke to the American people Hundred Days Amount of legislation passed was unprecedented Bank Holiday ocloses banks but doesn t inspire panic oEmergency Banking Relief Act closed until deemed solvent until examiner declared solid oMany banks never reopened onecessary to stabilize the economy Banking Act of 1933 establishes FDIC 5000 guaranteed Civilian Conservation Corps CCC run by army oemployed you men 1825 in conservation amp restoration projects olived in camps paid 1 a day most likely to spend money however most saved and sent it home Abandoned Gold Standard forbade hoarding would have boosted prices had there been more international trade oMake less prices go up makes international prices increase but didn t work domestically can only hold 100 worth of gold wants price of gold to go up had US buying gold everyday Federal Emergency Relief Act provides federal money to large cities to offer relief to people Tennessee Valley Authority TNA set up to provide flood control and setting up hydroelectric power should provide cheap power and attract industry to the region National Industrial Recovery Act NRA overseen by national recovery association business labor and gov t get together to set gures that allow competition wages Fair codes of competition drew out wage scale and hours Public Works Administration PWA set about building roads dams highways and ships provided jobs as well as updating infrastructure Agricultural Adjustment Act AAA Farmers suffered the worst gave farmers crop reduction payments to reduce their products oincludes food while country is starving had to destroy livestockcrop funding was to come by processing tax oEX wheat farmer sold to flour mill which paid the tax and passed on to consumers oincreased purchase power of farmer but took away from others olandowners were not supposed to evict share croppers about 13 were driven off land New Deal Critics Huey P Long Roosevelt didn t like building a big budget deficit odictator of LA politics proposes share our wealth drastic program would impose limit on net wealth 58 million impose 1 million annual income guarantee 2500 income guarantee old age pension oredistribution of wealth people were desperate for relief Townsend Plan could have guaranteed everyone over 60 monthly income of 200 but they could not work for pay or save any ofthe 200 would of provided assistance to 9 of income but 12 the national income not practical Second New Deal oreflects criticism of New Deal 1935 Works Progress Administration WPA building public buildings to increase construction jobs osponsored various programs ointended to create more jobs Resettlement Administration provided grants to resettle those displaced by farms set them up with their own land National Labor Relations Act NLRB guaranteed the right of collective bargaining boom to labor unions eventually overturned oRevenue Act 1936 supposed to impose penalties on higher incomes an extra tax soak the rich tax supposed to help fund other programs proved to be uncollectible Social Security Act 1935 od age insurance program funded by employers and employees provide income support for older Americans 1938 Fair Labor Standards Act Last major Second New Deal legislation ostrengthens labor unions oEx Interstate Commerce 40chr and 40hrwk 1936 US vs Butler odeclares AAA unconstitutional struck down AAA because of processing tax Congress has no power to regulate agricultural production it can promote the General Welfare ocreates crisis for FDR administration 1937 CourtPacking plan oRoosevelt s hitting a wall bill to reorganize the supreme court wanted ability to appoint up to 6 new justices to offset those over 70 years old Congress s responsegtNO gave Pres too much power oRoosevelt s first real defeat 1938 Purge Campaign against Democrats who opposed New Deal measures fails in all but one case New Deal s run out of gas What the New Deal couldn t do the war could massive investment in Defense New Deal introduces to America a Welfare State 1936 Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotments Act soil conservation payments gt out of general revenue 1938 Second Agricultural Adjustment Act oinstituted additional price programs oacreage reduction payments oplus credit amp warehousing Many programs however diverted from original purpose The New Deal extends govt to places its never been before oBecomes fabric in American life oGuaranteed level of gov t spending direct and indirect subsidy o1931 Japan invades Manchuria fascism a system where interest of state prevail over all others state is supposed to distribute equal welfare to all basically creates totalitarian gov t 1922 Benito Mussolini lT bruta regime First fascist dictator National Socialist German Workers Party Nazi Adolf Hitler 1933 Austrian by birth WW veteran oblames Jews communists and others for the war obecomes Chancellor in 1933 models gov t on Mussolini 1935 lT invades Ethiopia 1936 RomeBerlin Axis Hitler and Mussolini sign pact Hitler rearms GY and reoccupies the Rhineland Fascist uprising in Spain 1937 Japan invades China AntiComintern Pact GY IT JP allied in resistance to the spread of Communism oRome Berlin Tokyo Axis oBecome known as Axis powers 1938 Hitler launches Anschluss nonmilitary takeover of Austria SudetenlandMunich Czechoslovakia occupied Hitler demands it be returned to GY and promises it ll be his last conquest appeasement gt allow Hitler to take Sudetenland to avoid further aggression No one has the military to fight GY 1939 Hitler takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia and German area of Lithuania taken at Versailles NaziSoviet Pact oalliance btw SU and GY September 1 1939 GY invades Poland Polish Corridor Britain and France declare war on GY oBlitzkrieggt fast paced warfare olooks like Hitler could have all of Europe looking fascist Neutrality Acts 1935 no war materialstravel at own risk 1936 no loans w warring nations 1937 nonmilitary on cashandcarry policy no travel quarantine speech 1939 arms on cashampcarry gtPro involvement June 1940 Fall of France 1940 In the US odestroyersbases deal gt agree to transfer about 50 destroyers in exchange for 99 year leases in British bases opeacetime draft olower limit 21 when draft begins 1941 Lend Lease Act allows president to lend or lease items of warto allied nations arsenal of