AMER HIS SNC 1865
AMER HIS SNC 1865 HIST 2112
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Punishing or Pampering the South Presidential amp Radical Reconstruction 1122009 65900 PM Reconstruction time when US puts itself back together after the civil war o Who is in charge o How fast o How far will Reconstruction go o Slaves just freedom 0 Just freedom of not being chained o South wants to recreate prewar era A Lincoln and Presidential Reconstruction Gentle Approach o 4600 freed slaves o very agricultural at the time o Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction 1863 o Outlines Abe s plan for R 0 Any southern state 10 of common voters 1860 signed loyalty oath the state could get back in o Abolished slavery o Abe was a racist in many ways but very antislavery 0 Never believed in full equality B Andrew Johnson and Presidential Reconstruction o Takes over Abe s easy policy o Few differences made 0 Not as smart Johnson was insecure and a stubborn jerk Southerner Born in Asheville NC Poor and uneducated Hated rich cotton planters those who ran the south Only southerner to stay loyal to the union Against slavery bc it supported rich southerners o Declares conf officersofficials have to come to him to ask for pardon and those who are worth 20000 have to do the same o Radical Republicans proindustry antislavery ALL FROM NORTH 0 Charles Sumner o Thaddeus Stevens o South elect confederate officials to represent them in DC o SouthBlack Codes about control slavery conditions 0 Segregation in public 0 O O O O O 0 Cannot leave plantation 0 Cannot have a job C Radical Reconstruction o The get tough approach o Much less racist than Johnson o Protect rights of ex slaves o South must face the reality of defeat and control the south elite o Didn t pass 50 loyalty black men would be given the right to vote o 13 14th and 15th amendments 0 13th outlaws slavery 0 14 cannot discriminate 0 15 black men given the right to vote o to get back states must ratify their constitution and amendments o Freedman programs o backed by military force o Reconstruction Acts 1867 0 Short Lived Era of Black Political Influence in the South o Freedman s Bureau o Radical Republicans didn t like Johnson 0 He voted against everything they proposed 0 They passed 2 laws that AJ would violate so that they could impeach him 1 was the 10 yrs of office act in 1867 n cannot fire anyone without approval of congress o AJ fired Edmond Stanton in 1868 o Avoided being impeached by 1St act and loses next election to Ulysses S Grant o 1870 all southern states back in the Union o south wants to keep black men from voting 0 KKK is formed to scare black men away from voting o Regain political power southern whites D Redemption o North is losing faith in the Reconstruction 0 Let guard down and it ends in 1877 o Compromise of 1877 Emancipation amp the African American Freedmen Experiencequot 1122009 65900 PM A The Worldwide History of Slavery o Practiced for years c Native Americans had slaves replaced dead people with captured children slaves 0 Also happened in Africa as well 0 Cultural thing 0 Will be treated as an original member of the tribe later on in ones life c European Slaves o slaves are economic machines to make money 0 slaves could buy their freedom 0 slaves for only a set period of time 0 not based on race but on circumstance o American Slavery unique Characteristics 0 Cheap help make money 0 Slaves were property by law 0 Slaves are supposed to be permanent Were times when setting your property free was illegal o Slavery carries over every generation is a slave o Racially based o Vast majority of Africans end up in the Caribbean 0 Grew sugar on sugar plantations o Obtained from slave traders o 75 either go to the Caribbean or Brazil o Getting there Middle Passage 0 Stuffed on a ship like sardines 0 Work on plantation for about 3 years then you die o 1619 slaves 1St appeared in north America o indentured Servitude System B Slavery and the South the Keystone of Southern Society and Culture o Slavery died out in the north because of revolution and because crops like cotton don t really grow as well in the north o Slavery indispensible in the South major source of economic and political power o 3 not slave owners in the south o Slavery and Poor Whites the social floor 0 The poorest white man which makes you better than a slave not at the bottom o After the War Creating the Slave System without Slavery C The End of Slavery and the Beginning of Freedom Now What o Try to create a new life their own life 0 Searching for Family Families encouraged but often split up Searched all over for family Some just left the plantation because the environment was terrible as well as the memories Also take furniture when they left 0 Schools and Education Education was denied to slaves prior to the war Now created schools teaching them to read and do math Assisted by the Freedman s Bureau a White lady would come and teach the school as well as northern black men 0 Establishing Churches Normally forced to go to masters churches with slavery friendly sermons New churches bibles were interpreted differently o Entering Politics Took hold of the chance they had to voice their new found freedom in politics senators and representatives D The Problem of Making a Living the Rise of Sharecropping o Want to be a farmer the norm for that time o Control working conditions economic situation life inside their household etc o Need land to do so o 40 acres and mule old plantations would be broken up 0 happened for a brief period on a sea island in south GA 0 to radical even for the north o Slaves have NOTHING but freedom stuck o Have to go back to work as a laborer 0 Also because of black codes 0 Many go back and work for their old masters Workjust like they did as a slave but paid a little bit Lots of resistance towards this Sharecropping white landowner will ask a black man to grow cotton on his land and will be given all the supplies even a house but will have to grow it and sell it and only receive half the money for it 0 Benefits the white man more Pay back for the equipment and the seeds in the end to the white man Locks black man into debt constant Last s till the 1960 s in some places South producing more cotton than before the war Prices drop and poverty occurs 0 White people as well become sharecroppers O O O Legacy of Conquest Settling the Wild Westquot1122009 65900 A Neil Young AIM American Indian Movement and New Attitudes about American Indians o Neil Young 0 Cortez the Killer One of the first Rock songs that deal with Native Americans n Genocide of the Aztecs Cortez brutally overthrew the Aztec empire Romanticizes Natives o AIM demanded democracy of Indian government 1960 s and 70 s 0 Wounded Knee Massacre o Attitudes 0 American should turn Natives into typical Americans hardworking farmers 0 Should you punish or pamper the Indians B Heading West Westward Ho WHY o By 1890 we become Sea to shining sea a continental nation o Most Americans at this time are independent farmers yeomen and want their own land o 1870 in the North East Land is getting scarce New England 0 Cheap Land Moving West American Gov t wants you to move west for practically free a Homestead Act of 1862 160 acrs of land in Kansas Territory improved the land you could have the land for NOTHING n Railroad companies gave out land a Marketed land to Europeans o Made the west most MULTI CULTURAL in America at the time 0 North Dakota the most of them all o Profit and Business Opportunities 0 Move to sell stuff to those who moved to set up farms 0 Land speculators file claim on land and sold it people 0 To sell supplies to the miners 0 West became pioneer of corporate businesses 0 Cowboy working man that moved cattle o Manifest Destiny 0 idea that runs through much of American history the idea expansion is our destiny given by God a God given right to expand o Conquering Nature make the west usable if you planted crops and set up telegraph wiresrainfall would come Kansas would become a timber exporting state ha o Opportunities for Freedom 0 TheExodusters freedmen exslaves C The Fate of the Natives Death or Reform o The Eradication school firmly committed to a policy of construction Natives simply lazy and stealing animal like 0 Sand Creek Massacre Colorado 1864 Natives Cheyenne tribe Chief Black Kettle Attacked by Colorado militia Kill and scalp them all nits and make lice o Fetterman Massacre 1866 the Sioux tribe 0 Little Big Horn Montana 1876 victory for Natives Sioux Tribe Only thing left was a horse o The Assimilation School 18701880 s capture Indians and use education and federal law and turn them into imitation whites assimilate them into American farmers 0 Consider themselves as humanitarian reformers 0 Kill the Indians Save the Man 0 Reeducate Indians with education land policy law and make them civil Indian Schools B Taught to farm fix