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by: Tiara Muller


Marketplace > University of Georgia > History > HIST 2111 > AM HISTORY TO 1865
Tiara Muller
GPA 3.97


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Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Muller on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2111 at University of Georgia taught by Berry in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/201971/hist-2111-university-of-georgia in History at University of Georgia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
The Early West 2252008 90500 AM In what ways was westward movement central to white America s sense of itself Movement West c 17901849 45 m Americans crossed the Appalachians one of the great migrations in human history o in 1790 western states contained 3 US population by 1830 28 o 1850 over 50 the typical American was a westerner o movement west one of the most salient features of American life between 17901860 Indian Removal c 18201844 Americans push Native Americans off remaining tribal lands east of the Mississippi o Indian population in east drops from 125k to 30k o Whites claim 3m acres in Midwest 25m acres in Old Southwest o Which tribes Chickasaw Choctaw Cherokee Creek and Seminole o Why the urgency for removal 0 During War of 1812 even proAmerican tribes in trouble Americans no longer needed Indian buffer Native Americans couldn t play Europeans off each other Native Americans were squatting on some of the most valuable real estate in the country c Resulting shift in federal policy 0 Old policy voluntary removal egged on of course though 0 GA MS AL pass new laws Whites encouraged to move into Indian lands Debts owed to Indians voided Indians were not allowed to testify in court in cases involving whites Direct violation of federal treaties 0 Worcester v Georgia Can decide what is or isn t illegal Can t act President can President was a southerner and platationer 0 New policy divide and conquer The Trail of Tears The Cherokee Treaty of New Echota 1835 o 500 out of all SHOW UP 0 21 actually sign Ratified in Congress by one vote in 1836 1838 Cherokee presented petition of 15000 members the bast majority of entire trive May 1838 army under Winfield Scott rounded up 15k Cherokee 2k slaves and put them in stockades 25k died there Rest sent mostly by foot 12k miles to OK 2k died en route Justification NAs couldn t adapt to white ways needed to be removed for their own protection Problem Cherokee by 1838 was the tribe who had most successfully adapted 0 Communities replicated white communities with churches schools private farms 0 Written alphabet newspaper 0 Class structure 0 Only skin is different really At least one observer noted that removal was the cause not the solution of any remaining gap differed from them only in a browner complexion less vicious and more sober So why remove them 0 Obviously white land greed but more complicated o The west had become central to American selfconception o Idea of Indian intractableness had become central to American selfconception The National Character Misery sorrow the past that s what condenses a people o But they are sooooo young o In the absence of history what make us a people c From 182060 Americans became absorbed in such questions of national character Who are we c As examples we ll look at the search for the national character in three genres o The American Novel James Fenimore Cooper 0 The American Landscape painting Thomas Cole 0 The American Humor DavidDavey Crockett James Fenimore Cooper o Born 1879 o First American novelist o First novel Precaution 1820 o Second novel The Spy 1821 efirst American novel o Leatherstocking Tales 0 Wilderness o Tracker etc 0 Last of the Mohicans o Implications 0 New character the wilderness scout or tracker is fullblood white and halfIndian o In extinguishing the Indian Americans drew Indianness into themselves 0 Merge girly bookish british and severely savage Indians 0 So what s going to make us Americans make us unique Eating an Indian heart Thomas Cole o Born in England in 1801 o Emigrated to PA in 1818 o First exhibition in NY in 1825 an immediate sensation o Pioneer and founder of Hudson River School of landscape painting 0 Albert Bierstadt Sunrise Yosemite Valley 0 Thomas Cole view of the catskill early autumn o Mountains size divinity providence 0 Thomas Cole the Voyage of Life series Natural progression from youth to old age Like what America would travel 0 Cole the course of empire series o Implications o In laying claim to more land Americans drew its Godly nature into themselves 0 In laying claim to more land Americans ensured that they would be forever young 0 This empire will not fall 0 So what s going to make us Americans make us unique The land indianness and the land itself David Crockett o The guy a man o Davy Crockett 9 man made into legend made into myth