THE AMERICAN SOUTH
THE AMERICAN SOUTH HIST 3090
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Muller on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3090 at University of Georgia taught by Merritt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see /class/201973/hist-3090-university-of-georgia in History at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Civil War 0 Westward expansion brought slavery into question 0 Caused breakdown of political parties 0 Throughout antebellum period a political balance existed o N and s equal inwealth and pop At time of constitution o N grew resulting in majority in house 0 Senate was still stalemated o Kept balance on slavery issue 0 Missouri first state applied for statehood out of LA territory 0 Led to compromises led by Henry Clay 0 Missouri Compromise 1820 admitted MO as a slave state and Maine as a free state 0 Prohitedsalvery in La territory north of 3630 except MO 0 Remained in place until 1854repealed by KansasNebraska Act 0 Mexican War 18461848 led to more territories 0 Us inspired by manifest destiny and new technology 0 By 1846 Us had goated Mexico into war 0 Mexico lost V2 its territory present united states sw 0 Us became the continental power 0 Slavery came again into question 0 Already slaves in TX 0 Whigs and Dems attempted to neutralize slavery in election of 1848 o WhigsZachary Taylor 0 Slave owner 0 Veteran of Mexican War 0 Antislavery whigs upset and set off from party and joined wi antislavery dems to form freesoil party that had 2 fold platform 0 1 Slavery undermined dignity of labor 0 2 Slavery hindered social mobility and created divided society 0 Saw slavery as backward and inefficient 0 Wanted slavery contained where it was o If contained it wld eventually die out 0 Nominated Martin Van Buren in 1848 o Dems nominated Lewis Cass o Doctrine of popular sovereignty 0 Means people in a territory could and should decide wheterh or not to permit slavery via democratic vote 0 Cass nomination leads antislavery dem s to join Freesoil party 0 Taylor wins election due to breakup of parties 0 Ca applies for statehood o 1848American gold rush Taylor viewed problems with nationalist views Slavery not economically viable in CA Taylor wanted to diffuse free soil problem by supporting a free state Southern states felt threatended With Ca more free than slave states North growing increasingly hostil to slavery Laws in N forbidding return of fugitive slaves in N Rumblings ofabolition in Washington DC Even moderate S leadrs began talking about secession Compromise of 1850led by Henry clay who wanted oen piece of legislation omnibus bill Kepoints Admission of CA as a free state Formation of territorial gov ts in Mexico territory with no restrictions on slavery Abolition of slave trade not slavery in DC A new and more effective fugitive slave law Required all Us citizens to aid in return of runaway even if slavery was illegal in their state President didn t support but died in 1830succeeded by Millard Fillmore who supports compromise His efforts delayed secession Linked compromise to railroad expansion and sale of gov t bonds Fugitive slave law enraged abolitionists and Northerners who didn t want to be controlled by Federal gov t Riots break out in Northern cities 1852publication of Uncle Tom s Cabin Harriet Beecher stowe stoy of slave hunter and slavery on a plantation in KY showed slavery as brutal and cruel Free Soil Party grows form discontent with fugitive slave law and attracts many German and Irish immigrantsdidn t want competition for labor Law proved slavery endangered freedom everywhere Economic freedom slavery takes jobs away slavery degrades idea of labor and work Social freedomslavery promotes violence and inequality Political freedomfugitive salve law placed too much power in federal gov t Struggles in slavey in western territories KansasNebraska Act 1852Franklin Pierce D became pres bc ofdivisions in whigs Bill spearheaded by Stephen Douglas of LD Speculated heavily in Western lands Hoped to attract settlers and convince Congress to route transcontinental railroad through the great plains Southern senators wanted railway in south Douglas added clause that allowed residence of territory to decidd by vote wheterh to admit slaverypopular sovereignty Nebraska was North of 3630 line shouldn t have been slavery there Bill supposed to do 2 things Cancel MO compromise Remove federal barriers to spread of slavery in West Bill divided great plains into KS and Nebraska Fought overy by proand anti slavery forces Slavery already existed in KS Reaction to KSNB was fiery and fierce even nmore so than fugitive slave act More than 300 free soil rallies Northern merchants called for peacedidn t want to lose debt owed ot them by the southern states Whigs in congress asked southerners to drop bill KSNB bill passed in 1854 bc southern and northern dems joined together northern dems support ot keep political power Kansas first place where people have the vote for slavery Consequence is violence between pro northern and southern settlers more northen elections held in 1855 which were stolen by southerners created gov t and const in Lecompte while anti slavery set up gov t in Topeka Lawrence was a battleground city Lecompte const caused a split in Dem party Northerners wanted pop Sovereignty led to lack of nat l parties John Brown escalates violence and killed 5 men in Pottawatomie Creek KS 1857KS applied for slavery The caning of Charles Sumner by Preston Brooks of South Carolina shows the escalation of fury caused by slavery n north Sumner hailed as hero and martyr while Brooks worshipped in South Shows how inflamed