machines western spiritual lessons how to dress Reservations n Oklahoma biggest one u Believe that Natives could be broken away from former lives and make them into farmers The Dawes Act of 1887 n Allows the US Gov t to break up reservations and give the pieces to the Native families excess given to whites a HUGE FAIL o Reservations in a terrible place agriculturally o Shrinks reservation size o Not given Natives officially until 25yrs were UP o Gender issues seen as women s work to Native s thus men refusing to work o 1890 rumor starts on Indian reservation Piute if natives perform certain dances and rituals white people would disappear and life would go back to the way it once was 0 Army tries to stop this What Time is it Right Now and Why Industrialism 1122009 65900 PM keeping time was a community affair based off the position of the sun o Time not that big of a deal o Railroads made time a new important thing 0 Standardized time 0 First very modern corporations A Industrialism perhaps the most important development in US history after 1865 We will explore its ramification in detail o The rise of corps and big business the single most important development in modern America The rise of Industrialism B American Business Before 1870 o American largely agricultural o 1850 and a big business has 800 employees o specialized in one or two productsservices o local businesses 18701900 0 Turned American business into a economic social and political powerhouse C A Case Study Andrew Carnegie o Born in Scotland migrated to Pittsburgh in 1848 o Worked for Pen Railroad as telegrapher o 24 working in management made management techniques master MASTER MANAGER o Watch the cost and profits will take care of themselves o Ambitious clever driven talented and sees a future in steel 0 Investor and entrepreneur o Wanted to create an industrial empire Hooked up with Charles Swab to build his first plant in 1872 o Steel was uncommon before the 1860 s o English man named Bessemer Bessemer process for steel making easier to make steel o A Fortuitous Combination of Developments 0 Technological developments 0 The rise of Railroads Used them to sell steel nation wide They also needed steel 0 New Resources from the west Iron coal lime brought east by railroads 0 Immigration and Cheap Labor Immigration growing in the 1880 s and provide cheap labor 0 The Invention of Corporate Business Techniques New kind of accounting and way things were run Selling public stock Middle management Business becoming more standardized Being scientifically managed Some Important Corporate Business Technique 0 Integration of Production had to control all aspects of the business sales offices mining railroading 0 Formation of Monopolies and Trusts Price Fixing Carnegie didn t like them Control of one particular product Most industrialist hated competition Other Helpful Developments 0 Proindustrial US gov t and Republican Party Gov t on the side of big businesses US troops help break up strikes 0 ProIndustrial Law 1886 Santa Clara County vs Southern Paci c Railroad n a corporation was a natural person thus had civil rights a Strikes other violations against them would be a civil rights violation Social Darwinism the misguided application of survival of the fittest to economics 0 1859 Darwin wrote the Origin of Species never intended for the phrase in the original version Animals best equipped reproduce o Adopted Social Darwinism to economics Worked to fend of gov t involvement Rockefeller JP Morgan fittest Good and natural because that s how nature wanted it to be legitimized Big Businesses 0 Carnegie supported workers unions and the right to organize though had no problem with this idea 1901 worth a fortune D The Gilded Age late 18805 to 905 Captins of Industry amp Robber Barons men of industry and big business Gilded Beautiful on the outside rotten underneath American s ambivalence about Robber Barons o Threats to Democracy 0 Threats to Free Enterprise 0 Threats to Jobs Carnegie s Social Conscience 0 Sold his business to JP Morgan for 480million o Retired in 1901 o Built libraries and devoted time to art etc A Lingering Question Was the development of American Industrialism worth the costs The answers will vary Urbanization Immigration and the Huddling Masses 1122009 65900 PM A The Great American Melting Pot B Four Immigration waves c 16001820 British and Africansslaves c 18201856 Northwestern Europeans and Irish Germans English and Irish c 18801920 Southeastern Europeans and Irish 30 of worker are foreign born 0 From Russia Poland Romania Greece Italy and Ireland 0 Nonprotestant but Catholic Russian or Greek Orthodox or Jewish o 1980present Latin Americans Asians C Why Immigrate to America And Where o Came for freedom and economic opportunity o Also to escape famine and government escape persecution for religion o Push effect as much as it is a Pull effect c New arrivals tend to be young men 1540 yrs old in the 3rd wave 0 Plan make money to bring family over or make money and go home 0 13rd of immigrants go home 45 of Italian immigrants go back o arrive by ship and come through New York Boston etc East coast 0 Ellis Island Arrival go to the urban areas New York Boston Philly Detroit Chicago etc HUGE Serge in population people in cities goes up 700 1900 87 of city of Chicago was foreign born or 1St generationetc for the rest of the big cities o In general immigration was happening within the Country itself boosting urban growth D City Life o Cultural Support go for the familiar neighborhoods of ethnics China Town Little Italy Lower East Side Pole Town Irish South Side o All speak the same language social network where you can communicate Employment factories provide employment for the immigrants o Industrialism and immigrations are very closely related 0 Encouraged immigration Prejudice from Nativeborn Americans kept out of areas because of prejudice 0 Sent to their ethnic neighborhoods to live E Living Conditions Noisy smelly dirty rent is high prices are high crime Tenements gigantic cheap apartments 0 Run by slum lords 0 Several to a room with few beds 0 4brparlorliving room185 people 0 outdoor bathrooms Get strong sense of community recreate stable way of life churches Immigrates who are running for office strike deals with locals to improve standard of living to get the vote F Fears of Immigrants Among NativeBorn Americans Their CatholicismSemitism Catholicism was heretic a plot to spread Catholicism Their Threat to Native s Jobs 0 Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 prevented the immigration of the Chinese Political Radicalism MarxistSocialist Politics Racial slurs begin Irish drunk monkeys Literacy test G Immigrants and Urban Reform Jacob Riis and How the Other HafLives 0 Rise of middle class American group concerned about urban reform progressives He was from Denmark Lived in poverty in New York News paper reporter in the tenement beat SHOCKED Believed in the American dream Improving living conditions you can assimilate immigrants O O O O Eight Hours for What We Will Unionization and the Labor Movement 1122009 65900 PM in 1890 23rds of all Americans are working in Industry A Working Conditions in US Factories c Late 19th Century o Dirty loud dangerous exhausting fatal sometimes 0 Sanitation bad food processing meat packing filthy Sent pig guts into the river The Jungle Upton Sinclair about the meat packing industry 35000 factories workers died a year c Working Hours long 0 Most work 6 day weeks and 1016 hr shifts o Homestead Carnegie s Day 105hr Night 13hr usually not lunch break o Work Style regimented repetitive on the clock 0 Controlled to increase efficiency 0 People worked not according to the rhythm of nature now on the clock Work according to the rhythm of the machines Taylorism scientific management system for labor a Chart how workers should move to be the most efficient worker they can be Everything ordered and regimented o Deskilling of labor no skill needed to work in a factory o Leads to drudgery and worthlessness o Wages low 1900 men make 100 to 200 below the poverty line 0 Women and children paid even less B Unionization and Strikes Workers Resist Industrial Conditions o Used to put pressure on industry and government 0 1866 National Labor Union 1St Union in the US Not terribly aggressive very small The only people allowed in were skilled laborers More like a lobbying group 0 1877 Great Railroad Strike Railroad workers on BaltimoreOhio go on strike because they got a 20 wage cut C 1870 s to 1880 s Response Gov t calls out the militia to protect strike breakers People are killed The strike spreads to the Penn Railroad Militia suppresses the strike Rutherford B Hayes calls out the Army to help too Knights of Labor Result of GRRS 1 million people were members 10 of workers membership to everyone even women and nonwhites and Irish 0 Excluded were the Chinese or