democracy June 1941 GY invades SU race against nature could not face cold Russian winter 1941 Japanese assets frozen oplaced embargo on petroleum scrap iron and steel December 7 1941 oAttack on Pearl Harbor oplanes bunched together at Pearl Harbor US declares war on JP oGY then declares war on US SU wants a second front GB and US instead take North Africa and move through lT Battle of Stalingrad November 1942 February 1943 winter interferes with resupply bitter cold and lack of resources o nally GY capitulates SU can launch counter attack SU becomes free to seize control of borderline states DDay June 6 1944 US invades Normandy FR oGY is in a vice oGY was slow to respond giving US advantage US gains momentum Battle ofthe Bulge oGY launches last counter attack oweather clears and planes provide support oGY turns back and is now on the retreat Eisenhower content to let SU take Berlin oYalta February 1945 Blueprint for handling Eastern Europe and GY afterthe war US counts on SU for help against JP so Roosevelt is okay with Stalin taking Eastern Europe forthe USSR Potsdam JulyAugust 1945 oGY surrender May 1945 Roosevelt dies in April 1945 succeeded by Truman Last Wartime conference 4 sectors of Berlin Occupation Truman hints at atom bomb and calls fro ultimate JP surrender omoral strategy about war has changed civilian bombing 1945 United Nations Hiroshima amp Nagasaki August 6 amp 9 1945 1946 Iron Curtain Speech Winston Churchill oreferred to countries created under Versailles under control of USSR 1947 Greek Crisis oGreece suddenly experiencing civil war US needs a policy to prevent spread of communist government containment Georg Kennan oEX NATO amp Berlin Airlift set a limit for USSR expansion Truman Doctrine ostated US would help any nation resist any subjugation by armed minorities or outside interests 1948 Marshall Plan European countries recieve aid from US oRussians seize Czech Berlin Blockade oRU tries to cut off allies Berlin Airlift okeep West Berlin functioning oplanes bring supplies from food to machinery odemonstrated US commitment to pledge 1949 NATO North Atlantic Treat Organization oRU gets ABomb Fall of China Chiang Kai Shek China falls to Communism oMao Tse Tung By 1949 forces had driven Shek s forces into the sea US had spent about3 billion to build up Shek s gov t US relations really w Taiwan North Koreans invade South Korea 1st time United Nations act in a military manor Go into restore peace amp boundary UN push NKtroops further North than 38th parallel oMcArthur insist push NK into the river bordering China Chinese soldiers storm into NK UN is now retreating Korea falls into deadline 1953 Peace talks with Korea oreturn to 38th Parallel Korea illustrates involvement in small countries wo using advantages 1947 HUAC House of UnAmerican Affairs Committee oinvestigated spies amp espionage in US 1948 Alger Hiss charged by Whitaker Chambers with passing classi ed info to Russians Senator Joseph R McCarthy R up for reelection shady ineffective Tail Gunner Joe fired more rounds than any othertail gunner gt no proof 1950 McCarthy s ploy 205 men work for American Congress are communist claims a paper w names In Denver 57 card carrying communists McCarran Act outlawed belonging to any organization conspiring to establish a totalitarian gov t forced Americans to register as belonging to the communist gov t showed US willingness to throw out rights to defend against communism olong term effect of fear amp manipulation after democrats refuse to show any compromising w communist countries 1953 Julius amp Ethel Rosenberg tried for passing secrets of abomb sentenced to death 1954 McCarthy Army Hearings Dems control senate LBJ wants hearings to go on amp be broadcast via television gt People become disgusted with McCarthy John Foster Dulles Sec of State massive retaliation onew approach to foreign policy brinkmanship cheaper to stockpile nukes than standing army othreaten massive retaliation w nuclear weapons however RU also have nuke 1956 Hungarian uprising Hungarians vs Russians 1917 Balfour Declaration Palestine area NOT nation many Jews migrated to Palestine during WWII 1920 League of Nations Mandate oBritain oversight of Palestine 1948 State of Israel sized up as potential ally in Middle East tricky relationship 1956 Suez Crisis EgyptNasser otrying to build massive hydroelectric facility on the Nile using the Aswan Dam Brits and Americans decide to withdraw funding Nasser takes over Suez 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine takes the containment policy and extends it to the Middle East Ho Chi Minh Head of revolutionary movement to get French out of Vietnam 1954 Dienbienphu oreflection of problem w containment forces us to support those against communist whether good for people or not French were surrounded so Eisenhower doesn t intervene which leads to Geneva Accords oGeneva Accords gt 17th parallel 1955 SEATO South East Asia Treaty Organization domino theory nations facing threat of communists are like dominoes North Vietnam amp NLF of 8 Vietnam Viet Cong vs South Vietnam No free elections 1963 President Diem 1964 Gulf of Tonkin American vessels supposedly fired on by North Vietnam ships Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave president blanket powerto proceed in Vietnam as he saw fit 1965 US makes first Air strikes in N Vietnam othen send first active troops of troops gets up to 550000 oredo script of Korea 1968 Tet Offensive Vietnamese New Year Holiday All over the country Viet Cong launch simultaneous attacks and US suffers harsh blow to offense oBlows the credibility of Johnson administration s claim we have the war under control 1968 LBJ withdraws and will not seek reelection Nixonsecret plan 1969 Peace w Honor osecret plan to end war in Vietnam o1969 14 million people march on Washington Nixon Doctrine US cannot be world policeman cannot support every nation under attack ocontainment has led to US going against national interest moving away from containment Vietnamization oradical notion 8 Vietnamese should do the bulk ofthe fighting obegins withdrawing US troops by 1970 Draft lottery o rst troop withdraws draw goes by birthdate didn t actually focus on 19 yr olds o1970 nvasion of Cambodia to clean out communist strongholds


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