AMER HIS SNC 1865
AMER HIS SNC 1865 HIST 2112
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Date Created: 09/12/15
The Great Depression Hoover elected president 1928 began 1929 it was a time of enormous optimism there was great confidence in the US economy dun dun dun many highly educated people thought we were on the path to permanent prosperity The Great Depression was not caused by Black Thursday one signi cant proponent was the Farm Crisis even a decade before farmers were in economic turmoil 19141918 generally regarded as a golden age for American farmers increased global demand for US food and ber led to high farm prices times were good many went out and invested this money in capital tractors more land Model T s Then this period of prosperity was followed by some hard times One reason was the science and tech that they were adopting By 1930 135 of farmers owned a tractor increased mechanization in the 20 s rapid increase in the use of synthetic fertilizers also contributed started applying less manure more commercial fertilizer fertilizer production more than tripled in the 20 s basically led to a fully industrialized agriculture this though led to the surplus problem more they invested in science and production the more they went into debt they started ooding markets with more cotton more food etc thus the farming prices collapsed many farmers basically driven out of business in the 20 s bt 20 and 23 about 9 lost their farms The farm crisis had two major results worth consideration many farm people just gave up and moved to the city rural tourban migration also turned more and more to the federal government for help under New Deal era new farm policies were put into place farmer protests in the 20 s and 30 s spearheaded an economic change Many Americans were enjoying prosperity though Hoover seemed like the perfect president forthe 1920 s while serving as President of Commerce he wrote Amercan Ndvduasm 1922 condemned govt intervention in free enterprise introduced associationalism Hoover insisted that capitalists had to subordinate their personal interest to the greater good profit could not be the only purpose to corporate life the govt agencies and govt leaders should voluntarily cooperate with private corporations create partnerships devoted to the public good benefit society as a whole In the election of 28 Hoover ran against Al Smith the first Catholic to be nominated for president by a major party Al Smith represented a broader segment of the American populus three term mayor of New York advocated three sets of reforms improved conditions for imigrants promoted better wages and working conditions for workers drawing on Progressive era thinking called forthe repeal of Prohibition fun fact actually more establishments serving alcohol in NYC during Prohbton than before Hoover was almost inevitably going to win Smith was hated for Catholicism pro alcohol proimmigrant Hoover won with over 58 but Smith carried America s 12 largest cities also got a surprising amount of support from farm people pointed the direction to a new Democratic party culminating under Roosevelt The prosperous economy that brought Hoover in soon fell beneath his feet Within 5 hours of rst crash more than 10 million in market value just disappeared everyone scrambled to sell stocks before they were worthless thus causing prices to fall JP Morgan decided to try to arrest this collapse they ooded the market with a huge infusion of cash for a little bit it seemed like he saved the stock market but then came Black Tuesday Oct 29 1929 the minute the stock market opened sellers offered huge blocks of stock for whatever they could get Hoover assured everyone the crisis would be over in 60 days Market didn t make it back to precrash levelstil 1954 America faced the collapse of American capitalism up to a quarter of the nation faced unemployment hungry ppl lined up in breadlines many set up shacks at the edge of town these shantytowns were ironically known as quot Hoovervilles American suicide rate raised to highest level in history birth rates fell dramatically The majority of Americans actually didn t lose their homes orjobs though Most middle class workers hung on They made do with less use it up wear it out make it new or do withoutquot Many women began canning and making clothes themselves Even for the relatively af uent it was clear that there were huge human tolls So what caused the Great Depression and what were the impacts Causes 5 major ones the stock market the bubble burst hitting investment bankers pretty hard JP Morgan Goldman Sachs they weren t only investors in stock market though many ordinary Americans invested perhaps too heavily in the stock market rushing to buy stocks led to a bubble when the bubble burst it pulled a lot of capital out ofthe economy 26000 businesses failed in 1930 without access to capital many other businesses had to cut back in production big firms like Ford and GM had to cut back production of course cutting back led to laying people off leading to unemployment Inequality of wealth and income crash helped to reveal some huge cracks in inequality of wealth in 1929 the wealthiest 5 owned more ofthe nation s wealth than the bottom 60 combined 1 had incomes 650 greater than the 10 at the bottom prosperity of the 1920s was utterly dependent on high investment rates and luxury spending of the wealthy fear had disastrous impacts though obviously luxury purchases are much less stable than commodity spending Limited purchasing poweroverextended credit a decade of real rising wages again though farmers had devastating conditions urban workers didn t have much savings this meant that farmers and working class could not sustain the economy ifthey didn t have savings though how did they afford all that they did credit installment buying was banking on the future assuming that wages and salaries would rise these banking on the future only exacerbated the cracks that led the depression ppl unprepared to make it through depression Banking Structure a period when the structure was shoddy in the 20 s banks were opening at the rate of 45 per day reflecting optimistic outlook but in the Hooverera there were very few govt regulations thus not many financially sound banks furthermore no regulation in place that created a split between an investment bank and a savings bank a savings bank should not be going out making risky gambles with ppl s money no regulations though that said investment banks couldn t also be savings bank most new banks didn t have enough assets to stay in business banks were also closing at a rate of2 per day the nation s overall prosperity helped conceal these fatal aws in the banking system Foreign trade After WWI all major world powers owed the US money particularly France and US Germany also put in difficult situation by Treaty of Versailles major world powers demanded major reparations Germany couldn t make those payments that meant France and Britain couldn t pay US they decided to stop paying debts to the US presidents insisted on receiving any foreign payments to the US in gold thus we secured almost all the world s gold making it hard to pay the US in gold in short the American economy was deeply intertwined in world economy the Great Depression screwed up the whole world s economy lm pact Protest in the summer of 1932 Bonus Army marched on Washington world war veterans wanted immediate bonuses promised to them during war Hoover said no Senate voted bill down many protesters left but several remained Hoover sent in police and then federal troops these men that fought for our country were being chased by armed horsemen of their own army Farmers took dramatic actions as well Farmers Holiday Association August 1932 this drew on some old Populist party ideas one key idea in the subtreasury plant told farmers that their only chance to get out of depression was if farm prices were higher only way to do that is to not sell your goods withhold them from the market Communist Protests were huge socialists called for sweeping reforms Communists called for revolution created unemployed councils many joined these councils not even really wanting revolution Strikingly Communists even gained inroads in the deep South Communists in Alabama were seeking to overturn the oppressive forms ofthe deep South even Jim Crow All these protests helped point to the limits of associationalism Hoover nonetheless believed it would work called on businessmen to invest however without much capital they really couldn t created president s association on unemployment relief seeked private donations to a charity that would go out and help the poor I Iquot 5 Terms to Know Radical Republicans Reconstruction Act 1867 and Radical Reconstruction this was put through while the south didn t want the 14th amendment This act put 10 southern states under military rule South needed to state constitutions gave men equal rights After constitution was made then representatives could go federal Johnson called all these abuses of power Thaddeus Stevens and Radical Republicans of PAwanted power back to congress Thought it was a way to give powers of the law regardless of race They wanted to take land from disloyal southern planters and give it out to former slaves and etc caused battle between executive and legislative branch quotboom and bustquot business cycles Boom amp Bust Cycle series of depressions 18731993said this growth drove people out of businesses and out of economy some businessmen said that you needed to consolidate these companies Pullman sleeping cars company town exhibited paternalism In Pullman Illinois Sold sleeping cars Workers of Pullman had attractive company housingelectricity and gas included But all of the town was owned by Pullman specifically George Pullman In a bust he cut wages but didn t cut rent This made many angry so workers went on strike Samuel Gompers Samuel L Gompers llpure amp simple unionismquot Leader of AFL He was a cigar worker He said Knights of Labor approach wouldn t workdon t replace capital systemaccept it and realize workers will work for wages so lets improve conditions and raise wagessaid that workers should avoid politics and get concrete improvements here and now of labor conditions and wages They decided to use two tools the strike and ideally collective bargaining He called this pure and simple unionism It was a group that put together unions Andrew Johnson Johnson s Reconstruction Plans Wanted a different approach to reconstruction Said president should be in charge not congresscalled the presidential theory of reconstruction He wanted to use his power to reconstructhe wanted to grant pardons to southern states to get stronger more loyal southern states He barred people like confederates former leaders He tried to benefit small land holders and box out prewar plantation owners Johnson kept pissing off congressvetoing bills 1868 he removed his secretary of war from congress and congress had just passed a law saying you can t so congress impeached himby one vote What was the proper balance between federal and state Federal and congress both gained power The power of the federal govt came to be viewed not as a threat The only way to have individual liberties is if you have a strong govt to protect them This led to many protests Knights of Labor Started after strikes and national guard Fraternal organizationChristian like in helping your fellow mandemocratic promise of America guaranteed social equality for all citizens Knights said it was possible to organize workers It would replace capitalism systemreplaced wage slavery with a cooperative approach to industry in which workers were their own employersshared the fruits of industrial wealth The knights wanted govt on the side of workersthey wanted to vote for people to support themin 1882 it had 40000 members Terence V Powderly Led Knights of Labor Wanted to get as many workers as possibleunlike others courted women and blacks as members of this group Not only wanted skilled workers but also factory hands and day laborers With this approach by 1886 the knights 9 N 9 5 H H H of labor had of 70000 members But by 1886 peaked out Haymarket 1886 Haymarket affair happenedat a rally a bomb exploded8 police died so police opened fire injured 60 officers40 others and killed 7 or 8 civiliansdon t know where bomb came from but it turned people to blame the knights of labor even though they preached nonviolence Knights went into decline Social Darwinism Social Darwinism wrote book1859 about theory of natural selection Made no claim to having relations to human society Some people applied this to human society Darwinists changed American dream to say if you worked hard enough you would get jobs There was core irony of visionsaid middle and upper class was deserving of their wealth but didn t acknowledge govt helping them get to this point quotbloody shirtquot Election of 1876 Compromise of 1877 shut window of opportunity for Tilden vs Hayesgooddemocrats scored points by showing Grants corruptionand by tying corruption of Grant to southern problemssoutherners waived bloody shirt by saying how many union soldiers died fighting for their countryquotsoutherners every scar you have on your body is by democratsquotstates like Florida claimed that there was intimidation at pollapparently election ended in tiecompromise was made to say that house and senate would declare Hayes won if reconstruction was formally overdemocrats were viable national political party Henry George Henry George Progress and Poverty 1879 was man who fell in hard times in 1870s He said there was a cause for this inequality Said that it was high rent and that there should just be a single taxon land This was widely popular and he almost won mayor ship settlement house movement Settlement houses Jane Addams Hull House was another way in which women engaged in current politicswere made to help working class poor Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago in 1890s Was an educated womenfounded this for working class and immigrant familiesoffered English classes sewing cooking job training kindergarten This was to uplift immigrant children to American standard of living by teaching themeven though they couldn t get more money These were well educated upper class women who aimed to lift peoplewere community peoplemany though like Jane Addams fought for legislationthey pushed for changes in govt policy while also finding careers for women who were shut out of political system This overall interpretation is saying reformists were educated middle class 15th Amendment 15th Amendment 1870 7 states were readmitted to the union GA was expelled by replacing African Americans and putting former confederate leaders in Military reseated these people This amendment said no states could stop people from voting South was angry about full black equality The amendment didn t give them the right to hold officer or literacy tests or women the rights to vote Reconstruction transformed the us constitution it was primarily used to determine property rights By 1870 it became a tool for those of oppressed minorities croplien system croplien system quotfurnish cotton monocropping debt peonage crop lien system dropped hopes for sharecroppers to get better offsoutherners needed credit to buy seeds and stuff to plantcountry merchants stepped in to give supplies in exchange for lienit gave merchant right to terms of sale of cropmost of these merchants had monopolies so they UJ U39I Iquot 4 dictated termswhich meant bad weather or stuff put them in debt to make them have to work againmerchants dictated what to grow so they said cottonproblem is you can t eat itgrew more cotton but less food so they had to buy food from the same merchantsfell into debt peonagemost farmers were whitemost were tenantsby 1880 the south which had been selfdependent on food could no longer feed itself CropLien system amp debt peonage In this interpretation of populists they were fighting the croplien system this system emerged with share cropping They had two implications 