unproductive classes bankers bad factory owners etc 10 of them are female Focus membership on class Radical Goals increased wages fewer hours 0 Equal pay for women 0 Willing to go on strike if need be The Eight Hour Movement 1886 0 Wanted 8hr work day to be the standard in the working world Haymarket Square Riots May 1886 o Spells the end of the Knights 0 RallyParade in Chicago in support of 8 hr day idea and for iron workers in McCormick factory 80000 people show up peaceful 0 May 4th Riot some one threw a pipe bomb at police and kills one of them Cops fire on crowd bloody 0 Chicago very anti unionanti immigrant government Some sentenced to death immigrants no evidence to justify death sentence Public opinion turns against Knights of Labor Spies put into Unions black list people use legal system against them 0 O D 1886 American Federation of Labor More respectable Samuel Gompers founded it o Limited in their membership Open to people who have more skillful jobs o More interested in bargaining that riotingstriking o Not as racially inclusive have to be white o Would go on strike but not as willing E More Radical Unions often repressed by authorities o United Mine Workers of America 0 O O Founded in 1890 in places where there are mines Very willing to use the strike as a weapon racially inclusive Ludlow Massacre 1914 Colorado Militia machine guns the crowd killing many o Industrial Workers of the World very radical socialists communists anarchists etc 0 O O O 0 Anti capitalist Marxist style government Membership open to EVERYONE Brutally suppressed Rallies broken up with gun fire F 1892 Homestead Steel Strike Andrew Carnegie fights back o Frick calls in Pinckerton security guards to attack workers o Gun fights Silver and Gold The Populist Revolt Against Industrialism 1122009 65900 PM A The Rectangle of Righteousness KANSAS o Republican for the last 60 something years c 150 yrs ago was a hot bed for one of the most radical political movements Populism 0 made up of farmers who were worried about the rising power of industrialism and big business Banks and monopolies Worried about their own loses of status in society One of the most important example so resistance to industrialism rural version of reform and resistance 0 Formed in 1890 s one of the most successful 3rd parties in history and done by the early 1900 s 0 Farmers wanted to make the industrial American more equitable work is fairly compensated and that it is dignified 0 Government that is out of the hands of Industrial elite B Agrarian America o Before Industrialism America mostly rural 0 Land of Yeomen o Jeffersonian Agrarianism o farmers as ideal citizens o farming and farm life is the back bone of American democracy 0 Honest work makes you a better American 0 Selfsufficient 0 Makes democracy possible 0 Said industrialism creates a group of dictators 0 Jefferson Rich aristocrat slave owner C Industrialism s Threats to Farmers o Financial trouble debt etc 0 Supply of food is growing faster than its demand 0 Perpetual debt 0 Panic of 1893 farmers hit hard many are at the mercy of a new economic system that they know very little about and cannot control o Monopolies railroads and banks 0 O 0 Usually only one railroads in the area gauging rates on farmers 0 Must borrow money to survive usually only one bank in your town high rates are charged to famers Status Anxiety 0 Farmers not ideal anymore 0 Hero now the Industrialist 0 Community and family didn t matter anymore how the famers saw it D Forming Alliances Farmer s Alliances Farm Unions Do not go on strike but serve as a place for farmers to strategize how to improve their condition 0 186770 Patrons of Husbandry The Grange Holds rallies and parades 0 1880s National Farmers Alliance Held educational events rallies Specialized in sending out orators to give fiery speeches about the evils of big businesses and Industrialism E The National Alliance s Plan the Ocala Demands 1890 Regulate the railroads 0 Make monopoly illegal 0 Make it a flat rate to ship for everyone Progressive Income Tax 0 More you make the more you pay Direct election of senators No protective tariffs for industry The subtreasury system 0 The Alliance would by a silo in a town and store their grain in the silo and sell the grain in it once the prices on the market were good Loans come along with the silo Free coinage of silver 0 America is on the Gold Standard wanted money to be backed up with silver creating inflation because there would be more money out in the country Makes debts easier to pay F 1892 to 1896 The Populist Party The People Party o Platform encompasses Ocala Demands plus some 0 1892 James B Weaver runs for President 50 of all Kansans vote for him 0 1896 William Jennings Bryan The Great Communicator runs as Populists combine with Democrats He loses Rep William McKinley wins o The demise of Populism The Rise and Fall of Jim Crowe 1122009 65900 PM 1898 approved for the denial for blacks to vote o 101 black men lynched in the south Slaves able to use skills that they learned in slavery into private enterprise o Thought they would have improved living Many black men had very good paying jobs beginning to feel the equal to white people o Wilmington blacks held political positions 0 Whites fearful that blacks would control the town because they blacks were in majority o 1898 determined to end black power NC democratic party 0 End negro rule 0 White women being endangered by black me in office o Rebecca Felton GA speaker spoke on lynching Negros o Didn t want white women to do it blacks like the white men were doing it with black women Black men urged to vote to keep their freedom wanted to do it politically o Many voted o Ballot boxes stopped o Begged president McKinley to help them White men urgent to take away black s power no black officials anymore in Wilmington because the white man drove them all out o Racial discrimination began 0 Places are now segregated Charlotte Hawkins Brown opened the Alice Freedman s School Has to say she has a vocational school because whites wanted to keep them at a certain level didn t want to actually educate them Taught the Three R s Asked people from the north to donate money for her school Tried to shelter her students from the racial storm going on around them Lots of blacks where in convict lease gangs o Used for cheap labor in the deep south o Blacks charged with harsher punishments than whites so that men could use them for labor longer o 14 hrs a day 6 days a week o feed worst of food and denied medical treatment o 1000 s died 45 death rates and seldom below 15 o Sustaining the form of slavery in the essence of calling them a convict Church gave blacks the hope the music as well o Music signaled that they were still human New Orleans o Most racially liberal city in the south o Public education economic opportunity integration interracial marriages o 1890 s Jim Crowe came railroad separation act o Plessey challenged Jim Crowe all the way to the supreme court 0 Accidently placed in white car cause he looked white o 1896 Plessey VS Ferguson 0 legalized Jim Crowe Separate but equal 0 2 years later blacks could not vote o By the 1900 s blacks rights would be eroding Vehicles of expression Music o Jazz poured in o Challenged the racial bias that blacks did not have the creativity to create something like Jazz Rise of Negrophobia o Deep down there is a savage o Blacks inferior and not worthy of equal treatment o Criminals o Stereotyped Booker T Washington o Wanted blacks to work to be a business man and leave civil rights alone o Wanted industrial education o Received support from Carnegie and Rockefeller o 1906 visited Atlanta looked at it as it a model for what he believed o More negro colleges that anywhere else 0 Used a few success stories to show that everyone could be successful 0 One of the most racially segregated cities in the country WEB Devours o Challenged Washington did not support Jim Crowe o Cannot except being an unequal race o Wanted Civil Rights The Clansmen o Play presented the two strongest images in the south 0 Defenseless white female 0 Black lustful man 0 Solution KKK False reports of rape o White retaliation increases o Mobs begin to find and beat black men Downtown Atlanta 0 If the blacks fought back they were killed o Militia restored order o Booker T Washington s view changed o In New York newspaper The Crisis o Devours 0 Supported women s rights 0 Wilson was supported because he showed promise Failed Catching the Spirit of Empire American Imperialism at the Turn of the Century 18981914 1122009 65900 PM Imperialism policy practice advocacy of extending the power of ones own nation over other nations through the military direct power of countries A America during the Age of Imperialism From Colony to Colonizer o Takes the wealth from a colony and ships it back home B Europe s Imperial Heyday 19th Century o 1880 and 