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by: Tiara Muller


Marketplace > University of Georgia > History > HIST 3056 > US WESTWARD EXPANSN
Tiara Muller
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Muller on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3056 at University of Georgia taught by Steffen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see /class/201981/hist-3056-university-of-georgia in History at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
Ranching Frontier 532011 31300 AM Cattle ranching in the United States Origins of cattle industry in the US Early cattle men are mercantile capitalists Origins of pastoral pursuits in the United States Pastoralists are those who graze cattle Colonial Spanish Initially the cattle industry was not specialized to the industry It does develop It first appeared in the piedmont region of the southern states Rather large industry The methods ofproduction is the same in the east and west Pastoralists cant live with farmers they usually live along the edge of settlement Cows tend to eat and trample crops on public domain land Open Grazing One time a year we bring the cows together in collections stock pining communities Cow towns Collections ofitinerary laborers who bring them to a certain spot What do you do separate out the cows those who are able to go to market and those who are too young Identify them brand them Those who are ready are walked to the market After Rev war population moves very rapidly to Ohio Valley New pastors out west New people get involved people who want to fatten up cows Fattening towns who would feed them corn The Ranchers couldn t care less Corn belt fully matured in ohio and was spreading By end of civil war all the way to Illinois and Iowa Plains industry owes its self to the Spanish who brought cattle the the US the conquistadors Spanish in uence horses are used in the rounding up of cattle Opportunity and industrial phases of ranching What is the opportunity in the opportunity phase of ranching Industrial and urbanization Surplus cattle supply in South Texas Transition to industry phase of Ranching Iames Brisbin s BeefBonanza Reduction of public domain Overgrazing Overproduction 0 Winter Feeding 0 Cowboy Unions 0 Sever drought and winters 18851887 Industry Phase of Ranching o Emphasis on manufacturing costs to make a cow 0 Raw material 0 Labor 0 Production 0 Transportation 32911 Cattleman Frontier How are these people affected by the frontier experience 0 Beginning to see a national trend and ideas held by east and west 0 One of the great creators of the trends is the Sears Catalog These early cattleman continue on in the trend of being mercantile capitalists They trade cattle don t raise or transform Richard King Owns ranches in southeast Texas Brownsville TX One of the most successful early mercantile capitalists o Violin apprentice o Fled to the sea to be a trader ended up in Texas Very little money 0 Became a river boat pilot This was his windfall because of the Mexican American war 0 He saw a great plan in trading cattle Bought 75000 acres of land By 1816 he expanded his operation to have more land 1865 he had 300000 acres 0 King and Kennedy were so confident they dissolve the partnership 0 Died in 1885 had 500000 acres 0 He just scooped up the stray cattle and brought them north so that they could be fattened up He didn t do the fattening George Littlefield o Came to Texas with a larger capital Family was established cotton plantations in Mississippi 0 What drove him to east Texas Reconstruction 0 Through partnerships with family he some land and cattle etc 0 He took cows as trade for our and sugar His first cattle drive gave him a lot of money He goes on forming some mercantile partnerships throughout Texas Iliff Offered farm in Ohio by father He rejected it and took the 500 instead 0 Went to Kansas 0 He is going to freight stuff Wagons Transports stuff 0 Goes to Denver and opens up a business Takes his capital from the Kansas job and accumulated cattle and supplied miners at in ated rates 0 After a 1 12 in Denver he became a major food supplier And had 50000 head of cattle Charles Goodnight 0 Ability from a government contract to supply cattle in the Indian territory 0 Always needed cattle Located and purchased cattle Took them where they are not worth anything to where they are worth a lot more 0 Partnership with Oliver Loving To accumulate capital You need seed money Loving was killed on a trail by some Indians 0 Bump in the road depression in 1863 0 Starts in Europe They stop coining currency based on silver and base it only on Gold So it hammers the US economy as well This works its way in the ability to acquire capital and ability to trade Goodnight goes bust and he looks around for capital He finds an Irishman and partnership Ends up as million acre IA ranch 0 Each have 12 million in a few years 0 He gets land 0 Becomes one of the most sophisticated Nelson Story 0 Cattle industry in the North west 0 Migrated from Ohio to Kansas with little money 0 In Kansas he cut wood and made fences 0 His windfall condemned government wagons used them for one trading venture Provided a grub state for gold mining Struck rich 30000 on one gold strike 0 Travels to Texas and takes part of his money and buys a 1000 head of cattle Takes them to