1 blacks and whites were relying on cotton 2 world cotton prices were plummeting which led farmers deeper and deeper in debt leading to debt peonage Pullman Strike 1894 strike American Railway Union secondary boycott American Railway Union Leader Eugene V Debs Strike because Pullman not cutting rent but cutting wages Many Pullman workers were part of American Railway Union Debs said all railway workers should strike to help steel workers This was secondary boycott because it was a second industry pressuring the Pullman Company Military force was deployed and court junctions came against Debs strikes Debs for failure to comply was arrested so this failed This changed many peoples opinion because it was one strike to many to fail They decided not to try to work with capitalists Ku Klux Klan Act 1871 KKK Act 1871 this outlawed any conspiracies to outlaw citizens their rightsact had enforcement powerscould use office of district attorney to override state laws and use military forcesoutherners were furiouspeople than didn t like Grady s new souththe law worked to indict Klan leadersKlan retreated from southern lifeviolence was more covert and less visibleThe democratic party still became a new force Jim Crow Jim Crow is a term we use to label whole systems of formal and informal segregationinformal were just what became naturalbecame prominent in 1880s9 states made railroad segregation lawsin 1890 Mississippi made constitution banning blacks from voting and holding political office William Jennings Bryan William Jennings Bryan he had a deep Christian priority with belief govt had to do something to help farmers hardships In 1896 ran for presidency of democratic ticket and as a populist He was prosilver profarmer antitrust antiliquor antiSemitic but didn t let it show same with racism His speeches were something to beholdgave a fine stem winder He had large deep voice In this time he was regarded as one of the best speakers in American politicswas funnycould quote at length bible speeches and important documents even though Bryan ran and lost they kept running and losingthree arenas where they had big impact Party Politics forced democratic party to move in new directions At end of civil war viewed govt as alien to interest of free individualschanged to view of govt to uphold freedoms liberties and securitiesas democratic party grew more liberal so did some republicans Women s Suffrage strength for thisthe women had little impactmost parties started to make room for thempopulist women speakers voiced their beliefsas western women became active in politics through populists effortsfirst states to give women suffrage were in west Women played an active role in progressive role of 20th century Paved the Way for Progressivism granger laws lead to national laws of railroad regulationinterstate commerce commissionthis wasn t federal govt ownershipnot socialismhaving this ICC limited powers 0 I x 9 N 53 RD of govt to give secret rates and discountsother demands also made way into progressive era like direct election of senators191316th amendment 1913 allowed graduated income tax most didn t pay until ww2 but provided powerful tool to try to level economic disparities Hatch Act USDA 1862 Morrill Land Grant Acts 18621890 Hatch Act 1887 USDA create as cabinet level agency with the express intent to provide direct federal aid to farmersalso Morrill Land Grant act gave union states land for college of agricultural and mechanical artsfound to use federal lands to use new technology second one done in 1890 Hatch Act made agricultural experiment stationsused federal money to bring science and technology to farmersthese series of acts showed govt playing direct hands on role quotExodustersquot Exodusters 1879 blacks saw opportunity in west to get landsome 6000 went to go get landsaw this as an exodus to the dry prairie1880 census said they had 40000 African Americans in Kansas biggest beside Texasthey were brought by cheap land and rainrain stopped and locust came Dakotas lost 50000 settlerssome stayed and were determined to overcome the difficulties Industrial Workers of the World Industrial Workers of the World WW 1905 created by people who were upset at AFL AFL had accommodationist stanceaccepted fact of wage works and capitalists in control They stood against it and tried to seize the production Take control and benefit workers They had solidarity approach A fraternal hand offered to all Wanted those who worked with their hands women blacks and Chinese all who were left out It was successful fighting for free speech It was one of the only organizations in early 20th century to fight for freedom of speech sometimes violently Courts said workers on strike couldn t speak out WW leaders sought to fight for 1st amendment The WW didn t have a place to meet though They would literally go out in streets and sing songs put on plays and have gatherings to deliver message They would willingly go to jail to gain support Many workers were brutally treated in jail and this gained press so these people gained support even if they didn t agree with WW views WW forced public officials to give way and allow nonviolent protest Often called wobliesquot by middle class journalists Meant that they were drunkthis led to them being crushed by military Big Bill was seen as violent man and once wrongly accused of murder Gompers was more successful because he wasn t seen as threat because people knew they would still have powerand that capitalists would guide policy Cowboys Cowboysthe old west was known for cowboysthe cowboy does serve as a good embodiment of the west but not like we see itcowboys were grunt laborersone of the worst paid laborers maybe 25 dollars per month and meals Approximately 35000 men were cowboys fishing percent lack 12 percent Mexicantheir job was driving cattleshipped them for profitwas capitalismwas a very boring jobwas constantly under supervision of trail bossmany cowboys joined the Knights of Labor because unfair paywas rugged but not independentalso was tiny percentage compared to westcowboys were short lived because railcarsdidn t make sense to walk cattle Battle of Little Big Horn Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 camps of warriors around greasy grassCuster sent in men and about 2000 people awaited 600 of them and Custer split them up and him and everyone diedplains Indians could win battle but not warsue surrendered because of starvation againus army didn t win because superior tactics just by cutting off their food Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act Chinese Japanese and southeastern N Europeans were deniedChinese greeted with remarkably widespread racismsomeone said that these workers would take away work from the whitesSan Francisco in 1870s had people go out and attack Chinese workers govtjumped on band wagonfederal govt declared Chinese couldn t be citizens Chinese exclusion act barred Chinese immigrants from US as of 1880s Chinese immigration cut offmost of this work had been done out west so they were in fear of workers cutting off immigrationwhite workers didn t work so they got Japanese workersmany went to California farm fieldsthe Japanese had unfortunate aspect thoughthey worked so long and good that eventually they bought their own farmsthey wanted laws to stop Japanese to not be able to own land 22 Jane Addams Settlement houses Jane Addams Hull House was another way in which women engaged in current politicswere made to help working class poor Jane Addams founded Hull House in Chicago in 1890s Was an educated womenfounded this for working class and immigrant familiesoffered English classes sewing cooking job training kindergarten This was to uplift immigrant children to American standard of living by teaching themeven though they couldn t get more money These were well educated upper class women who aimed to lift peoplewere community peoplemany though like Jane Addams fought for legislationthey pushed for changes in govt policy while also finding careers for women who were shut out of political system 23 Henry Grady quotThe New Southquot Henry Grady s llNew Southquot Southern states wanted to transform after civil war Some states wanted agrarian economysome less cotton economy Henry Grady wanted to start the new south He was the editor of the Atlanta Constitution He went to UGA and was Athens born Became famous in 1874 when he posted an editorial caked the new south He was offered part owner and editor as part of ATL constitution because his editorial 1886 llNew South Speech He gave speech in 1886 in New York City before New England Society it wasn t a new speech but gained national attention Made 3 major points 1 The US was no longer two separate nations said the old south was deadand new south was growing 2 The southern economy was industrializing the old south rested everything on slavery and agriculture New south was thrilling with the consciousness of growing power and prosperity 3 Race relations had changed no place has more prosperous labor forceCrowd loved his speech because this intransigent south was getting old to northerners 24 Eugene Debs 1894 strike American Railway Union secondary boycott American Railway Union Leader Eugene V Debs Strike because Pullman not cutting rent but cutting wages Many Pullman workers were part of American Railway Union Debs said all railway workers should strike to help steel workers This was secondary boycott because it was a second industry pressuring the Pullman Company Military force was deployed and court junctions came against History Study Guide Exam I Civil Rights Act of 1866 Was an act that tried to abolish black codes by affirming African Americans rights to full and equal bene t of a laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property just like the white citizens The purpose was to put an end to legal discrimination and expand blacks rights It is important because Johnson vetoed it but for the first time in history congress overrode the president s veto on a major legislation 14th Amendment The amendment made all nativeborn or naturalized persons American citizens It prohibited the states from depriving citizens of life liberty and property without due process Equal protection by law for all citizens was in the amendment The second half of the amendment allowed for congress to reduce congressional representation if states withheld suffrage from some adult male population This particular part of the amendment strengthened the Republican Party in two ways one by either gaining black votes or second by limiting the democratic votes However the Amendment completely ignored the voting rights of women Compromise of 1877 The compromise of 1877 was used solve the question of who actually won the presidential election that year Since there was no provision for the situation in the constitution congress had to deal with it Hayes came out with a victory but democrats vowed to resist his victory The solution to the turmoil was in return for not blocking Hayes inauguration and to deal fairly with the freedmen Hayes vowed to refrain from using the army to uphold the remaining Republican regimes and to provide the South with substantial subsidies for internal improvements Once Hayes abandoned the republican governments in the south they fell quickly Freedman39s Bureau The Bureau was a national agency that was created to uplift and open opportunities for freed people former slaves They created courts to deal with con icts and also established schools to not only teach freed slaves but to also fight illiteracy It was important because it helped former slaves adjust to a new life style in freedom Plessy V Ferguson 1896 A court case that declared that segregation was legal as long as if equal facilities were provided for both parties Established the saying separate but equal This court case solidi ed the practice of segregation and even preferring it The states now had de nite control over separate institutions quotRedeemersquot 7 Redeemers were a group of southern democrats They sought to overthrow the group of freedmen carpet baggers and scalawags from political control They were important because they gained the Democratic Party control in the government They were key in the effort of getting the Democrats to regain control of congress in 1874 Battle of Little Big Horn It was a battle where General Custard rode his men in to battle and was ultimately defeated by the Sioux Indians It was a massive Lakota victory It was very important in demonstrating the fact that the Sioux might could be able to win a battle but they could not win a war simply because the American army could out last them or starve them Frederick Jackson Turner 7 He believed that America s success was directly tied to the westward expansion He said that the frontier was the connecting point between savagery and civilization The frontier was going to be the defining point in America He was very in uential in pushing for the westward expansion of America William Jackson Palmer 7 Palmer wanted an integrated industrial complex based on steel manufacturing He desired to have a company that controlled everything from beginning to end He created the Colorado Coal and Iron Company which eventually merged with the Colorado fuel company making the Colorado fuel and iron company Sherman Antitrust Act 7 The act was initially created to prevent American businesses from becoming consolidated in order to prevent big businesses controlling the economy However the act had an entirely different effect it essentially encouraged the small businesses to form together as a corporation Haymarket Affair The Haymarket Affair was a demonstration of unrest by striking workers which turned into a massacre when someone threw a bomb at the police initiating gun re killing some police officers and citizens The knights of labor were blamed but most likely wrongly Some of the knights that were imprisoned were executed even though they were never proven to have thrown the bomb Gentleman s Agreement 1907 7 The agreement was between America and the Japanese on immigration It was determined that the Japanese government would deny passports to people who wanted to move to America while the US would clamp down on the discrimination of Japanese immigrants It was supposed to cease tensions between the two powerful nations It was never ratified by congress and was ended it in 1924 ethnic enclaves They were places where immigrants would settle because other people of the same ethnicity were already there The immigrants did not form a melting pot like mist thought they essentially self segregated once they came to America Essentially like the modern day China Town and Little Italy quotCross of Goldquot 1896 7 It was William Jennings Bryan s speech that mainly focused on advocating bimetallism instead of just gold The Democratic Party favored this because the in ation would make it easier for the farmers to pay off their debts It was extremely important because the speech united people and created a new Democratic Party Farmer39s Alliance 7 It was an attempt to allow for the farmers to actually benefit from their work instead of being tied to the croplien system It was a new system that would allow for farmers to store their crops until the right price came up and then they would sell them It was key in allowing for the farmers to pay off the debts they had previously never been able to pay back Mary Elizabeth Lease 7 She was a very key leader in the Populist Party She told farmers that they need to raise less corn and more hell This is because farmers were overproducing and not involved enough in politics She was a huge believer in the fact that big business was to blame for wage slavery She did not support monopoly but the smaller guys like farmers and blue collar workers quotyellow j oumalismquot Yellow journalism was originated between Pulitzer and Hearst The two writers were attempting to make their stories more sensational and more appealing to readers in order to get more people to buy their newspapers Their sensational writings