1950 high mark for European Colonization o UK biggest colonial power o Spanish Cuba and the Philippines C America Traditionally antiimperialist but c We used to be a colony ourselves o Isolationist Beware of foreign entanglements Washington o Local Imperialism Mexico central America the mid west o Want to be better than the British but want to be like them at the same time D Why American Imperialism o Profit need more places to sell our goods offers new markets to sell goods and services 0 Everyone is interested in China needed colonies closer to China so that they can enter the Chinese market o Power and Prestige 0 Alfred Thayer Mahan interested in American Imperialism Wanted to build up Navy to protect our merchant Argued to colonies to set up naval stations and coaling stations o Cultural Ideas 0 Social Darwinism Teddy Roosevelt was a firm believer in this 0 Race and Christianity Reaching out to nonwhite humans and improve them Gives access to unsaved souls o Spreading Democracy Duty to be the political light to the world Masculinity Hoganson s Fighting for American Manhood O All the social changes that came with Industrialism creates that idea that we are suffering from a crisis of manhood n Thinking not doing U Need to go to war to recapture manhood E The SpanishAmerican War 1898 Wealth in Cuba sugar Always full of unrest trying to create an independent country 0 America s support Cubans War against Spain will give us Cuba and Philippines giving us 2 new colonies 2 Key Events 0 De Lome Letter Given to US by Cuban spy talking about the US and how the president is gutless o The Maine Explosion Feb 15th sent to Havana Cuba 266 sailors die Everyone thinks it s the Spanish April 1898 we go to war with Spain 0 Fiasco Army very badly trained poorly equipped 0 Spanish even more unequipped 0 Spanish Navy blown out of the water in Philippines by Dewy o Officially in the Imperialist business F AntiImperialist Feelings Mark Twain Andrew Carnegie antiimperialist o Is it right for American s to have colonies 0 Does the constitution have to include the Cubans and Philippines Are the to be considered states Teller Amendment in the event there is a war in Cuba we will give them their independence immediately AntiImperial League Twain is the vice president very politically conservative 0 Industry people 0 Not very radical 0 Find it undemocratic 0 Having colonies brings in more foreigners AntiImperials angered by Platt Amendment 1901 Searching for Order The Progressive Era2162009 72000 PM Progressives not very radical urban people not socialist o Want to make Industrialism more friendly 0 Labor laws created Regulations against monopolies National parks Women s vote 1920 Income Tax Direct Election of Senators Prohibition A Beginnings of Progressivism o Muckrakers Tarbell Sinclair Riis Steffans etc 0 Ida M Tarbell The History of the Standard Oil Company 0 Upton Sinclair The Jungle 0 Lincoln Steffans Shame of the Cities 0 Write exposing stories about industrial issues and places and people o The MiddleClass Response to Industrial Chaos B Progressive Characteristics o Usually White Middle Class Professional 0 Doctors lawyers 0 Urban north and Midwest o Often deeply committed Christians 0 Faith without work is nothing o Often Women o Four Major Agendas 0 Political Reform clean up corrupt politics bribery and machine politics Cleaning up alcohol problem Scientific Efficiency Industrial period inefficient People who should be running things should be scientist 0 Economic Reform anti monopoly interested in government regulation limiting working hours supportive of unions laissez fair attitude has gone to far 0 Social Justice poverty in immigrant neighborhoods women Christians 0 O O O O O O The Social Gospel Movement subsection of the Progressive movement 0 0 Poverty crime happens because they are victims of their own environment Charles Sheldon In His Steps WWJD 1896 Concerned for African American Civil Rights Apposed to alcohol C Three Progressive Stories Settlement Houses Hull House etc 1890WWI O O O O O O O 0 Dedicated to improving urban conditions Urban reform is seen as women s work an extension of women s place in the home Keeping order in the house Have classes and training to help the poor immigrants By 1910 about 400 around the country Alice Hamilton crusader of trash Antiimperialist Founded by Jane Addams The Good Side sincere efforts to help people leads to increased female political activism suffrage campaigns etc The Bad Side condescending Selfcentered President Teddy Roosevelt O O O O 0 Governor of New York 1901 becomes president age 42 Republican Policy to break up BAD monopolies Monopolies tries to control them though not always 1902 Northern Securities Company broken up TR goes on to attack others a Holding company for RR Unions often supports them Mine Workers n Went on strike for 8hr day a Companies did not respond O n TR Threatens to take over their mines if the they don t meet the Unions half way a Cause he wanted a Square Deal for everyone BullMoose Party set up after he gets kicked out of the Republican Party o Conservation protecting land from industrial excess 0 O O Industrialism ugly Resources should be manages efficiently by experts National Forest system set up and run by scientific forester Gifford Pinchot Aesthetic resources needed many national parks created Grand Canyon US Forest Service National Park Service World War I and the Red Scare 2162009 72000 PM A A very brief reference to the Great War and a Couple of Key Points o the Great Migration o Woodrow Wilson the Versailles Treaty and the Decline of Progressivism B The Antiwar Movement in World War I o Progressive doubters 0 Jane Addams and the Women s Peace Party 0 Alice Paul o Isolationists and AntiImperialists 0 William Jennings Bryan o Labor Protestors o wages prices and labor unrest o socialists communists etc Eugene V Debs C The Reaction to Antiwar Activities o AntiGerman feelings and nativism o the American Protective League o US legislativeexecutive reactions 0 Post Office censorship 1917 0 Trading With The Enemy Act of 1917 o The Committee on Public Information 0 Two Biggies the Espionage Act of 1917 the Sedition Act of 1918 o Supreme Court Reactions 0 Schenk vs United States 1919 o Abrams vs United States 1919 0 Pierce vs United States 1920 D The Red Scare o letter bombs mailed to thirty government officials o A Mitchell Palmer J Edgar Hoover and the Radical Division o The Red Ark deportations o January 1920 the Palmer Raids arrest some 10000 people o Mitchell s May Day warnings and the end of the Scare EThe 19205 the end of Progressivism and the rise of the consumer society The Roaring Twenties Babbitts Klansmen and Flappers 2162009 72000 PM A The Twenties and the Return to Normalcy o An era of political conservatism rejecting Progressive reform 0 End of era of battling with industrialism 0 Warren G Harding elected under Return to Normalcy Talks about healing and restoration Politically conservative ear Republicans regain dominance Industry wealth and power is admired held up as hero s and supported by government o Rise of the consumer culture begins 0 Smoking and drinking buying things for the home cars 0 Desirable o And age of conflict urban vs rural new vs old modernists vs traditionalists B An Economic Snapshot of the 19205 c HUGE economic growth overall o America is an industrial country manufacturing goes up 60 o Improved standards of living though some get it better than others 0 Per capita incomeperson goes up 20 0 Average wage goes up 15 white collar up 30 o Exception agriculture in trouble See old fashion values dying Over production crop prices always low Massive foreclosures on farms 13 million acres abandoned and picked up by corporate farming interest 0 Erosion o No trust busting o Very pro business o America s Business is Business C The Rise of Consumerism o Consumerism buying things you don t need o Specializing in consumer items 0 The automobile symbol of consumerism 1920 10 million on the road freedom allure status 0 O O O O O Cars are produced cheaply due to the assembly line a Idea is repeated throughout the country c Order things in catalogs anything you want you can buy o Can buy on the installment plan o First decade for serious advertising 0 Radio commercials D A Culture of Conformity o Consumerism as freedom 0 Go to the movies baseball game swim etc in my automobile o Laboring saving items 0 Fun o Consumerism as shallow o Idea that America is dumbing down 0 Sinclair Lewis and Babbitt 1924 Story of realestate agent George Babbitt 40 2 snotty kids ungrateful as well as his wife Just like them middle class conformist just wants to get ahead E Women and the Consumer Lifestyle o Women s Work 0 O O O O secretarial clerical jobs typing dictation service jobs laundry house cleaning Very few professional women Consumerism and the tyranny of housework Becomes trendy