Virginia City Montana 0 Once he sold the cattle in Montana he took both capitals and purchases land Becomes one of the most wealthiest ranchers in the US These cattle Kings follow a pattern Traders Industrial revolution o Urbanization thus creating a new market because of the new jobs Processed food is needed People don t raise their own food Usually came across some kind ofwindfall being able to attain capital 33111 Transition from ranching phase to Industry phase 0 When you have a boom eventually everyone jumps in on it Thus creating an overpopulation of cattle prices go down Iames Brisbin s BeefBonanza 0 Look you get cows and you don t have to do anything They do everything by themselves Collect once a year and get money Widely read so people ock to ranching 0 Western money comes into this Public Domain reduces the government is leasing the land to the ranchers There is over grazing which results in pasturing fewer cattle Overproduction Winter feeding 0 Up north ranching moves so you have to worry about feeding the cows during the winter 0 Cowboy Unions 0 Ranchers are like industries in the East Industrial plants In 1883 Scottish investors invested 25 million dollars in western ranches which were sold off Industry phase 0 You have to worry about raw materials 0 You have to worry about production costs 0 You have to talk about controlling the market 0 Transportation costs Make it similar to the eastern industry In the east you also had intraindustrial firms 0 These were used to lobby or protect the interest of the industry In the west there was the stock growers association 0 They have to deal with local settlers and the federal government 0 You see ranchers using these to gain political ends Huge land and cattle companies are in the associations What they ran into in Wyoming is a competitor a group of small ranchers who made the Farmers and stock growers association Large ranchers had a lot ofpublic domain and water People who use the public domain you face problems and you cant cover this with enough personnel So you see rustlings People who steal cows Fear that the small ranchers are rebranding the cattle This turns into paranoia Wyoming stalk growers Severe drought and winters 18851887 Thousands of cattle were lost and then large cattle ranchers used muscle to horde water Iohnson county war Wyoming stalk growers association hired gunmen paid 5 a day and 50 for every rustler killed So innocent people were killed Invaders Prosecution of these guys never happened They did get arrested Harrison used Army to help out the people They Didn t have enough room to imprison them They could wonder around town and just don t leave Bill 9 local county paid the bill 4511 Vigilantism see themselves as preservers of law and order Good examples and bad examples Good Mining camps distant from urban centers thus miners have to take care of specific issues Miner committees Claim clubs Committees that deal with land disputes Acreage that overlaps KKK Provides and saves the southern way of life Law and order Cattleman associations Wyoming stalk growers association Class issue big ranchers vs little ranchers vs small settlers Intended to hire extra legal groups to keep law and order Local law makers and enforcers are usually bought up by them Bad example those that are specifically created to aim at one specific group of people Social Bandits these are people who overstep the boundaries Distrust in law enforcement or higher level of government Rapid change produces a kind of fear that makes a general restlessness against the people They exist during this time and they will have a support group family and friends This doesn t work in the south because you don t have a unified class consciences Mining frontier 9 characteristics associated with Placer Gold Mining Georgia Dahlonga and Auraria California Australia Mining Prospector Behavior myth Compulsively driven to find the quotbig strike Imagination captured by quotwanderlustquot Strikes it rich never to return to home and family Lives extravagant lifestyle complete with lavish mansion and new and improved trophy wife Or Ends up as a pauper far off from quotcivilizationquot Universal characteristics of Placer stage of gold rushes Stories of chance discoveries Rapid in ux ofa diverse range ofpeople A high intendancy rate High prices and little credit A den of iniquity image juxtaposed to strong efforts to the minors to create a stable community Bizarre or unusual characters easily transformed into legend Social leveling process class didn t mean much When the miners leave fold rush towns become ghost towns or shift the basis for their community existence With the end of the placer state mining outside pools of capital to take over next stages of mining 4711 Mining frontier Mining Frontier Placer stage of the mining Going and picking up gold already separated Mother nature did the separation Prospector can get the gold off the ground Universal Characteristics of Placer stage Gold Rushes 1Stories of Chance Discoveries Georgia ex Someone kicked over a rou 1607 the Virginia company of London founded Virginia What they wanted was gold 2 Rapid In ux ofa diverse range ofpeople 0 Once the gold was found in North GA there was a sudden in ux ofpeople But on Indian land Federal troops were there but they couldn t stop the amount of people