increased the interests of citizens in Cuba and foreign affairs Anti Imperialist League The league was used to ght the annexation of the Philippines The league believed that Americans were overstepping their boundaries of republicanism They did not disapprove of the economical expansion into other countries but they did not believe that we should do the same as the British did in America Open Door Policy The United States in order to expand their power and increase trade sent out request to China to allow for a policy that would permit trade access and maintain Chinese sovereignty Later requests were sent out to Britain Japan Germany France and Russia and as they agreed the open door policy of the US was shaped into an international policy The policy allowed most importantly for the US to expand its economic power while avoiding a colonial approach General Federation of Women s Clubs It was a culmination of many other women s clubs They are dedicated to improving the community and bettering the lives of others through volunteer service It was important because during that time it allowed for the women to be involved in civics and politics even though they weren t technically able to be involved in politics quotcult of domesticityquot 7 This was a club that was speci cally reserved for those in the women in the upper and middle classes of society These women in these clubs were expected to be the center of the home sphere They were essentially supposed to be very Christian and morally good things while taking care of her home and nurturing her family Gifford Pinchot 7 He was the first chief of the Forrest Service in the US He was very big on the conservation of the forests The philosophy that he introduced was the simple task of using professionals in forestry he believed that as long as professionals were doing the job then the forests would be conserved Social gospel The social gospel was a means of Christianizing industrial America The movement was about applying Christian ethics to social problems things like crime and alcohol and racial tensions A very important person during this movement was Walter Rauschenbusch He said that the church must demand protection for the moral safety of the people Alice Paul Alice Paul was a very in uential person in the search for women s suffrage She form the National Women s Party The campaign that she led to end women s suffrage resulted in the passing of the l9Lh amendment Eugene V Debs Eugene V Debs was very instrument in forming the American Railway Union which was the nation s first industrial union Debs was arrested because of a strike in prison Debs educated himself on socialism Later after being released he ran for the presidency under the socialist party ticket Later during his life he denounced the participation of America in WWI and therefore was arrested under the Espionage Act Selective Service Act 1917 The act was a way for America to gain a conscripted a1my The act allowed for young men between 18 and 35 to be called to service in the army It was strange because in response the people did not cause violent riots like one might think This act was important because it allowed for the US to raise an actual a1my unlike before Sedition Act 1918 This act made it illegal to speak disloyal profanely scurrilously or abusively about the government army or even the ag It even allowed for the postmaster to refuse to deliver any mail that met the standards of the forbidden speech It was only applicable during war times but however it limited free speech and was repealed Lever Act 1917 The Lever Act made Hoarding and monopolizing illegal It gave the government total control over the coal industry it allowed for the government to control everything from pricing to distribution Similar abilities in the food sector were gained the government could control pricing sales etc Hoover was even able to set profit margins on food stubs quotThe Colorado Strike Songquot 7 The Colorado Strike Song was very important because it demonstrated how all of the men women and children desired freedom justice and home It did not only demonstrate that they wanted these things but that they were even willing to ght for them Titles of readings What to Bring This will be a closed book exam do not bring anything but writing instruments to the exam Either pen or pencil is ne Do not bring notes books sheets of paper cell phones computers PDAs microwaves laser pointers color televisions cases of ramen noodles you get the point Bring only History 2112 Fall 2011 Dr Hamilton Exam II October 26 Study Sheet writing instruments and a sharp mind Preparation To prepare for the exam you should familiarize yourself with all of the readings you have done in the class so far and study all of the terms below Some of the terms are drawn from lecture some are from the assigned readings and some are covered in both Having good notes on the lectures and readings will make studying easy as you review the terms and think about the interconnections among them Format There are three sections of the exam The rst section of the exam will involve identifying the source of three quotations A list of six works all of which have been assigned readings for weekly discussions will appear next to the three quotations You must match each quotation to the appropriate reading Completing this section should take you less than 5 minutes It is worth 30 points See the next page for a list oftitles The second section of the exam will involve matching terms arrayed in two columns The rst column will include a set of terms drawn from the required readings or from lecture see below the second column will list a related term or phrase each of which matches correctly to only one item in the rst column The rst column for instance could contain the term quot13th Amendmentquot You would match this to quotabolished slaveryquot in the second column There will be ten items in each column Plan to spend about 15 minutes or less on this section It is worth 30 points The third section of the exam will be composed of ve terms drawn from the list below You will be expected to brie y identify and explain the historical signi cance of four of the terms Identify the term by providing enough quotwho what where whenquot information so that we know you understand the term Then unravel its signi cance by explaining quotwhyquot it matters historically Keep in mind that students who do poorly on history identi cation questions often do so because they fail to explicitly explain the signi cance of historical terms Each of your identi cations should require no more than 3 or 4 sentences Plan to spend about 30 minutes on this section This section will be worth 40 points Terms to Know Alfred Thayer Mahan F lappers Wagner Act Rough Riders GMAC Huey P Long Revival of the KKK Bessie Smith Revenue Act of 1942 IQ Testing Johnson Reed Act of 1924 Executive Order 9066 quotmeatless Mondaysquot Al Smith George Kennan United Negro Improvement Association bank runs Berlin Airlift American Civil Liberties Union Frances Perkins NSC 68 19th Amendment HOLC Suez Canal crisis HIST2112 7 Hamilton Final Exam Study Guide Terms to Know Kitchen Debate 1959 conversation between US vice president Richard Nixon and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev as they walked through the American National Exhibition in Moscow in July 1959 Nixon showed off America s advancement with consumer goods over the Soviet Union s but Khrushchev responded by pointing out that in the Soviet Union you are entitled to housing whereas in the United States the homeless slept on pavements This was significant because it showed the major aws in American democracy and the comparisons between our form of government and that of the Soviet Union s communism 0 Alt Def a conversation between Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev and Vice President Richard Nixon in which they debated the relative merits of their nations economies at the American National Exhibition held in Moscow in 1959 You are a lawyer for capitalism and I am a lawyer for communism Khrushchev told Nixon as each tried to outdo one another War on Poverty In January 1964 President Johnson announced an unconditional was on poverty in his State of the Union message 7 launched the Economic Opportunity Act in 1964 it became a battle in the form of new programs and welfare institutions that would help to end poverty in America 7 authorized 10 new programs in America allocating 800 million about 1 of the federal budget for the rst year 7 started new programs such as HeadStart for preschoolers workstudy grants for college students Job Corps for unemployed young people The Volunteers in Service to America VISTA program paid modest wages to volunteers working with the disadvantaged and a legal services programs provided lawyers for the poor amp CAP Community Action Program gave poor people a voice in local government and allowed them to participate in antipoverty projects 7 CAP gave people usually excluded from government an opportunity to act on their own behalf and develop leadership skills it was one of Johnson s goals in attaining his dream of the Great Society 0 SB number of troops and bombing went up while budget for war on poverty went down 0 Part of LBJ s plan for the Great Society wanted to use government funding and community groups to help empower poor people to help themselves hand up not hand out led to Congress passing Economic Opportunity Act 7 Of ce of Econ Opportunity to help immobile people nd support created programs that still exist 7 HeadStart amp Job Corps Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 During a routine espionage mission in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of North Vietnam 2 US destroyers reported that North Vietnamese gunboats had red on them Johnson quickly ordered air strikes on NVietnamese torpedo bases amp oil storage facilities Concealing the uncertainty about whether the 2nd attack had even occurred and the provocative US operations along the N Vietnamese coast he won from Congress the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution granting him authority to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attacks against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression 7 Johnson s tough stance helped him win the 1964 election against Barry Goldwater showing that he was not soft on communism amp ultimately after his reelection Johnson widened the war rejected peace overtures from N Vietnam and instead launched Operation Rolling Thunder a strategy of gradually intensi ed bombing of North Vietnam 0 SB Johnson thought Vietnam a test of American willingness to combat communist aggression expanded US involvement slightly August 1964 he said US destroyers in gulf was attacked by N Vietnamese torpedo boats all Congress voted for G of T Res which let pres to take necessary measures During LBJ s ght against communism in Vietnam 2 US destroyers reported that NV gun boats had red at them LBJ immediately ordered strikes on NV torpedo bases amp oil storage units concealing his uncertainty that there ever was a 2 Congress signed a blank check for LBJ to do by whatever means necessary to protect the US from harm authoritarian operation rolling thunder strategy of increased bombing of NV 0 Bakke v Regents 1978 Warren E Burger appointed by President Nixon was more sympathetic to the President s agenda restricting somewhat the protections of individual rights established by the previous court Chief Justice Earl Warren but continuing to uphold many of the liberal programs of the 1960s In Regents of the University of California vs Bakke 1978 the Court limited the range of affirmative action but it allowed af rmative action programs to attack the results of past discrimination if they avoided strict quotas or racial classifications 0 SB somewhat restricted the individual rights established by the former Court but continued to uphold many of the liberal programs of the 1960s The Court limited the range of af rmative action in this ruling but it allowed af rm action programs to attack the results of past discrimination if they avoided strict quotas or racial classi cations African Americans reinforced but rede ned Bretton Woods 1946 0 SB 44 allies all of industrialized nations met in Bretton Woods New Hampshire to prevent world from going into the depression established world bank and international monetary fund for global banking each tied currency to US dollar promoted free trade and enhanced economic growth in postwar times 7 agencies still important today 1979 Energy crisis A new upheaval in the Middle East the Iranian Revolution created the most severe energy crisis yet In midsummer shortages caused 60 of gasoline stations to close down frustrated drivers waited in long line and paid unprecedentedly high prices for gas We are struggling with a profound transition from a time of abundance to a time of growing scarcity in energy President Carter told the nation asking Congress for additional measures to address the shortages Congress reduced controls on oil amp gas to stimulate American production and imposed windfall pro ts tax on producers to redistribute some of the profits they would reap from deregulation Carter s energy measures failed to reduce American dependence on foreign oil European nations shared that dependence but more successfully controlled consumption They levied high taxes on gasoline causing people to rely more on public transportation and manufacturers to produce more energyefficient cars In the automobiledependent US however with inadequate public transit people accustomed to driving long distances and an aversion to taxes politicians dismissed that approach By the end of the century the US with 6 of the world s population would consume more than 25 of global oil production During the 1979 gasoline crisis Carter attempted to balance the development of domestic fuel sources with environmental concerns winning legislation to conserve energy and to provide incentives for the development of solar energy and environmentally friendly alternative fuels 0 SB caused by the Iranian Revolution 60 of gas stations closed 7 led to long lines high prices Congress reduced control on oil amp fuel and places windfall pro ts tax on producers in an attempt to redistribute some of the wealth Carter s attempts did not decrease American reliance on foreign oil began looking into a new kind of energy 7 nuclear Interstate Highway Act 1956 President Eisenhower s greatest domestic initiative promoted as essential to national defense and an impetus to economic growth the act authorized the construction of a national highway system with the federal government paying most of the costs through increased fuel and vehicle taxes The new highways accelerated mobility of Americans and goods and spurred suburban expansion shopping malls and growth in the fastfood and motel industries The trucking construction and automobile industries had lobbied hard for the law and bene ted substantially from it Eventually the monumental highway project exacted unforeseen costs in the form of air pollution energy consumption declining railroads and mass transportation and decay of central cities 0 SB Eisenhower program that added 41000 miles of freeways across the country paid for mainly by the government via raised gas amp auto tax increased suburban life fastfood longhaul transportation amp hotel industry easier amp faster travel 7 more reliant on automobiles problems cause pollution energy consumption decrease in rail amp mass transport decay of central cities Strategic Defense Initiative SDI 1983 In March 1983 Reagan startled many of his own advisors by announcing plans for research on SDI Immediately dubbed Star Wars by critics who doubted its feasibility the project would deploy lasers in space to destroy enemy missiles before they could reach their targets Reagan conceded that SDI could appear as an aggressive policy allowing the US to strike rst and not fear retaliation The Soviets reacted angrily because SDI violated