to have a spotless home Single women are becoming more like single men The New Women made possible by the new consumer culture Smart and sassy The Flapper wild free fun a n 1 Lives in the city Shows her legs Smokes and drinks in public Wears makeup Listens to Jazz and dances close to men n Contraceptives being used F Backlash against Modernism The Rise of Fundamentalism and the KKK o See sin depravity immoral dens of iniquity o Fundamentalism a religious reaction against consumerism and modernism o Flappers whores harlots flaunting women s proper roles o Babbitts unspiritual materialists o The new Ku Klux Klan 0 Old Klan stop black men voting 0 New Klan hatred reflects a changed America Immigrants Catholics Jews labor unions communists etc 0 Popular among farmers and small businessmen those people not sharing in the prosperity of the 1920s and threatened by these new modern ideas and people Status Anxiety A New Deal for America 2162009 72000 PM Unemployment rates through the roof 60 in some places Malnutrition and crime widespread A Franklin Delano Roosevelt American Savior 03 o Idolized o Turns the government from a small and limited hands off to a large active reform minded government Hoover and the Depression the laissezfaire approach o Seen as the reason for the depression o Thought that depression would always correct themselves o Thought being poor was because you are lazy and it was their own fault o Voluntary Cooperation 0 if we ask private business to do the right thing they will o Reconstruction Finance Corporation RFC 1930 o Authorizes a large sum of money to bail out banks and business creates work program where people work for the government o The Bonus Army of 1932 wanted bonus check early and camped out outside the white house as a protest o Good ideas but too little to late FDR wins in 32 C The First New Deal o Seen as key to recovery by many o Happens in 100 days of office c To stop the bleeding o Three Agendas o Jumpstart industry 0 Address the agricultural crisis get relief to farmers o Makework programs to restore morale get them jobs and put them to work in government work programs o National Recovery Administration NRA 1933 industry plan set codes for labor conditions and price attempt to get rid of unhealthy completion Not mandatory but heavily looked upon patriotic pressure 0 Gets industrial production increased 0 Little businesses tend to suffer because of this o Segregation gets institutionalized o Agricultural Adjustment Act AAA farm plan 0 Paid farmers not to farm sometimes paid to destroy excess crops that are already farmed to planted 0 Money typically goes to the land owner not the share croppers o Ruled unconstitutional and reworked o Makework Programs 0 Civilian Conservation Corps CCC employed young men to build trails and tree planting out in national forest and parks Doing environmental work Public Works Administration PWA Works Progress Administration WPA building sidewalks ditch digging buildings public work etc Tennessee Valley Authority TVA damn building creates electricity to those in rural areas prevent floods D The Second New Deal o Securities Exchange Commission SEC regulates the stock market o Social Security Act used taxes out of income to guarantee you retirement money didn t cover farmers or domestic servants o Wagner Act of 1935 a law that guaranteed the right for workers to unionized outlawed company unions and strike breakers E Backlash against FDR and the New Deal HATERS o Conservative businessmen New Deal too radical 0 Hate government regulation thought her was a communist and thought New Deal was a plot o Radicals New Deal too conservative o Upton Sinclair o Others a mix of criticisms o Huey Long and Share the Wealth clubs Give poor Americans 2500 a year in cash by the government taken from those who have more than 5million in wealth 0 Father Charles Coughlin O O Thought the government should take of the banks and back the nation with silver creating inflation 0 Charles Townsend and Townsend Clubs Everyone over 60 should get 200 a month and would spendit Containing the Red Menace The Cold War Begins 2162009 720 May 1945 Nazis surrender Japan surrenders in August Soviets Global enemy 1 A The Eagle vs The Bear Anticommunism and the Cold War o Science fiction was considered communist o Soviets set up satellite states to keep countries on their side B The Rise of Containment o 1945 What to do about the Soviets Eastern Europe o The Containment Doctrine o Articulated by George Kennan in Foreign A airs 1946 Argued that we must engage long term in vigilant containment of Soviet influence and must counter in the influences 0 Greece 1947 The Truman Doctrine makes containment officials US policy a Made during a speech a Communist uprising in Greece Greeks communist but had nothing to do with the Soviets Trying to scare Americans to put them into a containment mind set a Greece gets their 400 million from the US 0 Monolithic Communism Definition all communists anywhere in the world are under the control of the Soviet Union a No movement was independent Reality not true lots of rivalries divisions etc a Many Communist are Nationalist first 0 NonViolent Containment Containment by economic means a The Marshall Plan 1947 o 16 billion in aide to western Europe to rebuild its economy a New Deal for Europe non communist countries 0 Motives helping Western Europe get back on its feet the US could i undercut the popularity of communism 0 Poverty breeds Communism CIA covert sponsorship of music art films etc a Paid for music and art tours o PotentiallyViolent Containment The Berlin Airlift 1948 Berlin divided among 4 nations Russia America Britain and France Stalin orders the only road out cut off American planes flew over and landed in Berlin bringing food and supplies to the cut off people Soviets backed down and reopened the road C 194950 China goes Communist and the Soviets get The Bomb o Who lost China 0 Americans thought that we had China to begin with o The Soviets also have nuclear weapons 0 Americans want answers on how they got Bombs as well 0 Soviets turn into a real threat D Publication of NSC68 1950 TOP SECRET o Adds a militaristic edge to containment policy o Supposed to update Truman on Soviets E Containment gets Violent The Korean War 195053 o The Chinese invasion and stalemate o Communist in North Korea 0 Leader decides to invade South Korea 0 US sends troops to help South Koreans didn t do so well Looking pretty grim Douglas McArthur went behind the North Koreans and pushed them far away a Chinese got scared and invaded as well Cost Truman his job 0 Korea still looks the same today 0 Stalemate war and achieved nothing n n n n Fluoride in the Water The Second Red Scare 2162009 72000 PM A Introduction Los Angeles late 1940 s God and the Cold War o Billy Gram preacher the ultimate sin was Communism B The Second Red Scare as Overreaction o How bad were the Soviets How much of a threat were they 0 Little free speech criticism of Soviets sent you away or put in jail o The Soviet Union and Communism a threat TO the United States but not a threat IN the United States C The Second Red Scare as a War on Liberalism o Anticommunism and conservative critics of FDR and the New Deal 0 FDR and Communist rely on overly strong central government o New Dealers unions academics activists as targets 0 Academics to critical of policies 0 Artists targeted 0 People who were connected to the New Deal or things that were too radical were targeted D Political Manifestations of the Scare o The House UnAmerican Activities Committee HUAC 1945 to 52 o Are you or have you ever been a member of the Communist Party Truman with the approval of congress set it up to figure out Communist or alleged Communist In government Hollywood TV etc Produce very few results Turns energy towards anyone who is ok with the New Deal civil rights leaders singer author of the Crucible 0 Ronald Regan o Often blacklisted o The Alger Hiss spy case 1948 to 50 0 Former Communist Whitaker Chambers accused an employee Alger Hicks to being a Communist and giving information to the Soviets o The Rosenberg Case 1950 to 53 o Ethel and Julius accused of being Communist and passing atomic secrets to the Soviets charges partially true 0 O O Were Communist and Julius did give some kind of info to the Soviets from his brother that worked a nuclear plant Jewish Both got the death sentence for treason Ideological war o McCarthyism 1950 to 54 0 Senator Tailgunner Joe McCarthy ambitious unethical From Wisconsin junior senator first term 0 Searching for a hot issue communism Champion against Communist infiltration in the government 0 The infamous McCarthy lists and the McCarthy Hearings 205 Communist in the government did it for the power and the glory Number on the list was always changing and made up charges as he went along Accused people of being communist and put on a