owing in o In 1852 there were 1215 law offices 3 A high itinerancy rate 0 people who are here and then they leave Athens on a Saturday 0 18331848 Its population increased from 8005000 Dahlonega 0 Mining 4 High Prices and little Credit 0 in the mining area the prices of things were really in ated Ex Flour in NY 6 GA 40 sc 450 5 A den ofiniquity image juxtaposed to strong efforts of the minors to create a stable community 0 High rate ofvictimless crime jux 6 Bizarre or unusual characters easily transformed into legend 0 they existed in Australia GA and in California 0 Guy rivers supposedly lived in cave close to aurora 7 Social Leveling process class didn t mean much 8 When the miners leave gold rush towns become ghost towns or shift the basis for their community s existence 9 With the end of the Placer state mining outside pools of capital to take over next stages of mining California and Australia Gold rush vs GA Anglo Americans before 26000 1848 by 1849 it was around 100000 then 1852 it would be 200000 41411 Public domain land land that is owned by the government Slowly acquired by people Timber culture act 1873 o allowed people to apply for additional 160 acres but they have to plant trees on 25 of the land Under rules of homestead act Desert land act 1877 0 anyone could claim 640 acres for initial payment of 25 per acre Ifhe can show that he made it better after 3 years he could buy it for 1 and acre But it can be transferred So what they did was they had cowboys run the cowboys to make claims 10 cowboys 10 claims Boom 640 9 6400 acres You have to irrigate the land You dig a hole and throw a bucket of water and you have someone say you have water 0 21 million of acres were given patents for the land Timber and stone act 0 Designed for people to apply or land that is unfit for cultivation 0 Only 640 acres of land 0 California red wood company found sailors and marched them to courthouse to make them citizens and they applied for this act Then you take them to the notary where they would sign them to the companies They would get paid 50 to do this Btwn 18601900 increased from 2 million to 6 million Acreage 163 million 9 414 million Technological improvements You need something that will grow in the great plains The strains ofwheat that was in the mid west wouldn t be able to stand the hot summers or cold summers 9 red wheat comes from Russia Created a need for a new milling process Fences in the mid west used stone fences No stones or trees Ioseph Glidden 9 barbed wire fence Water drilling for water became difficult Deep water table Gotta get it to the surface Windmills can be used as a pump Take the windmills from the east to the west would get blown apart because the wind was so strong so they had to adapt Cost of well digging 1000 0 Dry farming how do farm under these circumstances Plow deeper than eastern farms Disc rather than a plow it creates a crust and keeps soil from blowing away Steel plow not iron 360 acres need for what could be produced on 80 acres in the east 0 Heart ofindustrial revolution Creates finished market machines Harvesters tractor and other machines Betty Crocker General Mills is collecting mills into a big mill 9 betty crockers Letters from home makers asking for cooking advice So they created a face betty crocker writing letters back to them by her In 1927 she acquired a face and voice She had her own cooking show 41911 Propaganda created by the town developers wanting to sell the land Railroads attracted the settlers to the west Carried stuff Both in and out of the plains o Btwn 18701872 gave 130 million acres to the RR companies They would then sell the land And then they would use money to expand the rail road Same amount ofland that occupies Pennsylvania and New York 0 This is the industrial revolution Creates a national market In order to do that is a transportation network hence the railroad States stop giving away land in 1935 Great plains agriculture 0 Uncanny amount of rain A wet decade Well they think that it will always happen Nonsense A decade later terrible drought 50 of western Kansas left Boom then bust Industrial revolution 0 This farming in the great plains take place because of the industrial revolution 0 One creation of technology to allow the great plains to do that I 900 industrial plants putting out farm equipment 0 Revolution in how banking is done 9 credit Why will farmers going to get farm machinery I The industrial part of the economy creates larger amounts of goods lower prices I Use to be 100 ton of steal went down to 12 a ton Industry got control of the market 0 Try to make as much profit as possible 0 1890 1028 firms swallowed up larger firms Use both child and immigrant labor Keep labor costs down 0 horizontal and vertical integration What happened to farmers 9 technology allowed all farmers to produce a lot more Thus price goes down How to stop this Buy up more land to make more but that drives price down even further What happens 1867 Oliver Hudson Kelley 9 patrons of husbandry or the grindge Social gathering places where farmers go and gripe about what is going on to them This will eventually have a political wing in both west and south 9 NW farmers alliance 18 18809 southern farmers alliance o The southern alliance didn t allow black people In the south its different than in the NW 0 NW