the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty amp because they would require huge investments to develop their own Star Wars 39 39 J 39 39 39 39 quot continued to spend billions on SDI research without producing a working system 0 SB used lasers to guide missiles amp weaponry controlled by satellite Russians feel the need to rebuild their army because they are worried the US won t simply use the SDI for defense 0 Reagan researched SDI to put lasers in space to destroy foreign missiles before they reached their targets called Star Wars by critics made Soviets mad because it violated the Antiballistic Missile Treaty and they would have to spend lots of money to get the same technology many administrators tried researching but never got a working system 1 White ight 0 SB 1950s white Europeans amp others wanted to live w people of same sec amp ethnicity led to culturally diverse urban cities amp uniracial suburbs some suburban neighborhoods agreed to keep uni racial to keep property value up 7 violence if blacks move in comps wouldn t insure if mixed X maintain segregation amp death of downtown Massive resistance 1956 policy formed by racist Southern white leaders in order to prevent blacks from progressing in the Civil Rights Movement they decided to just wear blacks down Court did not want to con ict by simply refusing to comply with court decisions which would force blacks to just take their issues to Court which would take money and dealing with white judges 2 disadvantages for blacks whites thought this would suf ciently prevents blacks from being integrated it was an attempt to create a solid wall of resistance 0 SB l95660s Harry Byrd amp followers after Brown vs Board of Education decided to integrate schools challenged the decision by creating state laws to avoid integration in VA proved that many didn t want to integrate even after all this time amp Brown vs BOE more laws needed to be passed 7 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee SNCC a new organization formed in 1960 of students that embraced civil disobedience and the nonviolence principles of Martin Luther King Jr The activists would confront their oppressors and stand up for their rights but they would not respond if attacked In the words of SNCC leader James Lawson Nonviolence nurtures the atmosphere in which reconciliation and justice become actual possibilities SNCC however rejected the topdown leadership of King and the established civil rights organizations adopting a decentralized structure that fostered decision making and the development of leadership at the grassroots level 0 SB Ella Baker and students decided that sitins needed more energy 7 young men and women secular Raleigh NC org student meetings at Shaw U eventually purged white leaders played roles in March on Wash Selma March and Freedom Rides Sit ins 1960 In Greensboro North Carolina a group of black college students started the practice of sitting at segregated whiteonly local lunch counters and refused to leave which drew crowds police and some violence It gave Greensboro a bad name amp caused PR problems for Woolworth s stores across the country amp put pressure on corporate headquarters to desegregate their lunch counters because they couldn t afford the economic loss Sitins became more widespread 7 led to wadeins in segregated local swimming pools amp pray ins in churches 0 SB got places desegregated without a court order by taking direct action 7 counted on public pressure for change 0 Protest that involves occupying seats at an establishment and refusing to move SNCC amp SCLC members served as the main technique for nonviolent protest in US 7 helped lead to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964 and desegregation of public facilities Freedom Rides 1961 organized by the Congress of Racial Inequality CORE to integrate interstate transportation in the South The riders were severely attacked in by whites in the South Alabama President Kennedy pleaded to call off the rides but the riders continued until after another attack when federal marshals were dispatched to restore order Although violence against the riders abated Freedom Riders arriving in Jackson Mississippi were promptly arrested and several hundred spent part of the summer in jail More than 400 blacks and whites participated in the Freedom Rides which typi ed the black freedom struggle administration efforts to stop the protests officials reluctance to intervene to protect demonstrators and the steely courage of African Americans in the face of tremendous violence 0 SB Blacks took buses down through the South to see if places were following Court orders with transportation desegre gated They weren t really following orders 7 still segregated Created more public opinion pressure 7 Kennedy Administration got upset with Freedom Riders CORE James Farmer and SNCC members whites and blacks challenged SC s ruling to integrate by riding on buses together from DC to NOLA resulted in violence in the South against both whites amp blacks got public attention that forced JFK to take action Robert Kennedy att gen ordered the Interstate Commerce Commission to enforce integration on buses 0 March On Washington 1963 the largest Civil Rights demonstration for Jobs and Freedom that drew 250000 blacks and whites to the nation s capital inspired by the strategy of Philip A Randolph in 194139 led by Martin Luther King Jr who gave his famous I Have A Dream speech that is memorable to this day 0 SB August 23 1963 250000 blacks amp whites marched on Washington to fight forjobs amp freedom in DC event with speeches instead of sitins MLK s I Have a Dream speech time of great hope for Civil Rights Movement but didn t achieve anything because southern Civil Rights activists returned to violence in the South Civil Rights Act of 1964 rst proposed by Kennedy in response to black protest passed by Johnson after Kennedy s death the strongest such measure since Reconstruction the law required every ounce of Johnson s political skill to pry suf cient votes from Republicans to balance the nays of the southern Democrats guaranteed access for all Americans to public accommodations public education employment and voting thus putting a nal legal end to the South s system of segregation amp discrimination the law also extended constitutional protections to Indians on reservations Title VII of the measure banning discrimination in employment not only attacked racial discrimination but also outlawed job discrimination against women 7 represented a giant step toward equal employment opportunity for white women as well as for racial minorities 0 SB forbade discrimination in any form of public accommodations 7 this takes down barriers to integration all over the South 0 Proposed by JFK before his death Johnson made sure it passed outlawed major discrimination against women amp blacks desegregated public places schools work ended unequal voter registration requirements Johnson had to work much harder to ensure Republican votes since Democrats now mattered didn t work as well as they had hoped since schools remained segregated Black Panthers After police killed an unarmed black teenager in San Francisco in 1966 Huey Newton amp Bobby Seale organized the Black Panther Party for SelfDefense to guard against police brutality Although the urban riots of the mid1960s erupted simultaneously triggered by speci c incidents of alleged police mistreatment horri ed whites blamed black power militants Although black power organizations captured the headlines they failed to gain the massive support from African Americans that King and other leaders had attracted Nor could they alleviate the poverty and racism entrenched in the urban North amp West Black militants were harassed by the FBI and jailed some encounters left both black militants and police dead Yet black power s emphasis on racial pride and its critique of American institutions resonated loudly and helped shape the protest activities of other groups 0 SB 19661982 a militant civil rights group founded by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland CA selfdefense of African Americans wore military uniforms had 10000 members by 1969 violent confrontational towards police 1st national militant force against whites people fed up willing to take more confrontational approach New Left 1960 the central organization of white student protest was Students for a Democratic Society SDS formed in 1960 In 1962 the organizers wrote in their statement of purpose We are people of this generation bred in at least modest comfort housed now in universities looking uncomfortably at the world we inherit The idealistic students criticized the complacency of their elders the remoteness of decision makers and the powerlessness and alienation generated by a bureaucratic society SDS aimed to mobilize a New Left around the goals of civil rights peace and universal economic security Other forms of student activism soon followed Many New Left organizations consisted mainly of men and ignored black and white women s struggles for equality 0 SB 1960 the SDS were involved goals were Civil Rights universal economic stability amp peace wanted participatory democracy individuals get more involved with government opposed to YAF rejected LBJ s Great Society because they worried that there was too much power in the hands of a few led to free speech movement 1st large white student protest at UCLA Berkley led to protest across nation began cultural revolution that rejected mainstream values Equal Pay Act 1963 In 1961 Assistant Secretary of Labor Ester Peterson persuaded President Kennedy to create the President s Commission on the Status of Women PCSW Though not challenging women s domestic roles in 1963 the commission reported widespread discrimination against women and recommended remedies Congress passed the Equal Pay Act in 1963 making it illegal to pay women less than men for the same work 0 SB During WWII women went to work and realized the benefits of making their own money 7 led to new feminist drive men came back and wanted old jobs back salary was important for family awakened labor women to their inferior condition Act said that women must be paid the same as men for the same work because the President s Commission of the Status of Women showed that women were being discriminated against in the workplace EPA has increased salaries signi cantly but still not equal The Village People 0 SB late 1970s gay liberation movement 7 preferred the word gay instead of homosexual VP was a disco group that was known for onstage costumes depicting American culture amp suggestive lyrics wrote song for gay movement as well as Macho Man and YMCA gave gay people pride in gay liberation movement Young Americans for Freedom 0 SB opposite of SDS mainly middle class suburban conservatives disagreed with Great Society because they wanted less government intervention 7 growing grassroots movement 7 New Right supported Barry Goldwater for President but he lost to LBJ 7 led to reenergized conservatives who ensured that Reagan would win Equal Rights Amendment 1972 amendment that would outlaw differential treatment of men and women under all state and federal laws After it was passed by Congress in 1972 Phyllis Schla y a conservative antifeminist activist in the Republican Party mobilized thousands of women at the grassroots level who feared that the ERA would devalue their roles as wives and mothers These women marching on state capitols persuaded some male legislators to block rati cation When the time limit ran out in 1982 only 35 states had rati ed the amendment 3 short of the necessary 34ths majority 0 SB outlawed differential treatment of men and women under all state amp federal laws conservative Phyllis Schla y organized thousands of women who were worried that the ERA would devalue their own godgiven roles as mothers amp wives they marched on state capitols persuaded male legislators to block rati cation ERA was never passed due to conservative backlash Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 the closest the world ever came a nuclear world war major cold war confrontation between the US and the Soviet Union After the Bay of Pigs Invasion the USSR increased its support of Fidel Castro39s Cuban regime and in the summer of 1962 Nikita Khrushchev secretly decided to install ballistic missiles in Cuba When US reconnaissance ights revealed the clandestine construction of missile launching sites President Kennedy publicly denounced Oct 22 1962 the Soviet actions He imposed a naval blockade on Cuba and declared that any missile launched from Cuba would warrant a fullscale retaliatory attack by the United States against the Soviet Union On Oct 24 Russian ships carrying missiles to Cuba tumed back and when Khrushchev agreed Oct 28 to withdraw the missiles and dismantle the missile sites the crisis ended as suddenly as it had begun The United States ended its blockade on Nov 20 and by the end of the year the missiles and bombers were removed from Cuba The United States in retum pledged not to invade Cuba and subsequently secretly removed ballistic missiles it had placed in Turkey 0 SB October 1962 During the Civil War Cuba allowed Khrushchev to set up missiles because they were afraid of American invasion American spy planes got pictures of the missiles the closest moment to total nuclear war came to compromise 7 if Soviet Union removes the missiles from Cuba US promises not to invade Cuba amp remove missiles from Turkey both looked win to their people JFK proved himself as a cold warrior Carter Doctrine 1980 In 1979 when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan Carter imposed economic sanctions on them barred US participation in the 1980 Summer Olympic Games in Moscow and obtained legislation requiring all 19 yearold men to register for the draft Claiming that the Soviet actions jeopardized oil supplies form the Middle East the President announced the Carter Doctrine threatening the use of any means necessary to prevent an outside force from gaining control of the Persian Gulf sent clear messages to Soviet Union about invading 7 intensi ed Cold War Reagan Democrats 1980s supporters of Republican President Ronald Reagan white workingclass Democrats disenchanted with the Great Society and suffering from the stag ation of the 1970s 0 SB 1980 Reagan was a very popular president began as Democrat Neoliberalists included Reagan Democrats who were mainly working class whites who normally voted democratic but were disenchanted w LBJ s Great Society and subjected to stag ation led by Richard Viguerie conservative icon who has been coined with being a key arch in Reagan s victory Reagan elected 7 pushed for less government internationally Reaganomics Supply side economics President Reagan was in favor of free enterprisefree market Reagan s rst domestic objective was a massive tax cut Although tax cuts in the face of a large budget de cit contradicted traditional Republican economic doctrine Reagan relied on a new theory called supplyside economics which held that cutting taxes would actually increase revenue by enabling businesses to expand encouraging individuals to work harder because they could keep more of their earnings and increase the production of goods and services7the supply7which in turn would boost demand Reagan promised that the economy would grow so much that the government would recoup the lost taxes but instead it incurred a galloping de cit SB Government policy commits to producers so that they will have incentives to expand amp create new jobs amp stimulate supply to help stimulate demand cuts tax rates and does everything it can to maximize income for producers 7 creates a gap in income 0 1980s Supplyside econ decrease taxes so people would work harder because see more money thought they would spend and stimulate the economy bc increase supplies so increase demand said a boosted economy would help all 0 Trickle down econ rich have money would fall into hands of poor incurred a huge national de cit wealth was more unequally distributed bc