o our first comic superhero o implications 0 Americans are wily adaptive selftaught practical 0 Americans don t need history don t want it 0 So what s going to make us Americans make us unique We already unique a new race 2252008 90500 AM The Rise of the West Why was Europe the first to discover the New World Christopher Columbus Why does the question mean so much Not the discovery but what follows after diseases smallpox measles in uenza mines plantations Europe becomes richermore powerful slaves biggest migration in human history AfricaMesopotamiaAsiaAustraliaEuropeUSSouthAmerica Domestication of Plants What kind of plants Nearby and abundant Annual Selfpollinating Dry storage Plants that fit that description cereal grains Fertile Crescent rice Asia corn Mesoamerica Domestication of Plants Consequences of domestication Increased birth rate Sedentary living permanent villages population density Social diversification farmers chieftains armies An empire for farmers Domestication of Animals What kinds of animals NOT carnivores Herbivores Bigger the better Herd animals Animals that fit that description horses cows sheep pigs and goats came only from Eurasia Africa grew up against domestication Eurasia 7213 Africa 510 Americas 241 Australia 10 Domestication of Animals Consequences of domestication eat 0 Milk Fertilizer 0 or Transport Cavalry key to military success Further elaboration of society miners sword makers silversmiths Diseases Conclusions Eurasia had the plants the animals and most important the groovy diseases But why Europe within Eurasia Big three Eurasian powers 1 China 2 Empire of Islam and 3 Europe Why not China Chinese advantages Boats junks Knowledge of navigation Administrative organization bureaucrats Seafaring experience In short the most advanced civilization in the world in the mid1400s Chinese disadvanta es Little to look for outside its borders Ethnocentric culture Reconstuction 4182008 92000 AM o Death 0 1 in 8 chance if Union 0 1 in 3 chance if Confederate o 19 if black o Adjusted for populations 0 0 Like a WTC every other day for 4 years for north o Widows 200k and orphans 400k o Three sad codas o Prisoners released 0 Lincoln s assassination o Sultana o Economic cost 0 20 bil their dollars What questions head the war answere o Are we a Union or a nation 0 Yes o Can the republican form of government endure 0 Yes o Are we a nation dedicated to freedom 0 Yes What questions had the war left unanswered o Okay the north won but won what On what terms should the south be brought back into the union 0 Not a defeated nation just a handful of traitors and criminals o Okay the slaves aren t slaves but what are they What is their status and what rights and protections do they have Presidential Reconstruction o Lincoln o Glimpse of how Lincoln would have reconstructed the south from early Union policies 0 10 policy o Johnson oath to never do it again 10 pop takes the oath then the state can be part of the ration again 0 Reconstituted selves and brought Johnson southern democrat into the game 0 0 Republican 9 Union somethingorother On the south Loathed the planter class Raised in poverty as an ostler s son Always wanted recognition from them Becomes addicted to pardoning them Swelled with sense of belonging to the south 0 On the freedman question Winks and nods Black Codes vagrancy defined loosely none have home or money and trying to reunite family so can be picked up for vagrancy ned can t pay it Labor auctioned off serfs The South restored c When congress reconvened everyone agreed that Johnson s plan was unacceptable but unsure what to propose Congressional Reconstruction o Congress divided 0 Thaddeus Stevens Seizing and redistributing lands 0 Charles Sumner Don t need the land need the vote More palatable solution Committee of fifteen draw up Fourteenth Amendment peace treaty with the south Johnson encourages Southern resistance TN comes back into the union by ratifying the 14th amendment Two years had passed and Reconstruction hasn t properly begun Military Reconstruction First Reconstruction Act 0 Over Johnson s veto o 5 military districts as occupying power 0 Problem Johnson head of executive and military Works to blunt it Weeds out people who really do want to help Tenure of Office Act 0 If hired with senate approval can t sack them wo senate approval Sacks Stanton Puts Grant in his place Sacks Sheraton Grant is actually very loyal so refuses Stanton barricades self in office Johnson impeached o Acquitted by 1 vote next in line is Benjamin wade o Believes in equal rights not only for blacks but for WOMEN gasp o Hands effectively tied Thirteenth Amendment 1865 o Section 1 o Banned slavery Fourteenth Amendment 1868 o Section 1 o Defined citizen Fifteenth Amendment 1870 Section 1 Voting rights But with a by clause Loopholes Fed gov not TRULY committed


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