convincing front Used disgruntle employees 1954 accused the secretary of state and General George Marshall 0 The ArmyMcCarthy hearings and the end of McCarthyism The key role of TV a hearings show him to be the obnoxious bully that he was Accuses high placed army officers of being Communist Dies in 1957 because of his excusive alcoholism E The Second Red Scare in Popular Culture o HUAC and the Hollywood Ten 0 Fire anyone with questionable backgrounds o The infamous blacklist Screenwriters of TV shows and movies Write under assumed names TV and movies glorified the government uncontroversial result of the Cold War o The Sanitizing of Films and TV 0 No morally complex of ambiguous subjects 0 No conflict 0 No criticism of the American Way of Life 0 No sympathetic Communist characters o The Scare and the whitebeard mainstream middleclass culture of the 1950 s The Affluent Fifties Suburbia Consumerism and the Liberal Consensus 2162009 72000 PM A Welcome to Levittown o 194555 more houses constructed that ever before o Home ownership becomes the norm most in Suburbia o 3 Levittown s built by William Levitt and Sons 0 houses built in assembly style form everything was the same 750 sq ft cape cod style 6000 some odd dollars Latest gadgets found in the house B Economic Growth in the 19505 and beyond o Growth the Backdrop for US history 195019705 0 Unending economic growth 0 Economy doubles 0 Average American incomes doubles as well as wages for all Americans o What made all this growth happen 0 Cold War military spending The creation of militaryindustrial complex The Interstate Highway System a Planned to evacuation routes and for military use Major Defense Corporation mainly cater to the military 0 Deliberate government policy The continuing influence of the New Deal idea of activist government ie liberalism a To allow not individual to prosper n Liberalism individual opportunity requires government management of the playing field a Fairly liberal people 19505 corporate liberalism anticommunist corporatefriendly u If corporations regulated properly the are useful allies to keep the economy good o Help them help all of us 0 O O O o What s good for them is good for the Country and vice a versa The Liberal Consensus the bipartisan popularity of moderate corporate liberalism in the 1950s and 60s a Example Dwight Eisenhower John F Kennedy a Appealing to everyone everyone supports it n Supportive of an activist government C 1950s Corporate Liberalism in Action o Highway construction and Federallybacked mortgages 0 Goal stimulate housing industry automobile industry and thus much of the economy resulting in better wages and more consumer spending As well as the oil industry Puts money in peoples pockets allowing the to spend a Spend excess money in stores 0 Mortgages and racial discrimination FHA Federal Housing Authority n Insured mortgages banks got paid either way because the government paid them if the owner couldn t n Now a 30 year mortgage n Easier for Americans to buy houses now Suburbia s tended to all white there were racial prejudices n FHA supported a restrictive covenant that forbids the owner from selling it to non American non white people a Banks thought that blacks would depreciate the value of the houses D HyperConsumerism o Consumerism as Freedom 0 The freedom of consumer choice 0 Major propaganda weapon during the Cold War 0 The Kitchen Debate 1959 Between Richard Nixon and The head of the Soviets Kruscheif about whether or not this is how things should be E Cultural Critics of Corporations Consumerism and Suburbia Sloan Wilson Man in the Grey Flannel Suit 1955 O O O Babbitt for the 19505 WWII Veteran Sloan Felt something was missing hated working in corporate America Dress codes ridiculous Book critical of corporate America C Wright Mills White Collar 1951 O O O O Sociological exploration of the middle class working world World of middle class drones Corporate jobs are centralized and broken up into and so called white collar factory Education doesn t get you ahead sucking up does David Riesman The Lonely Crowd 1951 O O O O Sociologist Americans consumer oriented are no longer inner directed but outer directed Want to fit into the system Judge people by material possessions income house World of conformity and lack of initiative William Whyte The Organization Man 1956 O O 0 Worked for Forms Study of middle management people And think that being inadequate is ok Betty Freidan The Feminine Mystique 1963 0 She loved being a mother and a house wife But only ok if it was only what you loved being Found out that many didn t like it n Financially dependent on their husbands u Had no life outside their house identity belonged to their husbands n Seemed to be the only choice To Redeem the Soul of America The Civil Rights Movement 3302009 62000 PM A The Fabulous Fifties o The Civil Rights Movement The Second Reconstruction o A number of racial equality laws finally get enforced 0 From the beginning a movement by black people for black people and deeply rooted in the church 0 Not as much of a political movement B Why the Civil Rights Movement in the 1950 s o World War II 0 Black soldiers sent over and see societies without social segregation Not allowed in combat Fight an enemy of white supremacy Black workers at home began organizing because they were not allowed into Unions o Cold War 0 Soviets pointed out the treatment of blacks in the South saying that it was not freedom Contradiction between our ideals and out actions o Expectorations in consumer society C The Legal Approach early 1950 s o Fairly tame approach o Change the laws change the society o The NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People andBrown vs Board 1954 o Ruled out that separate but equal is discremitory All schools must desegregate in all deliberate speed 0 Massive Resistance George Wallace Lester Maddox Chased activist off with axe handles from his restaurant school choice segregation academies etc Wallace was a New Deal Demarcate and was pro segregation University of Alabama began to desegregate he stood in the door way Private schools began to poop up all over the south 0 O O O School Choice committee that choose what school was best for what kid Little Rock High School desegregated 1957 The governor calls out the National Guard to prevent 9 black students from going and registering in school States refusing to obey the law Eisenhower does not take this and sends troops to Arkansas to escort the students to class for a year School finally shut down D The Civil Disobedience Approach 1955 to 1965 o Major Inspiration murder of Emmett Till 1955 O O O O O O O O O 0 Visiting his family in Money Mississippi He was a kid who was not scared On a dare went into a store and calls the owners wife baby The wife complained to her husband Taken tortured beaten and drowned Body found by fisherman and buried quickly Mother comes and gets his body and has an open casket funeral Unrecognizable Bryant put on trial and found not guilty Testified in Look magazine and told their entire story for 4000 untouchable o Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 O O O O Debut of MLK and the founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference Rosa Parks deliberately violated segregation laws for sitting in the front of the bus Arrested MLK sets up a bus boycott in protest to her arrest Buses integrated in the end o SitIns early 1960 s 0 0 becomes preferred method of the Civil Rights Movement Strategic and political choice o Nonviolence as official strategy 0 Birmingham protests 1963 0 Freedom Rides 1961 Got onto a greyhound bus in the north where blacks and whites could sit together on the way to the South The buses would stop and people would get the crap beat out of them by mobs because they would not change seats when they entered segregated states Police don t do anything about it o Mississippi Freedom Summer 1964 o A voter registration drive to get blacks to register 0 Got some people killed E A Successful Legacy Civil Rights Act of 1964 0 Legally ends segregation in public places Voting Rights Act 1965 0 Allow for federal enforcement of the 15th amendment o Success on the groundbut massive resistance goes on Postwar Liberalism s High Water Mark 3302009 62000 PM A The Early 1960 s the golden years of postwar liberalism o Looking ahead to the end of the Liberal Consensus 0 Change from Liberal to Conservative idealism o Begins to break up at the end of the 1960 s o Two Liberal Icons President JF Kennedy and Lyndon B Johnson 0 LBJ believed in opening up opportunities for people more liberal than JFK B Camelot the Kennedy years 19601963 c Kennedy as myth legend martyr 0 Only in office for 25 years 0 Who liked JFK 0 Most known for his foreign policy 0 Founded the Peace Core o Kennedy and Liberal Anticommunism 0 Berlin 1961 Still divided Soviets build a war through the center of