rich average personal income increased but poor decreased increase poverty rate Deregulation Carter had con ned deregulation to particular industries such as air transportation and banking while increasing health safety and environmental regulations The Reagan administration by contrast pursued acrosstheboard deregulation It declined to enforce the Sherman Antitrust Act s limits on monopolies against an unprecedented number of business mergers and takeovers Reagan also loosened regulations protecting employee health and safety and he weakened labor unions Deregulation of the banking industry begun under Carter with bipartisan support created a crisis in the savings and loan industry Some of the newly deregulated savings and loan institutions SampLs extended enormous loans to real estate developers and invested in other highyield but risky ventures Under the Clinton Administration deregulation and the continuing decline of unions hurt low skilled workers tax cuts had favored the better off and the national minimum wage failed to keep up with in ation 0 SB mid 1970s80s removing government rules amp regulations from certain industries Carter administration did most of the deregulating railroads air transportation banking 7 thought if gov out competition increase prices down RR wanted across the board deregulation didn t enforce Sherman Antitrust laws weakened labor unions amp deregulated banks 7 SampL industries crisis hundreds went bankrupt govt bailout huge increase in de cit 70s trucker shutdowns 0 SB Both in ation and unemployment rise stag ation first 2 strikes in 73 and early 74 because of rising fuel costs 55 mph gas lines wanted more government intervention cap on diesel fuel lift 55 mph Nixon wouldn t compromise with them lstUS energy crisis beat up truckers who didn t agree with strike strike again in 79 7 this time Iranian Revolution caused the Independent Truckers Association pushed for deregulation as well 7 Motor Carrier Act 1980 deregulated People to Know 7 Civil Rights Leaders Rosa Parks Parks had been active in the local NAACP headed by ED Nixon before she was arrested on December 1 1955 in Montgomery Alabama for violating a local segregation ordinance Riding a crowded bus home from her job as a seamstress in a department store she refused to give up her seat so that a white man could sit down The bus driver called the police who promptly arrested her When word came that Parks would ght for her arrest WPC leaders mobilized teachers and students to distribute iers calling for blacks to stay off the buses The y I r A 39 quot MIA was founded to organize a bus boycott The MIA arranged volunteer car pools and marshaled more than 90 of the black community to sustain the year long Montgomery bus boycott Martin Luther King Jr a young Baptist pastor with a doctorate in theology from BU was then elected to head the MIA 7 launched his career as a civil rights leaderactivist 0 SB Seamstress heavily involved in the NAACP got on a Montgomery city bus where blacks are supposed to relinquish seats to whites amp Park refused to give up her seat so she got arrested led to blacks doing a boycott of city buses in Montgomery which had a pretty quick economic impact December 1955 NAACP member on a bus she wouldn t give her seat to a white man so she was thrown in jail for violated local segregation ordinance played role in Birmingham Bus Boycotts 90 of blacks didn t ride buses for 381 days so they would not be intimidated In 1956 SC amp AL s segregation laws were unconstitutional O Stokely Carmichael SNCC chairman that gave the ideas of Malcolm X a new name when he shouted We want black power at a rally in Greenwood Mississippi in 1966 Those words quickly became the rallying cry in the SNCC and CORE and the black power movement riveted national attention in the late 1960s Carmichael called integration a subterfuge for the maintenance of white supremacy and rejected assimilation because it implied white superiority African Americans were encouraged to develop independent businesses and control their own schools communities and political organizations Black is beautiful emphasized pride in black culture and connections to darkskinned people around the world 0 SB 1966 Black power Unity 7 criticized MLK for his nonviolent approach SNCC member from Harlem who became militant ended a march started by James Meredith after he was shot in Memphis was arrested in Jackson Mississippi after 10 days was named honorary prime minister of Black Panthers coined the phrase We want black power that many young African Americans used History 2112 Spring 2011 Dr Hamilton Exam I February 21 Study Sheet What to Bring This will be a closed book exam do not bring anything but writing instruments to the exam Either pen or pencil is ne Do not bring notes books sheets of paper cell phones computers PDAs microwaves laser pointers jet engines spicy Thai basil rice you get the point Bring only writing instruments and a sharp mind Preparation To prepare for the exam you should familiarize yourself with all of the readings you have done in the class so far and study all of the terms below Some of the terms are drawn from lecture some are from the textbook some are from the primary source readings and some are covered in all three Having good notes on the lectures and readings will make studying easy as you review the terms and think about the interconnections among them Format There are three sections of the exam The rst section of the exam will involve identifying the source of three quotations A list of six works all of which have been assigned readings for weekly discussions will appear next to the three quotations You must match each quotation to the appropriate reading Completing this section should take you less than 5 minutes It is worth 30 points See the next page for a list of titles The second section of the exam will involve matching terms arrayed in two columns The rst column will include a set of terms drawn from the required readings or from lecture see below the second column will list a related term or phrase each of which matches correctly to only one item in the rst column The rst column for instance could contain the term quot13th Amendmentquot You would match this to quotabolished slaveryquot in the second column There will be ten items in each column Plan to spend about 15 minutes or less on this section It is worth 30 points The third section of the exam will be composed of ve terms drawn from the list below You will be expected to brie y identify and explain the historical signi cance of four of the terms Identify the term by providing enough quotwho what where whenquot information so that we know you understand the term Then unravel its signi cance by explaining quotwhyquot it matters historically Keep in mind that students who do poorly on history identi cation questions often do so because they fail to explicitly explain the signi cance of historical terms Each of your identi cations should require no more than 3 or 4 sentences See the sample answer on the second page of this study sheet for an example Plan to spend about 30 minutes on this section This section will be worth 40 points Terms to Know EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE duty Alf ed was a captain 1890 wrote book called the in uence of sea power on history central argument in this book was that control of the seas was key to power in modern world if nation didn t control seas then it would never be a first rate power said if US would become a great power than it had to transform its navy had to change it into modern military force said to gain sea power we needed land for coal stations to refuel ship Mahan envisioned a new kind of colonialism didn t want to rule vast land territories said we needed if t39vtl navalism Alfred Thayer Mahan based on call to patriotic access to key points like islands and ports ideas were widely believed liked by upcoming NY Theodore Roosevelt this made govt give money for ships These trends might make it seem inevitable that the US would be a major world power this wasn t true most didn t want this wanted to face problems at home 7 Flappers vs suffragettes Victorian styles marriage amp divorce suffragists kept f1ght1ng after right to vote Alice Paul in 1923 proposed equal rights amendment to constitution would have restricted laws to own property enter contracts serve on juries and have equal share of children Also took away protection Paul wanted formal definition of citizenship for many this reform was boring young women saw themselves as appers not suffragettes not like Jane Addams wanted to look fresh and young short hair binded breasts dieting high skirt makeup smoke and drank in public experimented sexually in automobiles they rejected Victorian era style sensibility and morality They still believed in marriage prior to 1920s marriage was economic safety in 1920s this changed they wanted love limited kids etc marriage helped dramatize this in reality though modern marriage didn t live up to movies divorce rates went up over this time many young women turned to apper culture to find new sense of autonomy middle class married women also face problems in 1920s they could mostly buy their clothing women could buy things like bread or butter they had a host of new appliances to make living easier vacuums electric refrigerators electric irons electric stoves fewer children 1 v mar Ami Wagner Act 1935 right to organize bargain collectively workers benefited from th1s 2quot new deal demanded for rights to organize this act 1 upheld right for workers to join union 2 outlawed unfair labor practices eX firing workers for participation in union organizing 3 allowed workers to collectively bargain for their issues CIO and industrial unionism John L Lewis 193637 GM sitdown strike Lewis was a long time laborer dissatisfied with the AFL said it had gotten soft and wasn t working hard enough for workers said it needed to represent all workers in an industry skilled or unskilled black or white ethnic or native scored its biggest victory with sitdown strike in GM in Michigan in 1936 workers wouldn t work until they complied with C10 demands this worked in 1937 there were more than 5000 strikes Wagner act reinvigorated labor movement and helped them achieve tr The Rough Riders is the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the SpanishAmerican War and the only one of the three to see action The United States Army was weakened and left with little manpower after the American Civil War roughly thirty years prior As a result President William McKinley called upon 1250 volunteers to assist in the war efforts It was also called quotWood s Weary Walkersquot after its first commander Colonel Leonard Wood as an acknowledgment of the fact that despite being a cavalry unit they ended up ghting on foot as infantry Wood s second in command was former assistant secretary of the United States Navy Theodore Roosevelt a man who had pushed for American involvement in Cuban independence When Colonel Wood became commander of the 1st Cavalry Brigade the Rough Riders then became quotRoosevelt s Rough Ridersquot That term was familiar in 1898 from Buffalo Bill who called his famous western show quotBuffalo Bill39s Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the Worldquot The Rough Riders were mostly made of native Americans college athletes cowboys and ranchers the GMAC division created in 1919 made it possible to buy a car on an installment plan this was a vast transformation of the credit system credit wasn t new Americans were already in debt but in 1920s more people had more access to credit installment plans were available for everything now working class families had access to the goods being produced fumiture and clothes could be bought on installment plans by 1920s Americans had tons of debt the significance of mass production was that it made the products of industry available to the masses Henry Ford s idea nit F Lm Critics on the Left Huey Long wanted the New Deal to help more than fa1mers and business men Long was democrat from Louisiana who strongly believed in FDR after lst 100 days though he didn t see change he came up with a plan to take money from the rich no Americans could make more than 18 million would take money and give families a house car and annual income of 2500 dollars people were very skeptical more than 8 million members though the impact of this though even though his program didn t go into effect was FDRs response 7 7 1 7 rl triggered by Long responded by critiques of his policy he criticized the wealthy and money classes which he was a part off told people to be more militaristic and fight for these equalities r I Rise ofthe New KKK fed govt put KKK in hiding after reconstructlon reformed in 1915 in ATL 1915 Leo Frank lynching Birth of a Nation Leo Frank was accused of rape but found innocent he was lynched after film Birth of a Nation showed KKK as a valiant group struggling to defend southern honor this helped revive KKK Bu 1925 over 2 million dues paying members 1925 2 million members Antiblack antiSemitic antiCatholic new KKK was different from that after reconstruction were racist but also towards new groups Jews and roman Catholics neither group was 100 American like White Anglo SaXtans KKK was intent on taking over world said you couldn t be good American citizen and roman catholic or Jewish KKK of 1920s was nativist group Nativism northern as well as southern native grown white Anglo Saxtans saw world with many new Jews and Catholics were convinced these immigrant groups were bent on introducing socialism etc This explains why KKK was more popular in the North cities where immigrants ooded to factory jobs strongest support in Indiana Texas and Ohio They were elected in Chicago Dallas etc The invisible empire took 6 governments Caused fear of outside also showed manipulation through mass media Lin Bessie Smith and women s autonomy women musicians were also key with jazz in 1920s Smith sang the blues blues andjazz close and often indistinguishable she helped make blues modern art form appealed to urban audience her songs described women being done wrong by man defiantly spoke of sexuality and want for autonomy wore gowns offering women views of glamorous black women and successful black women women like Smith used vision to get autonomy y Federal spending amp taxation Revenue Act 1942 transformed income tax prror to this point it was levied on the wealthiest it now became a mass tax this led to massive boosting oftax collections 1941 22 billion by end ofwar 351 billion 1943 automatic payroll withholding act this income tax was a progressive tax though came during progressive era means wealthy citizens pay more than lower class citizens wasn t new tax but people started paying it during this time Intelligence Testing problem was you had many draftees but officers were hard to find before WW1 most came from West Point before WW1 West Point made officers based on character before WW1 only regular soldiers had to be between 18 and 35 able to read write and speak English not a felon or not drunk intelligence wasn t an issue To fix these problems the army got a group of 7 psychologists to make an IQ test Lewis Terman and the StanfordBinet IQ test Terman coined term Intelligence Quotient became known as StanfordBinet IQ test was used to determine who would be officers and not it was a ten minute test over 175 million Americans took this test during WW1 The results were shocking The average mental age of a solider was supposed to be 16it was 13 largely due to cultural bias almost all schools used these tests after to leam how to make good citizens So soldiers developed new obligations to the state quot in m 1924 JohnsonReed Act act said 3 offoreign born could be allowed in it was an emergency passage but in 1924 congress went farther and dropped it to 2 of all nationalities of 1890 census this is when immigration from southeastern Europe was low was cut down but not complete extinction of immigration farmers left it so Mexicans could come in