situation was and how the two sides could not reach an agreement Slavery was inflammatory because of economic issues including the North saying slavery took away economic freedom and felt slavery lowered wages Dred Scott Case Lawsuit by former slave on military man saying he was free because he had lived in a free state seen as case that would decide slavery ChiefJustice Tawneystarunch supporter of slavery and a 72 decision ruled that all blacks slave and free were not US citizens and therefore Dred Scott did not have the right to bring a suit to the court declared MO comp unconstitutional protected slavery in every territory slaves property can t take away property without casue ruling outraged northerners who chose not to follow fugitive slave law southerners wondered why stay in a union where states can choose which laws to follow John Brown led a revolt in Harper s Ferry where he hoped to take over a fed Arsenal which he succeeded in but was eventually brought down hoped to cause a slave revolt and set up a slave nation within the US brown was then hung for fomenting revolution but was revered in North which frightened southerners Freeport Doctrinepopular sovereignty Dred Scott would stand but it was up to the territorial governments to pass laws for or against slavery proposed by Stephen Douglass Reconstruction 13th amendment 1865 outlawed involuntary servitude except for in punishment of a crime Slaves truly free themselves fled to union lines in droves which led Lincoln to order confiscation Acts 18611862 saying that these slaves were free 800000 escaped during the war and pushed Lincoln into Emancipation Proc The politics of reconstruction laid the basis for the civil rights period Lincoln wanted to be lenient on South believed secession illegalimpossible 10 plan10 of voting pop Of 1861 had to take loyalty oath as well as pass a new const and recognize 13 h am To reenter union La and AR readmitted in 1864 but refused seats by radicals Radical Republicans From nne Led by Sumner and Thadues Stephens 1864Wade Davis Bill Reaction to 10 plan and anger over Lincoln s leniency 50 had to take oaths Lincoln pocket vetoed it because refused to see the south as rejoining he union and threatened to destroy balance Lincoln had created Johnson wanted to destroy southern elite but was racist did not destroy elite merely made it that Confederates with 20000 of property had to ask for a personal pardon Jeff Davis held in priosn for 2 years no others punished except for Austrian leader of Andersonville Johnson continued with Lincoln s plan Radicals angry that Johnson didn t try to destroy slaveholding class didn t offer land to slaves and didn t address voting rights for blacks 14 h amendment all persons bornnaturalized in us are citizens exc Native americans citizenship amendment no state shall makeenforce any law that shall abridge priveleges or immunities of citizen nor shall anny state abridge priveleges or immunities of citizens nor shall and state deprive any person of life liberty and property took power away from states and gave it to fed Gov t 15 h amendmentright for black men to vote can t be denied due to color gives Congress right to enforce law Freedmen s Bureau made strides in delivering foodclothing and other necessities to freed slaves CRA 1866written to extend equal protection under the law Black codes installed in new southern consts put freedmen back in qualislavery couldn t testify against whites marry whites own a gun etc had limited mobility Recon Act1867 split south into 5 mil Districts army to protect exslaves Jfk s civil rights policies Forced to act much like Eisenhower 1962sent federal troops to allow a student to attend Ole Miss 62had to send troops to U of Alabama AL govphylicallyh prevents black s from entering 65 pushed inotdeliverin a nationally televised speech about racial violence Gave a general outline for CR Bill Privately said it would be conservative but marks a change in his policyaligning himself with Civil Rights Mvmnt 1st draft did outlawed segregation in public areas banned discrimination in federally funded programs promoted integration 0 63 of Americans supported bill 0 To lobby groups orgainized massive march on Washington 200000 people and numerous celebrities gatheredMLK s Have a Dream MLkemplored people to trust in the decency of white people March didn t affect congress much JFK never got it pushed through Jfk assassinated on Nov 1963 LbjTx persuaded congress to CRA 1964 0 Now recognized as one of greatest propeonents of CR movmnt o Pushed thru CRA 1957 as senator o In 60 election ignored CR in south 0 As a VP and president maintained his course as proCR 0 Met individually with mlk and other black leaders 0 Signaled to congress and nation that cr would be his top priority despite rising white backlash of 1964 0 24th amendment abolished poll tax in both state and fereal elections 0 Signaled growing powr of federal government 0 After tries to pass CRA in 1964 in a memorial to Kennedy CRA 1964 0 Very important legislation 0 A comprehensive law intended to end discrimination based on race color religion sex or national origin Just before passafe amended to protect all citizens Most important us law since reonstruction Guaranteed equal voting rights Title 2prohibits segregationdiscrimination in any public place 0000 Title 7bans discrimination by trade unions schools or employers involved in enterstate commerce or does business with federal gov t Title 9desegreagation of schools taking Brown a step farther O 1972 amendmentEqual Employment Opportunity Actvtal role in Affirmative action O O O O O O Aff Action refers to mandatory