Berlin Kennedy gives a speech and says that he is a Berliner in German 0 Cuba 19601962 Late 1950 s Cuba goes Communist n Fidel Castro drives out the dictator and take the country over 90 miles from our borders CIA assassination attempts a To knock Castro out with help of the mob poisoning his cigar many poisoning The Bay of Pigs invasion 1961 a Try to invade Cuba n Anti communist Cubans in Miami sent back to fight the Communist a Cuban military units meet the exiles when they land a Kennedy has cold feet so No air cover is sent by the US so that they could say that they had nothing to do with it n Exiles captured Cuban Missile Crisis October 1962 a Response to the Bay of Pigs Castro lets the Soviets put nuclear missiles in Cuba America comes close to nuclear war advisors beg for a strike Kennedy announces that we will blockade Cuba to prevent any more nuclear missiles from entering Soviets ships are brought back and an agreement is met with Soviet missiles taken out of Cuba if We take out our missiles in Turkey o Kennedy s domestic liberalism 0 Minimum wage bill increased to 125 an hour 0 Social Security increase failed 0 Housing Act of 1961 increases government supports for loans 0 Education funding 23billion increase fails 0 Tax cuts believed it would stimulate the economy C The Lyndon Johnson Years 19641968 c Concerned for the common people o White South Democrat because of the legacy of the Reconstruction o Race 0 Punishing Democrats to embrace civil rights 0 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Prohibited segregation and gender in political places 0 Voting Rights Act of 1965 To prevent ways from keeping blacks from voting 0 Executive Order 11246 Make discrimination in companies contracted by the government illegal o The Great Society 0 A New Deal for the 19605 Wants to know why people are still suffering and why poor people are still poor n Lacked skills and education 0 Major Programs n n n n MedicareMedicaid a Medicare provides health insurance a Medicaid provides health care to people on welfare The War on Poverty a Help nonwhite urban poor to rise out of poverty a Head Start series of education programs to help low income kids a Upward Bound for high school kids a Job Corps trained young people for successful jobs a VISTA Peace Core program for inside the US a Community Action Programs get more people involved in the programs that would help them D Mid 1960 s Liberalism is riding highbut things will change Hearts and Minds American and Vietnam3302009 62000 PM A Vietnam A short history o A Scrappy Little Country 0 Agricultural country 0 Conquered and reconquered by China about 9 times o The French and the Indochina colony 188051954 0 Set up colonial governments and seize control of most of the land 0 The French are incredibly repressive and rule the place o The Viet Minh 0 Rise to throw out the French 0 Leader Ho Chi Minh o Nationalists ie not simply communists Interested in a Vietnam for Vietnamese Nationalist first communist second Not under the control of the Soviet or the Chinese Form in 1920 s and 30 s to fight the French 0 Very popular progressive policies Socially progressive peasants loved this 0 Switch over during WWII they fight Japan and then come back to fighting the French B Enter the US 1950 s o Vietnam containment and monolithic Communism o The Domino Theory If we don t go to Vietnam to stop the communist then all the countries around them will fall to communism 0 Funding the French Indochina war By the end we are basically paying for the entire war Against the Viet Kong Formally Viet Minh French lose surrender 0 Geneva Settlement 1954 Divides Vietnam north and south All of the Viet Minh would head to the north those who were friendly to the French would move to the south n Supposed to be temporary n Have and election 2 years later to elect a leader o A Communist was known to win n US persuades South Vietnam to refuse to vote and to become a sovereign state No elections war erupts n Troops sent to the south and secrete cells communist that remained in the South begin to rise a US begins to fund the South Vietnam War a Diem was the leader of the South dictator and corrupt o Fought North Vietnam tooth and nail and was anticommunist C Entering the Quagmire o Support for Diem and the ARVN Army of the Republic of Vietnam o JFK and military advisors o Ends up sending 16000 green berets o Supposed to train the ARVN and eventually lead them into combat o LBJ and the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 1964 0 Our excuse for entering the war 0 August 2nd 2 US destroyers attacked by Vietnamese gun boats off the coast of North Vietnam most likely never happened Spun as an act of war Authorizes Johnson to ramp the war up war never actually declared o Direct US involvement begins ROLLING THUNDER Marines at Da Nang etc 0 1st ground troops land in Da Nang D Fighting the War o The ineffectiveness of air power 0 Cannot break the industrial power of a country that has no industry 0 Not a target rich environment o The ineffectiveness of the ground war 0 No obvious front lines guerrilla war 0 Not the kind of war that we were used to fighting O O 0 Fire power does not solve everything 0 Search and Destroy and Body Counts sent units out into the field and their mission was to kill as many VCs as you could faster than they could be replaced Counted dead bodies as VCs Had quotas o Frustration My Lai massacre E Tet Offensive January 1968 o Attack of all US military bases by the VC all at the same time o Where d all theses VC come from o The credibility gap and growing antiwar sentiment at home o The pullout begins 0 By 1972 virtually all men are out and by 1973 a peace treaty is reached 0 19731974 North Vietnamese come and take over the South F Reaction o Vietnam the end of liberal dominance and the rise of conservatism o Assigning blame 0 We didn t go all the way to achieve victory We should have invadednuked the North The media and protestors lost the war Rambo First Blood Part II 1986 and POW myth O O O Days of Hope Days of Rage 3302009 62000 PM A The Sixties protest movements two phases o Hope reformist positive o Rage bitter cynical sometimes violent B Civil Rights from We Shall Overcome to Black Power o Starts out tame and nonradical 0 Legal phase Brown vs Board etc o Nonviolent protest phase o The turn towards radicalism born of frustration and white violence 0 Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee SNCC Black Panthers C The New Left o Collegeoriented reform group very optimistic o New Left critiques of American societyculturepolitics 0 Racism poverty inauthentic suburbia o The Establishment Government military corporations universities all working together to get and keep power a The falseness of liberalism The unity of all problems a Vietnam War the ultimate symbol and expression of The Establishment s corruption o Protesting Vietnam 0 Marches teachins etc 0 Fighting the Draft o The turn towards radicalism 0 Democratic Convention Chicago 1968 o The Weathermen 1969 Violent revolutionary at least rhetorically D The Counterculture and the Hippies o Not the same as the New Left o Protested corrupt America by refusing to take part dropping out 0 Life as politics dress drugs sex and protest o Communes hippie utopias o Yippies cynical version of hippies fighting the system through mockery The Other Side of the Sixties Barry Coldwater and the Rise of Postwar Conservatism 3302009 62000 PM A Conservatism from the Political Fringe to the Halls of Power B Vox Clamantis in Deserto Conservatism in the 19505 c The New Deal lived on o Felt left out of the Republican party o Similarities with the New Left Liberals as well College educated largely white and well to do Smart academic Aggressive Containment Strongly Anticommunist Share belief in individual freedom Reject strongly that government is an effect tool for social improvementl Government is a threat to improvement wasteful I Power hungry I Capitalism and Private property and Free enterprise I Traditional Values I C Core Conservative Belief o Caveat there are many different kinds of conservatives 0 Economic social religious etc o Core Conservative Beliefs o Mistrust of centralized big government Argue that government is there only to protect your property rights and anything that it does beyond that is unjustifiable Government is bad at what it does Inefficient Strict constitutionalist must read constitutional literally o Emphasis on individual rights especially property rights and free enterprise Government tramples on economic freedom Mistrust of social engineering ie using government as a tool for social improvement Hated LBJ No right to support civil rights 0 Intense anticommunismpatriotism support for large military 0 O O O O O O A big military in a small government See liberals as weak on communism Law and Order Three strikes your out Support your local