so during 1920s more than 500000 new comers crossed southern boarder this was a great irony represented wanting to return to same America yet it let Spanish people transform culture Rationalizing racism Executive Order 9066 signed by Roosevelt gave secretary of war power to declare some zones of west coast military zones where any or all people could be excluded army took this to mean against Japanese Americans by June of 1942 more than 120000 people in these camps many whom were Americans these camps were horrible r quotw l quot H Hoover US Food Administration GFCW Get Behind Hoover protest happened in 1917 people boycotted and stiked in streets Some wrote a letter to Woodrow Wilson He took action and made US Food Administration Herbert Hoover was elected president of this the point of the administration was to keep food prices in check At first Hoover had no power also run by volunteers made campaign of meatless and wheatless days wanted to decrease demand this tried to get volunteers to help Women s clubs were called to help asked women to help and be volunteers During World War I the US Food and Drug Administration FDA urged families to reduce consumption of key staples to help the war effort Conserving food would support US troops as well as feed populations in Europe where food production and distribution had been disrupted by war To encourage voluntary rationing the FDA created the slogan Food Will Win the War and coined the terms quotMeatless Mondayquot and quotWheatless Wednesday to remind Americans to reduce intake of these products 4 th Al Smith Democratic candidate proimmigrant worker amp liquor ran against Hoover first catholic to be nominated by president had served 3 terms as governor of NY he called for 1 an end to the nativism against immigrants 2 called for better wages and conditions of workers 3 called for an end to prohibition Al Smith said pay attention to immigrants and working people Hoover won the election with over 58 of popular vote but Smith carried the nation s 12 largest cities he also got surprising amount of support by farm people even if they didn t like his cultural politics or pro immigrant stance they liked that he helped the people even though Smith lost it paved the way for a new democratic party that tied together urban ethnics Midwestemers and southern farmers gt any Isolationists conservatives intemationalists Luce containment Kennan Isolationism was strong in politics especially after ww2 conservatives didn t support spending various conservatives especially in congress didn t want to spend money outside war Henry Luce was a publisher after ww1 he was a key figure in the America First isolationist movement Pearl Harbor changed this and he wrote an essay saying the US needed to be intemationalists we believed the USSR was a threat to democracy for the entire world feared that they would spread the totalitarianism people said it was a moral duty of the US to not let this happen in between these two views we had the idea of containment this was released by telegram of George KennanSecretary of State he said soviet leaders were determined to take over Europe after war he said the best way to approach this was to not fight the Soviet Union but to contain it in 1946 this idea was top secret mm Marcus Garvey and Back to Africa Movement one response militant movement young Jamaican man who formed group called United Negro Improvement Association him and his followers set up ranches in places with signi cant black population stated black nationalism United Negro Improvement Association said African Americans made important contributions to history and back to Africa movement said move to Liberia and form own govt he was also business man who made black star railroad line Garvey was a charismatic person drew thousands to rallies lots gave him money he tapped this dissatisfaction to gain support for militant politics his shipping line failed and he was arrested and sent to Jamaica he prove they could band together make businesses and find way out of Jim Crow become important leaders he paved road for more militant ways later in the 201h century Banking structure lack of regulation quotbank runs banking structure didn t have a solid foundation opened at 4 to 5 per day in the 1920s re ected optimistic outlook these banks had few govt regulations starting capital loan totals etc furthermore no regulation had a split between a savings and investment bank this is a problem because the investment banks go out to make loads of money but savings are to keep money safe savings banks shouldn t make huge gambles this led to banks of 1920s being remarkably insolvent they didn t have enough capital to stay in business between 1923 and 1929 banks closed at two per day this wasn t a good sign prosperity hid aws like this people ran in to claim money in so called bank runs this wasn t good because banks didn t have the needed capital Berlin Blockade Airlift 19489 in June this cutoff highway and rail access to eastern Berlin they thought US was trying to rearm Germany also Stalin believed this would force allies to give up the Eastern European occupation zones so Berlin faced crisis little food it was cold medicine Stalin believed he could force the US to back out many people said to fight Soviet Union but Truman called Stalin s bluff he made the massive airlift lasted for 324 days at peaked deliver 134000 tons per day this seemed US s rst success but until 1989 Germany was still divided and until end of war Europe was divided by west and east also showed that US and Russia who were allies were now enemies 1 awn American Civil Liberties Union 1920 and Legal Process called for change of repression that took place during war Formed to fight Baldwin was key also Easmen and other women They said it s possible for a context of a political speech to be separate from the speaker meant Americans could and should be able to express their political beliefs said use due process for this uphold rights through legal issues Most of their efforts take place in the courts most in constitutional issues wh i 71311141516quot mm Social Security Act 1935 social welfare state compromises middle class citizens also benefited Frances Perkins led this act it would create a national pension fund and unemployment fund it would also provide social assistance to dependent mother and children those who couldn t be in work force protect people through govt help was a product of deep compromise and a milestone in the social welfare state US was following the actions of some nations like Great Britain and Germany was different than European way because it didn t give to the poor but to middle class also not funded by tax but by people putting money into this payroll taX didnt redistribute money but created a basic safety net for middle class 39 NSC68 1950 secret document drafted in early 1950 declaring all points on the boundary of the Chinese and Soviet communist world were of equal importance also US would accept no change in the current balance of power it led to the Truman era policy of containment it now effected the entire world it also was a formal document at the highest level saying isolationist was dead it laid out a blueprint for arming the US for an indefinite cold war before we saw fear in having an army ready at all time it meant thermonuclear weapons high defense spending budget tripled and in 1953 was 69 out of 100 dollars indefinite draft The New Woman white women of appers 19Lh amendment passed after Flappers vs suffragettes Victorian styles marriage amp divorce suffragists kept fighting after right to vote Alice Paul in 1923 proposed equal rights amendment to constitution would have restricted laws to own property enter contracts serve on juries and have equal share of children Also took away protection Paul wanted formal definition of citizenship for many this reform was boring young women saw themselves as appers not suffragettes not like Jane Addams wanted to look fresh and young short hair binded breasts dieting high skirt makeup smoke and drank in public experimented sexually in automobiles they rejected Victorian era style sensibility and morality They still believed in marriage prior to 1920s marriage was economic safety in 1920s this changed they wanted love limited kids etc marriage helped dramatize this in reality though modern marriage didn t live up to movies divorce rates went up over this time many young women turned to apper culture to find new sense of autonomy middle class married women also face problems in 1920s they could mostly buy their clothing women could buy things like bread or butter they had a host of new appliances to make living easier vacuums electric refrigerators electric irons electric stoves fewer children HOLC Home Owners Loan Corporation was a way to boost housing market many homeowners were going to lose their houses so they looked to govt for help we had two possible solutions on the table 1 take European route and invest public money in large scale housing programs large apartments and make it easy for workers to get to and from work 2 Govt could stimulate private home building HOLC had two objectives 1protect homeowners What to Bring This will be a closed book exam do not bring anything but writing instruments to the exam Either pen History 2112 Fall 2011 Dr Hamilton Exam III 9am December 9th Study Sheet or pencil is ne Do not bring notes books sheets of paper cell phones computers PDAs microwaves laser pointers color televisions internal combustion engines you get the point Bring only writing instruments and a sharp m1nd Preparation To prepare for the exam you should familiarize yourself with all of the readings you have done in the class so far and study all of the terms below Some of the terms are drawn from lecture some are from the assigned readings and some are covered in both Having good notes on the lectures and readings will make studying easy as you review the terms and think about the interconnections among them Format There are three sections of the exam The rst section of the exam will involve identifying the source of three quotations A list of six works all of which have been assigned readings for weekly discussions will appear next to the three quotations You must match each quotation to the appropriate reading Completing this section should take you less than 5 minutes It is worth 30 points See the next page for a list oftitles The second section of the exam will involve matching terms arrayed in two columns The rst column will include a set of terms drawn from the required readings or from lecture see below the second column will list a related term or phrase each of which matches correctly to only one item in the rst column The rst column for instance could contain the term quot13th Amendmentquot You would match this to quotabolished slaveryquot in the second column There will be ten items in each column Plan to spend about 15 minutes or less on this section It is worth 30 points The third section of the exam will be composed of ve terms drawn from the list below You will be expected to brie y identify and explain the historical signi cance of four of the terms Identify the term by providing enough quotwho what where whenquot information so that we know you understand the term Then unravel its signi cance by explaining quotwhyquot it matters historically Keep in mind that students who do poorly on history identi cation questions often do so because they fail to explicitly explain the signi cance of historical terms Each of your identi cations should require no more than 3 or 4 sentences Plan to spend about 30 minutes on this section This section will be worth 40 points Terms to Know 1965 Brown v Board Civil Rights Act of 1964 Roe v Wade Rosa Parks Mississippi Freedom Democratic OPEC Party SNCC Immigration and Nationality Act Regents v Bakke 1978 Griswold v Connecticut counterculture Carter Doctrine New Left Malcolm X 1979 energy crisis Betty Friedan Title VII Civil Rights Act 1964 Deregulation War on Poverty E968 Chlcago Democratlc Reaganomics onvention Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Stonewall Inn Phyllis Schla y m 7 Major Events l954l960 rst major event was Brown vs Board of education in 1954 in Topeka Kansas it came from the efforts of Thurgood Marshall lawyer at NAACP Since 1940s he pushed the NAACP to ght the separate vs equal doctrine form Plessey vs Ferguson in 1896 which allowed segregation They tried to work in courts to show that it was separate but unequal Brown v Board 1954 Reverend Oliver Brown in Kansas His daughter went 21 blocks away to a black school instead of 7 blocks to a white school This case seemed to have no hope But in 1953 the chief justice died and was replaced Chief Justice Earl Warren Came into the court and Shocked Eisenhower He not only tried to support these segregation issues but to try to get a consensus among the other justices He thought this was a moral issue He made clear that he wanted to promote social justice In May of 1954 he said separate but equal was not to be upheld but he did so unanimously among the justices By the end of the school year 723 school systems complied Many areas did comply with this Massive resistance Much resistance came to this integration 1956 in Tennessee whites terrorized whites trying to go to school Mans eld Texas in 1956 Texas Rangers were sent in to stop angry Whites GA governor said they wouldn t comply The Federal Govt said these were local issues and did nothing to stop the resistance Brown v Board didn t give instructions on how to integrate Warren and his colleagues didn t want to act to fast He though the angry southemers would call into question the power of the courts Eisenhower was angry with his decision of choosing Warren so the federal govt didn t help Little Rock Central High School 1957 Governor and school said they would comply He had National Guard help protect the school They allowed 9 black students to come into the school Whites arrive to ght this TV showed up to televise this Eisenhower had to make a decision but wouldn t send in troops For 18 days this lasted The governor and Eisenhower agreed to remove troops and have students stay home for a while Then the students came back without the national guard and the students were facing angry whites again The mayor asked for troops Finally a day latter troops were sent in and the National Guard became federalized The troops then walked the kids to school We can see integration came very slowly As 39 39 During one of these marches MLK was arrested and wrote the famous letter from jail it was about civil disobedience May 2 1963 he recruited 1000 black children to march from the church to city hall they were arrested he sent 100 more then Connor sealed church that they left from and would hit them with police dogs or hoses if they got out Much of white America was sickened by Connors brutality Kennedy declared in the wake of this that congress had to pass a civil rights law It ultimately became 1964 civil rights act Once in place it gave the federal govt power to actually do something March on Washington 1963 intended to impel congress to pass Kennedys civil rights bill They were going to do a sit in to get this to happen this didn t really work The Kennedy administration was actually mad about this march This was where the I Have a Dream speech This failed though because it didn t get the bill passed It is still a celebrated march 3 months later MLK was assassinated JFK s Civil Rights Bill stalled in Congress Bayard Rustin The march called for the proposal but this didn t mean it would make it through congress It went very slow 1973 passed byjustice Warren Burger said abortion laws invaded on females privacy earlier case in 1961 Griswold V Connecticut case overturned law of contraception developed right to privacy under the 14th amendment said a women s body was outside states power to regulate As a result abortions became legally across the US this and the birth control pill gave women for the first time real control over their bodies