and voluntary programs intended to affirm the civil rihgts of certain individuals groups CRA 1964 39 39 39 that 39 039 39 Action Johnson realized cra 1964 was only a starting point 1965 AL police club and tear gas protests peacefully marching from Selma to Montgomery Lbj goes to AL Urges congress to pass laws to close loopholes on voting rights Voting rights act 1965 I 2 provisions I Empowered fed Gov t to oversee voter registration and elections in counties that use I Empowered fed Gov t ot oversee elecions where voter turnout had been less than 50 I Banned literacy tests I Expanded voting rights for nonEnglish speaking Americans CRA 1964 gave rights to 14 h amendment Voting rights act 1965 gave teeth to 15 h amendment By late 1960 s segregation still entrenched CR activists grow bitter and become more radical Began to think America would always be racist Began to think of connection between economics and racism MLK s new campaign began in 1968 Blac O O O O O O kp O O O O O O O O O O 0 Poor people s campaign King believed poverty and racism linked Had been moderate reformer who concentrated on desegregation Massive white resistence shocked him began to think law couldn t fight racism Moved ot Chicago to begin poor people s campaign Killed in Memphis before he was going ot speak at a garbage men rally anthers grow form resentment Splintered off of SnCC in 1966 Advocated for black pride black power segregatin and black nationalism Argued desegregation was waste of time Argued for independent black community Believed they were colonized people that still need to liberate themselves Started out as a group against police violence Founded in Oakland CA by law students monitoring police officers who made arrests Carried loaded weapon but visible which was legal in CA Inspired fear and won respect of blacks Carried guns and law books Denounced by nat l media as antiwhite o Unveiled new political plan 0 Full empoloyment 0 Better housing 0 Better education 0 Jury composed 0 African Americansjury of peers o Denounced war in Vietnam 0 Denounced draft 0 Called for release of all Afr Am Men from prison 0 By 19605000 members 0 Many leave nonviolent groups and join black panthersgrowing discontent 0 Serve the people programsorganized health care and schools and fed hungry o Tried to teach black children to have pride 0 Affected highest circles of fed Law enforcement o J edgar hoover considered tehm a black nat list hate group I Infiltrated and caused fracturing which led to downfall of group I Desinigrated by early l70 s Malcolm X Nation of islam Black seperatists black nat lists More socially conservative than black panthers Malcolm x Minister public speaker human rights activist Indicted whie America for crimes against blacks Detractors claimed he preached racism anit semitism and violence Born in Omaha Ne Tought selfreliance and black supremacy Spent time in prison but gained from prison educational programs and became literate and joined nation of islam which advocated complete separation from whites an black supremacy X said islam was true religion of black men Said Christianitly was white man s religion and was imposed on blacks Natn of islam proposed separate black nation unitl they could move all blacks back to Africa X had even more radical views than most 0 Suggested us govt owed reparation sand rejected nonviolence said by any means necessary Was more radical and quit the nation and was assassinated by members in 1965 White Flight in the South the movement to the suburbs of whites following integration 0 Mid1960 s to the present 0 Most money for schools comes from property taxeswealth of property goes down so does school system Shift to Republicanism in south l948thurmondsc dixiecrat Truman DDewey R Johnson and Kennedy eras pulled southerners away form democrats Goldwater pulls votes in l64 Nisxon gets southern vote in 1968 Now south solidly rep State gov ts stayed democratic Prison Industrial Complex US has 5 of world s population Has 25 of world s prison population Prison industrial complex takes off in l60 s and l70 s Reagan started criminalizing drugs more 0 War on drugs3 components led to growth of prisons o Mandatory minimum sentences 0 3strikes law3 felonies means life in prison 0 100 to 1 sentence ratio for crack to cocaine 5g crack500g cocaine Us has more than 23 mill behind barsmore than any country 751100000 people are imprisoned 1 in 100 adults are imprisoned 1 in 4 black men in late l20 s are imprisoned Median in all other nations is 125100000 Us only advanced country in world that imprisons for poverty crimes Presence of guns causes murder rate to be higherEurope has just as many assaults but less deaths Less theftproperty crimes in us but offenders spend 25 times more in jail Every week ther is a prison built since 1976 40 of prison total are African American around 20to 30 are Hispanic 70 of prisoners are illiterate ofa million suffer from serious mental condition 6080 prisoners have history of substance abuse Parole violations are a huge reason for large numbers of prisoners 0 23 Ca prisoners are parole violations Private corporations ran prisons paid by gov t Stocks publicy traded Prison ind Complex employs over V2 a mill people more than any company besides GM Jedges are electedwant ot show their high on crime No true middle class in America Easier to toughen laws than improve education system Convicted felons lose right to vote More than 4 mill Disenfranchised due to felony convictions Af Am Arrested at 5x higher rate than whites for drug crimes Rate ofviolent criem has fallen in us by 20 since l90 s
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