police Traditional Values Popular among religious conservatives but not all conservatives are religious see Ayn Rand atheist Moral views and typical marital values Hatred of moderate conservatives eg Eisenhower NelsonRockefeller Call the Rhinos Hate Ike cause he doesn t cut down the New Deal 0 O O D Conservative Intellectual Influences Friedrich von Hayek and The Road to Serfdom 1944 o Argues that any society where the economy is centrally controlled by the government will be come tyrants dictatorship U ofChicago economist Milton Friedman 0 Free marketist Ayn Rand and Atlas Shrugged The Fountain Head 0 Objectivism Russell Kirk and The Conservative Mind 0 History of Conservative Thinking William F Buckley and The National Review 0 Heart and soul of young conservative movement 0 Young Americans for Freedom E Barry Goldwater Born in Arizona 1909 Classic conservative AntiNew Deal intensely anticommunistpro military deeply opposed to LBJ s Supporter of McCarthy Supporter of the Vietnam War and using nuclear weapons Jewish Supporter of planed parenthood Supporter of gays in the military o Moderates in the party are horrified of him o Only won the deep south and his own state because of High water mark for liberalism The Bummer Decade Existentialism and the Unraveling of Liberalism in the 1970 s 3302009 62000 PM A The 1970 s the Hangover from the 1960 s party o Disillusionment cynicism diminished expectation and a new suspicion of government o Death of the Liberal Consensus o The product of a perfect storm of historical events and conditions 0 Economic problems liberals split on the issue of race B Vietnam and the Reaction against Rage o Political effects of the credibility gap 0 Never had America lost such a big war before o Watergate o Helps reinforce the Republican view that government is corrupt and needs to be watched o Growing disgust with radicalism Weathermen Panthers etc o More disgusted by the New Left than with the Watergate scandal New Left hated Liberals EVEN MORE o Conservatives See This is what liberalism has brought you 0 Hippies o Conservatives lower class class resentment C The End of Prosperity o Global economic competition 0 Europe and Japan have recovered from the war o Guns and Butter inflation from spending on Vietnam and the Great Society at the same time 0 Cannot wage a war overseas and send ample amounts at home 0 Military spending is wasteful o Beginnings of deficits The Oil Crisis of 19731974 0 US always a strong supporter of Israel Oil received from the middle east sword enemies of Israel War between Saudi Arabia and Israel we support Israel Middle East raise prices and then refuse to sell it to us temporarily O O O 0 75 a barrel 0 Stagflation inflation stagnant growth high prices and low economic growth 0 The misery index Inflation unemployment rate Speed limits changed to 55 to save gas o Conservative Response 0 Economic problems excessive government regulation government holding people back Excessive taxation a To pay for the Great Society a Taking away the most money from the people who make the most Inefficiency n The problem of welfare handouts o Creating a class of free loaders o Awarding people who are inherently lazy o The appeal of conservative arguments to Democratic hardhats D Race the Southern Strategy and Busing o The Southern Strategy 0 Goldwater s southern success in 1964 Deep south was not republican at all but went republican for him because of the issue of Race 0 GOP Lesson win over southern segregationist Democrats without alienating other Republicans and win national power Using broad strategic language Stat s Rights getting government off your back cracking down on the lazy and criminal etc o Busing the limits of white Northern liberal support for civil rights Morning in America The Age of Reagan3302009 62000 PM A The 1980s Conservatism seizes the brass ring o Ronald Reagan as the AntiFDR 0 Wanted to put an end to the Liberal Consensus B The Political Odyssey of Ronald Reagan o The Hollywood years 0 2nd rate movie actor a lot of Westerns o Reagan the Liberal 0 New Dealer Union member President of the Screen Actors Guild 0 HUAC testimony Called up because he was apart of Hollywood Becoming more sympathetic towards HUAC Cooperative witness for them Secret FBI informant even had a code name 0 Reagan s Move to the Right in the 1950 s Becomes the face of General Electric and joins the Republican party a conservative 0 19605 Regan enters politics The Goldwater campaign of 64 and The Speech a Name floated as a possible candidate for president a Talked on behalf of Goldwater Elected governor of California 1966 C Enter the Bummer Decade o Conservatism rushes in to fill the void D The 1980 Election and After 51 of the vote o 40 of the union votes vote for Reagan o Redeem America of Liberalism o Four Reagan Administration goals 0 Revive traditional patriotism Vietnam as noble cause said it to get us over Vietnam Very strong idea of country To fight the Vietnam Syndrome 0 Massive increase in military strength Increases military spending mostly weapons Rollback the new containment u should stop communist expansion and push them back a funds anticommunist gorillas o Staunch support for aggressive capitalism opposition to regulation unions big business Tax cuts supplyside and trickledown a Tax cut for highest bracket to 50 a Supply sidetrickledown o cut taxes on businesses they will invest their profit back into the economy increase wages begin to make more money they will grow Social welfare cuts Deregulation believes that they had been mistakes 0 Promote Traditional Values E Critics attack Reagan s Domestic Policies o Criticisms of tax cuts supplyside and trickledown 0 Less money was coming into the government o Deficits 0 Massive expansion of government debt borrow and spend F Critics attack Reagan s Foreign Policy c The Embrace of Monolithic Communism 0 Military budgets reflected this 0 Funding Freedom Fighters o Support for anticommunist dictators and other unsavory folks 0 El Salvador support in its battle against communist uprising Guatemala Nicaragua the Taliban o IranContra Scandal 1986 the biggest since Watergate Congress passed a law forbidding the government from giving money to Nicaragua Sell guns to Iran s to release prisoners The End of the Cold War 3302009 62000 PM A A Country Without a Purpose B The Soviet Collapse o The stage is set 0 Authoritarianism dictatorships don t last they are inherently unstable and always collapse because repressionand corruption breeds anger and violence There were not like the Nazis but they were not a democracy a Free speech was strictly controlled n Voting a shame because there is only one party A Weak Economy A Bloated Military War in Afghanistan nasty war battling fundamentalist who we were aiding Bleeding wound for the Soviets Rampant Corruption soviet leaders live like kings Attempts at Reform by Gorbachev late 19805 1980 Polish workers formed a union called Solidarity to protest communist government is breaking a union a movement grows and they pressure the Poland to letting Solidarity run for office o People in Europe inspired by this and there are reform movements springing up all over E Europe a Gorbachev took over and could see the political writing on the wallhe could see the uprising coming Perestroika economic reform a Let people air their grievances without anything resorting to violence a Little too late because there are protests everywhere demanding quicker change and more perestroika and its not long before the damn burst Glasnost free speech democratization o Too Little Too Late 0 O O O O o Collapse of the Berlin Wall 1989 Huge crowds tear down the Berlin wall in the fall of 89 0 East Germany dissolves 1989 Meanwhile the government of E Germany is collapsing and they become just Germany 0 Civil War in Romania 1989 Romanian protests end up in the fiercest combat since WWII o The Big One Soviet Union dissolves 1991 o Exceptions China Cuba a few others C America and the Soviet Collapse o Reactions 0 Relief war was not longer an event that could occur between the Soviets 0 We did it an unwarranted ego trip 0 Reagan s role only one of several factors Buildings up the military and weapons Soviets run into bankruptcy o Now What Foreign Policy after the Soviets and increasing US influence abroad 0 Leaves us as the only Super power now 0 Invasion of Panama 1989 Bush has troops invade Panama to help with the drug trade situation settled and Captured leader and sent to jail in Miami 0 The Fist Gulf War 1991 Short lived war Sadamn Husain invaded Kuwait and Iraqis killed people taking over oil fields 0 Iraq 2003 D Clinton and ConservatismCentrism in the 1990 s o George H W Bush Reagan lite 0 Not as conservative as Reagan 0 Liberal style legislation 0 Small government no tax guy 0 Economic downturn voted out after 1 term
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