AntiFeminism all their achievements got an out lash in the 70s and 80s from conservatives and antifeminists didn t like Roe v Wade wanted a scaling up of govt power Some of the most powerful antifeminist voices in the 70s and 80s were women Over the course of their prime earning years women made 38 of what men made Sexual and domestic violence are at high levels Despite Roe v Wade abortions aren t available in 85 of places trained activist 45 year old seamstress in Montgomery Longtime member of NAACP To be a member in the Deep South at this time is to literally risk your life She was kicked of a bus once way back She was actually trained in techniques to be an activist went to Highlander School On December 1St she was ready to challenge this after her shopping She refused to move police were called and she was cited and sent to court 4 days later She was sent to jail for not paying fine This is what the NAACP wanted They called for a grassroots activism because of this incident gm 1v 1 5 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party 1964 more than 1000 students went to form this The MFDP sought recognition from the democratic convention as the democratic voice of Mississippi Helped by speaker Fannie Lou Hamer Fannie Lou Hamer grew up in the most brutal and extreme forms of segregation and violence She received some training in activism She had an incredible voice and wrote great songs She was elected vice chair of the MFDP which propelled her to national promise She challenged the Democratic Party in a speech that was put on television Despite her eloquent speech it was a failure The MFDP wasn t chosen even though it had majority support Stymied by LB and Hubert Humphrey Humphrey even though he supported this had to put the ax in the bag for the MFDP because an order from LBJ om Kippur War and OPEC embargo 197374 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC decided to raise the price of oil by 400 and no shipments to the US and Europe Oil in 1973 was 177 per barrel in 74 it was 11 Egypt amp Syria attack Israel Yom Kippur They invaded Israel in an attempt to take over The US responded by sending an airlift This worked Several countries responded by economic war OPEC embargo to punish West US superpower military presence in Gulf 2 effects of OPECs embargo 1 US lost superpower stance OPEC embargo was in fall 73 after the Paris Peace accords were signed officially showing they lost the war now the US economy was held hostage by a group of 3r world nations with a lot of oil All the presidents after Nixon tried keeping military presence in the Persian Gulf Oil Crisis 197374 was a result of the OPEC embargo The price of gasoline nearly doubled there were long lines and fuel shortages people were angry Truckers revolt Fight for Freedom and The American Way erupted in fury to the govt s response to the OPEC embargo Truckers had to pay more for fuel but had to go slower Truckers were angry so they stopped their trucks and blocked traffic for more than an hour and a half on one of the busiest interstates All over the countries truckers started to do block highways and gas stations They would shot tires slash tires or throw bricks through windows of truckers who still wanted to drive Truck driver had been the backbone of America Truckers said they got better fuel efficiency at 70mph The ideas that Washington told a private driver how to do their job made them very angry Individual tuckers felt helpless They were only a part some other workers felt that this intervention made it harder to achieve the American Dream Formed organization to tap into the students activism She was secretary of SCLC She called for students to form in the spring of the 1960 Many people showed up and after hearing her formed Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee This really led sit ins Comparing SCLC amp SNCC were the 2 organizations of the time to bring equality to blacks SCLC led by MLK SNCC was under the umbrella of the SCLC but started to gain independence These 2 organizations represented a split in the movement even at its highest points Gender one of the splits was gender Some people were invisible even if they did a lot Male leaders in the SCLC thought women should remain in the home and not fight for Civil Rights Even King thought this SNCC to a greater degree than SCLC relied on women both black and white to be highly active members They participated in things and put their lives in danger Some gained positions of power in SNCC but many were secretaries This led to the feminist movement of the 1960s Generations another key split SCLC was led by middle age who had been expose to this inequality for so long and were used to white violence so they focused on reasonable goals like corporating with govt officials and whites to get what they wanted 3 of SNCC were under age of 22 They had higher expectations and questioned moderation of the older leaders They were more willing to take risks Religion another key split SCLC was based of Baptist church Showed how the civil rights movement was drawn from religion Churches were key organizing places and black spirituals were sung SNCC was not defined by Christian notion it had agnostics and Jewish people These differences weren t of too much importance and Civil Rights still had huge effects The differences just drove a wedge and challenged the movement m Over 500 programs created under LBJ s great society All were important but 3 were very important Medicare Medicaid Voting rights act and Immigration reform Medicare used payroll taxes to subsidize hospital bills for older people Medicaid helped impoverished people get medical assistance These transformed the 3952 amdln ij us Medicare helped many people secure medical assistance without going broke Medicaid helped many see a doctor for the first time These didn t help health programs all around though many didn t have access to it No other nation at the time had so few people open to health insurance This also did nothing to slow the costs of healthcare Immigration Reform Act 1965 in the 20s acts were passed limiting immigration and discriminating while doing so In 1965 during the middle of the cold war lots of Eastern Europeans suffered the tyranny of communism it would be hypocritical to not helped them We got rid of quotas but established priorities and a total quota was set up total of 290000 There was one key aspect of this legislation it allowed anyone who was a close relative of someone in the US naturalized or born to come to the US This was on top ofthe 290000 This led to the sources of the immigration not to be what the framers of the law expected the ow of migrants from Europe slowed but numbers from Latin America and Asia swept Debates about this go on even still today a L California Regents v Bakke 1978 Bakke applied to med school and was declrned He cla1med that it was because the school reserved 16 for minorities and that he had better GPA and test scores than them He took it to court 4 out of 5 ruled on Bakke s behalf It was determined that universities couldn t exclude a student based on race but could be used as a positive in a broader package gquot i Roe v Wade 1973 passed byjustice Warren Burger said abortion laws invaded on females privacy earlier case in 1961 Griswold v Connecticut case overturned law of contraception developed right to privacy under the 14111 amendment said a women s body was outside states power to regulate As a result abortions became legally across the US this and the birth control pill gave women for the first time real control over their bodies 4 was also a cultural aspect to the New left they were politically and culturally angry They were mad a rebellion and formed the counterculture claimed to be non conformist grew hair endorsed free love listened to different music their parents drank and they smoked marijuana saying it was a liberating choice Counterculture and New Left were different though The New left and SDS mostly fit in they weren t hippies In Iim Carter Doctrine repelled by any means necessary January 1980 Gas prices 1ncreased by 55 Carter vowed to ratchet up Americas commitment to use military force for the purpose of securing cheap oil Carter wasn t elected so it came on Regan to uphold this doctrine America s dependence on Oil became a foreign policy issue from here out America s foreign policy had been shaped by more than war The US economy became interdependent on outside sources of oil there was no turning back from isolationist even if the cold war ended unless it reduced oil use 4 The View from Below New Left and New Right for many Americans on the left the great society was a failure it represented the failures of liberalism itself said it was too moderate So people on the left wanted more radical transformation in politics For Americans on the right it was also seen as a failure people like Regan and many conservatives thought it was an overreach of power they thought these issues should be taken care of by state and local levels This New left and right New Leftwas led by many young people Baby boom college and alienation during 1960s the baby boomers kids became college kids 13 of that age group was in higher education at this time Also during this time a big portion turned leftward many did so because they felt alienated from the centers of powers of the US society from politics they felt voiceless Part ofthis came from going to large research institutions Many thought the university represented the bureaucratic nature of society and wanted to rebel they thought this nature infringed on their individual rights and freedom Many ofthese came from well off families but felt treated like poor people many of these young new lefters also joined the civil rights legislation Many joined SNCC But in the winter of 1964 this had a little change in the fall of 1964 students thought they were pushed to far by administration the administration said no political literature could be published on campus Mario Savio led the free speech movement he said young people needed to stop the machine to be free These Berkeley protests sparked protests all around the country Vietnam also caused this Democratic National Convention Chicago l968was the most apparent example of the con ict between the Democratic Party Young New Lefters wanted to directly protest the democratic party and LBJ New democrats wanted to run against incumbent LBJ Robert Kennedy and Eugene MCarthy ran M Birmingham Campaign 1963 King vs Bull Connor MLK came up with a new strategy in 63 to push the Kenney administration in action Part of what motivated King was more militant leaders one was Malcolm X he claimed MLK was moving to slow and wasn t pushing hard enough Malcolm X chose Alabama to demonstrate this he choose Birmingham It was a called Bombingham because how many bombs went off there they also knew this would get media attention also Bull Connor the police commissioner was racist and they knew they could get a response Malcolm X Farce on Washington bill still stalled He was angry by the march being controlled ll Energy Crisis of 1979 Jimmy Carter quotCrisis of Con dencequot One contest for the rise of conservatism was Jimmy Carter he was elected in 76 because he wasn t Nixon Hopes for his presidency were high HE said he would tackle many of Americans challenges At the beginning of his presidency he had 75 support After the fuel crisis this support dropped dramatically Carter was under intense pressure to do something about this crisis 19791980 Americans decrease petroleum consumption Americans responded with extraordinary encouragement For a brief moment consumers responded to Carter by slowing down their demand for goods Some people bought better cars installed installation in their homes put solar panels and decreased their energy use more than they ever had in American history vr x 1 Betty Friedan The FeminineMystique 1963 published this book in 1963 Portrayed herself as nieve housewife claimed all American housewives were miserable The problem that has no name said women were miserable those women who went to college and had careers were forced to sell out their lives for a washing machine naive selfpresentation but longtime feminist claimed she was just housewife she was hardly naive and had not just woken up femenist attended all women Smith college went on to do graduate work in psychology at Berkley worked at paper wrote many key things but was red for man to take her job then from 4652 worked elsewhere and was fired and then became just housewife impacts inspirational in the 1960s critiqued later The book had two impacts I became a huge success in the shortrun it was very inspiring many women read it who might have been turned off by leftist politics she wrote it very well used research but claimed to be just a housewife any women said it impacted their life s 2 Caused future debates for what feminism is was and should be Some women claimed Friedan s books claimed all women were unhappy housewives when they weren t Title VII Civil Rights Act EEOC 1968 NOW called for strengthening of title 7 of the civil rights act this outlawed sexual discrimination in employment The southemers put this end thinking it would cause the bill to fail Title 7 wasn t enforced though EEOC was supposed to enforce this many members of EEOC declared title 7 was a joke NOW pushed LBJ to enforce it Outlawed ad discrimination male vs female jobs and cases were now heard w Deregulationthe elimination of govt agencies of laws and govt structures created in Americas past The Interstate commerce act rulings by the EPA Regulation was said to be done in public interest In the 70s these laws came under attack People said this govt oversight got out of control and put an unnecessary burden on the free market The main deregulations came under Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton Airline deregulation l978 By Jimmy Carter 7 was erce competition for passengers Many Americans could y for the first time in their life Trucking deregulation 1980 Motor Carrier Act By Jimmy Carter many small companies competed against bigger ones By 1976 freight prices reached an alltime low price Railroad deregulation 1980 Staggers Act By Jimmy Carter after deregulation came massive changes One was consolidation Another was passenger service was basically dropped off Freight railroads profited greatly between 8286 46 drop in price The idea was for transportation to be cheaper The ideas was deregulation would let smaller rms get in the business therefore driving prices down It did drive down costs So deregulation also led to competition that drove many out of business or put them close to it In the 90s Clinton deregulated the nancial industry and telecommunications industry Banking deregulation l999repeal of GlassSteagall Act of 1933 this act created the FDIC This regulation had worked for many decades but in the 80s bankers became weary of this act When this act was repealed it tore down a rewall between investment and savings banks v if w L11 l I iquot Qltmir 2334 39 um I Jail umm lw central package of the Great society In 1964 h addressed this FDR was his hero He didn t just want handouts he wanted a hand up not out wanted to open the door to opportunity Use govt power to get people to help themselves Like his hero he didn t want to increase taxes said this was possible without raising taxes In 1964 the OEO was created wasn t well funded l of the budget or 800000000 was given to this of ce Also most of the money covered salaries and expenses 2quot major challenge is it didn t attack the root causes ofpoverty one of its key goal was job training these programs helped people nd jobs but they tended to help those people who were ambitious and mobile and would have found jobs anyway so it didn t add more jobs IT could have spent money on large scale public works like the New Deal did but it didn t create jobs it trained people to go nd them So we can see the OEO as a failure Regan attacked this in a speech The war on poverty shouldn t be considered a failure on the long