is different is that it has same political interest but is more in line with the union 0 Main thrust ofboth alliances reduced prices is to create coops and eliminate the middle man Buy direct Largely unsuccessful In order to the members to buy something you have to have money to have money you have to go to the bank 0 NW farmers alliance 9 turns in to populism It combines a lot of the features that were in both alliance Drew up platform 9 farmers saw world in terms of competition Local competition 0 They want the government to own the railroads and other transportation and communication 0 Treasury system want the government to buy the wheat give me money for that Wants them to put it in the granary Thus holding it off the market Store until the price goes up 0 They want more moneys they want to have their hands on them Print more money so I can get more landstuff 0 Things that did come to pass direct election of senators Before this they were elected by the state legislatures o Graduated income tax passed sort of Bonanza Farms 0 Northern pacific railroad That subsidized a farmer to make a 1000 acre farm 0 Worked for a short time until the drought years Braceros immigrant in to work and using them 42111 Impact of the New Deal and some issues that are important to the west 0 Grazing landspublic domain 0 Water Important for agribusiness Pre new dealpre depression west 0 Characterized by sparse population Generally speaking o Fledgling industries cant compete with eastern industries This is a period when the steel industryprocessed food east northeast North becomes the huge player Industrial capitalist will not invest in something that will compete against himself Investments in the west 0 Minerals most important 0 Raw materials 0 Livestock Montana Primary industry o RRs 60 million 199 o Livestock 54 Million Very organized with the stock growers associations 1075 0 Farmers 81 million 3214 Taxes 0 Mining 141 million 879 Much of the capital comes out of the area but once the new deal and WWII capital is still coming from outside but from the federal government 0 The national debt doubled in 4 years WPA CCC PWA public works administration NRA 0 Massive infusion of money What to do with the public domain 0 FDR says that the public domain is over with So what happens Before that Hoover offered for the state to do with the public domain but we keep the mineral rights So the states said no When FDR started doing business in 1935 he got rid of the public domain policy So what happens when the public domain is gone and its not the states 0 Falls into several categories Most of Nevada and the Alaska are owned by the public domain Bureau of land management department of defense fish and wildlife services forest service national park service Tennessee valley authority Indian affairs and other agencies 0 1934 Taylor range act mandate in helping overgrazing New deal did create 0 Last frontier in no more free land Declared in campaign of1932 there is no such thing that the west is a safety valve in the form of the western prairie if you loose work in the east you cant just go to the west On the industrial side FDR wanted to build an industrial stuff especially on the electricity Resettlement administration rural familys got moved from poor land to new land Works progress administration sidewalks 11 billion spent 85 million people put to work Contributing factor in the west not getting internal capital Capital was still from the outside New deal for the Indians freedom of religion on the reservations specific programs made for the reservations But Indians not on the reservations they would be in the regular new deal stuff 42611 WWII and industrial investments 0 Chanved the west dramatically 0 1940 7 billion invested into western industry 0 1948 21 billion invested o This investment provided seed money for indigenous capital 0 During WWII the government provided 90 ofmoney for west As a result of air craft industry LA becomes another steel industry Liberty ships were made on west coast 0 Used for cargo transfer 0 Easy and fast to make 0 Welding used to make the ships Pres Eisenhower was uneasy about the military industrial complex Military and private industry feeding each other Could cause problems Military spending continues Most important to western growth was population growth 0 In 1964 Cali replaces NY as most populous state 0 Vast migration who make their way to the west during the war AF and Latino people doubled in the west 0 Southern states would use tax incentives to get there No taxes for a while Latinos 0 At the end of MexicanAmerican war the US acquires what is now the American SW 0 Mexicans treated new land as ifit was before go back and forth btwn Mexico and US 0 Lives began to feel segregation Whites started taking over towns 0 Lead tejano uprising Along rio grand Group of business menranchers Mexican round of for latinos and Asians Indians and African Americans Multi cultural uprising who would fight the whites A lot ofpeople were lynched by the whites The US crated a program to allow a pass for people to come to US and work 0 Seasonal favorable to agrobusiness o Bracro program created in WWII to make up for work shortage because people were off fighting Program was used way after WWII Eliminated 1964


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