term it helped mobilize people who weren t mobilized before to ght poverty one example was urban black women the OEO helped organize them in create community organizations that would turn to federal funds even if not from OEO and nd ways to attack poverty at the local level especially after the 1970s Democratic National Convention Chicago 1968was the most apparent example of the con ict between the Democratic Party Young New Lefters wanted to directly protest the democratic party and LBJ New democrats wanted to run against incumbent LBJ Robert Kennedy and Eugene MCarthy ran k LBJ vs Eugene McCarthy vs RFK McCarthy vs HumphreyThese different views would decide how the democratic party was shaped It was domestic vs foreign policy issues By March of 1968 LBJ pulled out and his VP Hubert Humphrey ran for him Robert Kennedy was gaining support even won California and then killed McCarthy was antiwar Yippies Abbie Hoffman amp Jerry Rubin Pigasus Fuck You LBJ at 1968 Democratic National Convention tons of people showed up to protest Hubert Humphrey Yippies led by Abbie and Jerry showed up They were expert antiwar protesters They knew how to get media attention they nominated a pig taunted police police beat Yippies This was outside the convention hall inside Hubert Humphrey was nominated outside protesters stormed the hall The police than attacked Police yelled kill kill kill Later Abbie and Jerry were arrested This led to a split in democrats So these protests didn t end the war but rather pushed a strong prowar candidate into office Reaganomics combined three goals 1 cut taxes 2 cut govt spending on social programs 3 increase govt spending on military and defense Taxes supplyside economics 1982 cut 1986 raised he called for a 30 reduction in three years when he went into office This was because supplyside economics meaning that rather than demand producing supply that demand produces supply He wanted private people and corporations to spend more He wanted to cut taxes for corporations and the wealthiest people so they would spend more It was regressive Intentionally benef1tted the wealth Many people ridiculed this they didn t think they could cut taxes and cover expenses Even scal conservatives in his party called it wishful thinking George H Bush called this Voodoo economics In August 1981 He signed a 23 tax cut People say this is what caused the booming economy of the 80s but then the economy dropped By 82 Reagans approval went to 35 tax reform act of 1986 lowered tax rates took out loopholes simplified the tax structure and put many people in a lower tax bracket some poor people exempted This was a progressive tax cut Republicans didn t like it too much He shifted the taxes to corporations So he oversaw the biggest tax cut but signed off on the largest tax increase of the 20Lh century US Spending welfare queen slowed spending but real benefits he told story of the welfare queen who ripped off welfare he repeated the story many times she wasn t real but it confirmed peoples deepest suspicions He was able to cut budgets in spending because this this hurt the poor people in urban areas and young people He didn t disable a single welfare program it actually gave slightly larger real benefits He did slow the rate of spending on social programs Military Keynesianism Star Wars record deficits and debt Reagan got a lot of military spending it boosted the economy after 1983 a lot ofthe money went to a project called SDI or star wars program he predicted lasers destroying soviet satellites scientists of the time claimed it was impossible Reagan not only thought it was possible but said we needed a system to prevent udder destruction It led to a massive increase in defense spending In his first term led to a 34 real dollar increase He spent nearly 1A of spending of the 80s on military in his two terms This led to a huge budget deficit The national debt tripled between 8089 Not all was due to Reagan much from pork barrel projects The Reagan administration never sent a balanced budget to congress m quotViwesacluuii mn 39 In August AUS destroyer was in the Gulf near Vietnam apparently Vietnam bombed it LBJ asked congress for permission to wage an escalating bombing campaign he didn t mention the American destroyer was directly supporting South Vietnamese commanders not being peaceful Congress in response overwhelmingly All that Jazz 223 HIST 2112 Dr Hamilton Lecture Outline I Louis Armstrong amp the Jazz Age 19205 is known as the jazz age because jazz became very famous in the 20s Jazz was an African American art form and it was a bridge between southern and northern states decades after reconstruction Armstrong was born in 1901 and he grew up in poverty and when he went to juvie hall he learned to play the comet and when he came out he joined a band and in 1919 he joined the Kid Ory band which became the top jazz band in New Orleans A From New Orleans to Chicago brass band to solo improv comet to trumpetIn 1922 he decided to head to Chicago during the great migration He took southern culture to the north with him and he joined a band there He later went out and started playing under his own name and making his own records He is important because the way he played solos in uences all jazz music after him and even other forms of music that came after him He was one of the million African Americans who participated in the great migration 11 The Great Migration many blacks began leaving rural south to industrial cities and the north Between 1914 and 1920 a lot of African Americans moved to the south Blacks also moved to the north to escape Jim Crow A WW1 and the Promise of the Industrial North After WWI the moved to the North because it was being industrialized l Ford s River Rouge Plant Chicago as transportation hub Henry Ford s River Rouge Plant offered job opportunities to blacks in the North Chicago was a destination for African Americans because there were a lot of railroads in Chicago Northern Urban cities became increasingly black B Rise of the Ghetto Blacks moved to the North because they thought that they would face less segregation They had to live in less appealing homes and they had to pay more for their rent Blacks were forced to live in segregated areas which led to the formation of Ghettos l Harlem real estate agents insurance companies white resistance Harlem was a very prominent black community real estate agents refused to sell homes to blacks unless the blacks agreed to pay really in ated rates insurance agents reduced the values of houses in neighborhood with black inhabitants whites moved out of neighborhoods that had black inhabitants because they were afraid of their homes loosing the value C Marcus Garvey and Back to Africa Movement Garvey established the United Nego Improvement Association He preached the idea of black nationalism He also promoted a back to Africa movement so that blacks could go back to Africa so that they could start new lives Garvey showed that African Americans would have power too and they could have pride He later got arrested for mail fraud 1 United Negro Improvement Association Marcus Garvey D W E B DuBois and the NAACP DuBois was one of the most prominent blacks He was the first African American to get a PhD from Harvard He criticized the works of Washington for being to accommodating of white powers and criticized Garvey for igniting the race hatred He liked the harlem Renaissance l DuBois vs Booker T Washington Dubois thought that blacks had to confront segregation Washington gave a speech in Atlanta in 1895 saying that blacks should adjust to segregation and focus 011 getting education and get social uplift through their education A lot of African Americans listened to Washington In 1909 Dubois formed the NAACP It39s goal was to end segregation calling for full equality through voting rights and education 2 Race Riots 19l9 concern among Northern whites who became resentful of Negro migration In Chicago 1919 a black man who was swimming in a white pool got hit with a rock and was drowned This led to a lot of violence and death between blacks and whites E Harlem Renaissance amp the New Negro Dubois saw the Harlem renaissance as a way to be both a Nego and an American There wasn t a lot of racism in Harlem and ambitious black found whites to fond them to pursue artistic careers The Harlem Renaissance mostly only appealed to white intellectuals and did nothing to stop segregation l Alain Locke The New Negro l925 Locke argues that the hopes of African Americans depended on their ability to prove to whites how much they can contribute artistically 2 Langston Hughes Zora Neale Hurston Hughes promoted black pride Hurston sought to carve out an independent and authentic identity for blacks F Jazz Jazz drew both blacks and whites into a common culture centered on this new musical form It broke down the distinction between performer and audience 1 Integrated audiences Cotton Club White audience ocked to listen to Jazz music in the cotton club In 1920 the rst professional national broadcast By 1929 about 40 of households owned a radio Radios were a way to spread the music to smaller comunities 2 Bessie Smith and women s autonomy she was a blues singer and she made the blues into a modern art form that appealed to the urban population She also promoted the idea that women could enjoy their sexuality She offered an exciting image of black womanhood III The New Woman white women turned to the apper culture while black women turned to Jazz Alice Paul in 1923 wrote the Equal write amendment although it was not passed and the ERA would have gotten rid of the idea that women need to be separated from government A Flappers vs suffragettes Victorian styles marriage amp divorce after the 19th amendment young women didn t care about suffrage They didn t want to look like the women who cared so they cut their hair wear short skirt wear make up smoking cigarette binding their breasts They rejected Victorian morality and ideology but they did believe in marriage They looked to marriage as a way to bring sexual satisfaction without many children In 1920 17 marriages ended in divorce and the divorce rates rose as women independence rose B Ironies of Household Technologies Women were exposed to technologies that were supposed to make household work easier However they did not make the work signi cantly easier because they were not automatic The technologies just increased the standards of what a good home was Women were expected to do more work more often because technology was supposed to make it easier What to Bring This will be a closed book exam do not bring anything but writing instruments to the exam Either pen or pencil is ne Do not bring notes books sheets of paper cell phones computers PDAs microwaves laser pointers color televisions cases of ramen noodles you get the point Bring only History 2112 Fall 2011 Dr Hamilton Exam II October 26 Study Sheet writing instruments and a sharp mind Preparation To prepare for the exam you should familiarize yourself with all of the readings you have done in the class so far and study all of the terms below Some of the terms are drawn from lecture some are from the assigned readings and some are covered in both Having good notes on the lectures and readings will make studying easy as you review the terms and think about the interconnections among them Format There are three sections of the exam The rst section of the exam will involve identifying the source of three quotations A list of six works all of which have been assigned readings for weekly discussions will appear next to the three quotations You must match each quotation to the appropriate reading Completing this section should take you less than 5 minutes It is worth 30 points See the next page for a list oftitles The second section of the exam will involve matching terms arrayed in two columns The rst column will include a set of terms drawn from the required readings or from lecture see below the second column will list a related term or phrase each of which matches correctly to only one item in the rst column The rst column for instance could contain the term quot13th Amendmentquot You would match this to quotabolished slaveryquot in the second column There will be ten items in each column Plan to spend about 15 minutes or less on this section It is worth 30 points The third section of the exam will be composed of ve terms drawn from the list below You will be expected to brie y identify and explain the historical signi cance of four of the terms Identify the term by providing enough quotwho what where whenquot information so that we know you understand the term Then unravel its signi cance by explaining quotwhyquot it matters historically Keep in mind that students who do poorly on history identi cation questions often do so because they fail to explicitly explain the signi cance of historical terms Each of your identi cations should require no more than 3 or 4 sentences Plan to spend about 30 minutes on this section This section will be worth 40 points Terms to Know Alfred Thayer Mahan F lappers Wagner Act Rough Riders GMAC Huey P Long Revival of the KKK Bessie Smith Revenue Act of 1942 IQ Testing Johnson Reed Act of 1924 Executive Order 9066 quotmeatless Mondaysquot Al Smith George Kennan United Negro Improvement Association bank runs Berlin Airlift American Civil Liberties Union Frances Perkins NSC 68 19th Amendment HOLC Suez Canal crisis Modernism and Antimodernism 228 HIST 2112 Dr Hamilton Lecture Outline 1 Modernism A New Economy 20s marked a fundamental transformation in the economy GDP rose about 15 between 1921 and 1929 A major reason for this economic boom was mass production 1 Mass production Ford vs GM annual model change installment buying mass production allowed ordinary people to afford a good life Ford only had black cars but GM allowed customization of cars GM introduced the annual modem change which was basically restyling the cars every year Gm also introduced credit in car buying so that GM could offer credit to the car buyers The credit was an incentive to buy cars This GM39s installment car led to a mushroom of credit so that almost everything was able to be purchased with credit By the end of the credit Americans acquired a lot of dept through instalhnent buying 2 The Business of America Is Business Calvin Coolidge Coolidge silent cal was very pro business and he refused to regulate business B Metropolitan Life and Mass Consumption l Urbanization and suburbanization More people lived in cities than in rural areas People were pouring into cities all over the Nation LA especially was growing not just in population but in geographic size This was due to the grow in the automobile industries that allowed people to live in the cities 2 Advertising modernity advertising became very popular because advertisers drew on the new science of psychology Psychologists were called in to the advertising agencies to appeal to the people a Listerine amp halitosis Listerine invented the disease halitosis bad breathe so that people felt insecure about having bad breath and bought more Listerine b National brands Branded goods had been around since the turn of the 20th century In the 20s these national brands swept the nation so that people started buying brand names Before brand names consumers turned to the sales clerk when buying product but with the growth of brand names people turned to the cooperation when buying products c B Barton Man Nobody Knows 1925 Barton depicted Jesus as the founder of big business because he gathered 12 men and pretty much took over the world 3 Leisure time and national culture mass entertainment sports radio talking movies periodicals like time a Sports Babe Ruth college football drew in millions of dollars baseball Babe Ruth was a famous baseballer and he drew in millions of spectators C Literature 1 H L Mencken disparaged republicans sentimentalists and especially he criticized American society for being so narrow minded and being so tied to Puritanism
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