AM HISTORY TO 1865
AM HISTORY TO 1865 HIST 2111
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Date Created: 09/12/15
history 1211 The Constitution 232012 95200 PM o The constitution as a compromise o Splits the difference between all the Founding Fathers opinions 0 Product of a more limited democracy more elitist society Womens and slaves opinion doesn t matter o Republicanism 0 After the revolution 183 it is officially over Signed peace treaty with Britain They acknowledge our soveirgnty that we are our own country Acknowledge our borders go all the way to the Mississippi Dominated by idealogy and a vision of politics called republicanism What does that mean A republic where politically equal and virtuous independent citizens elect people to handle the business of government The business being protecting the liberty of life liberty and property 0 Fear of arbitrary power monarchy and enriched priveledge And belief in natural aristocracy ie merit and the people as sovereign Democracy in action or mob rule Women Blacks Indians Slaves The propertyless o Articles of confederation 17771791 0 Republicanism in actionor inaction Unicameral legislature with one vote per state three fourths majority requirements no president no supreme court Gives almost all power to state government and not to national government Severely limits it Forbids the government from taxing Can only borrow from states States fighting over land power etcbig states think they should count more small states think they deserve more land The government isn t getting taxes so they try to get money by printing more money creating inflation So some people propose a small import tax and the states rebel and go crazy Credit becomes scarce and economic growth is stopped o Doover drafting a new constitution o Rewrite or throw out articles Federalistsbusiness people from urban areas with business interests Worries about articles because this debt is bad for business and frightened about mob They are elitists rich and well educated Believed some were better fit to rule than others They say toss the articles Some that don t have enough property to vote are asked for taxes and they argue no taxation without representation a Shays rebellion o The constitutional convention Big states vs little states and the Connecticut compromise a Big states vs little states Two ideas virginia plan and new jersey plan Virginia plan says big states should have more representation New jersey plan says they should be equal So we have both house and senate Checks and balances and balancing state vs federal power a Gives federal government right to tax direct result of articles a Divide up power to eliminate possibility of tyranny The limited nature of constitutional democracy n Splitting the difference between tyranny of the minority and tyranny of the mob n Slavery o Many northern states declare slavery unconstitutional Southern states say they should count states in population but not in taxes and they aren t allowed to vote Leads to famous three fifths compromise Some argue slavery completely goes against republican views o Federalists triumphant 0 Organization new alternatives and big names Increases ability to tax etc o Federalists papers Papers written arguing the constitution Hamilton They have money and brilliant minds 0 Final ratification anti federalists additions Bill of rights Very direct straight forward rights Federalists antifederalists and a fragile new nation o The continuing American debate about what democracy looks like 0 Federalists urban well to do educated often bankers merchants etcand big fans of strong centralnational government ProBritish elitists and suspicious of the mob Love manufacturing and trade not so much about community Leaders hamilton Washington adams Antifederalists aka republicans democrats often rural smaller businessmen farmers etcfearful of central government and on the lookout for oppression AntiBritish Prefrench states over central government especially during the French revolution agrarians farmers as virtuous citizens ideal America a nation of farmers Very self suffficient Think of factory workers as slaves to their company Leader Jefferson thought the bible was corrupt with miracle stories went through and razored out everything he didn t believe in and the rest is called the Jefferson bible o Hamiltons federalist vision 0 0 Well educated very smart wealthy urban and urbane An elitist Wants a strong central government For a capitalistic economy very manufacture based Proponent of national currency why he is on the ten dollar bill Orphaned at 14 illigitamate son of sugar farmer in Barbados Not born in us so can never be president General washingotns aid in war Foremost opponent of articles and proponent of a completely new one Wrote federalists papers Becomes secretary of treasury 0 Report on the public credit 178990 Submits to congress Goal assuming state debts After war states borrow a lot of money from European creditors and sold bonds Hard for states to pay back bonds Hamiltons plan says government should assume their debts and bonds creating an effect of the states caring about the government and wanting It to succeed Also tells European creditors that we will pay back money and create good credit Most likely that the wealthy elite will be the ones investing in government which ends up being federalists Problems some states had already payed back their debt so theyre asking why some get payed off and not them War veterans also didn t like what was happening with bonds Got his way had a meeting Had to agree to move capital from new york to DC 0 Report on a national bank 1790 Goal the the federal power to stimulate manage economy At this time each bank made their own money so all different kinds and very chaotic Proposes that the us needs a bank that can manage the money supply Jefferson doesn t like that giving too much power to the government 0 Report on manufactures 1791 Goal encourage manufacturing Saying that the farming lifestyle is a colonistic economy that provides resources for a mother country Protective tariff puts tax on imported things encouraging to buy from America Subsidies handouts etc to help the industries Not very successful o The federalists party forms hamilton formed a political party o The whisky rebellion 1794 o Echoes of the revolution hamilton had proposed that the government should be able to tax a little and proposed a tax on alcohol In Pennsylvania famers are growing wheat and rye and want to sell it in philidelphia To get it there you make it into whisky which never rots Whiskey is used as currency in western Pennsylvania it is drank so much So they did not like the idea of an alcohol tax Get resistance like what happened in the British stamp act Pledge to refuse it Whiskey boys 7000 look like they will be an armed rebellion Shots are fired People start robbing the post office Open rebellion against federal power Washington and Hamilton say they need to crack down and show that there is going to be a strong national government Washington will take 13000 soldiers to stop the rebellion Freaks antifederalists out o The French revolution 0 Inspired by our declaration of independence Their declaration of rights of man draws very similar to declaration of independence France isn t off in far away colonies but in the heart of monarchy Europe Revolutionaries get very violent with the guiateen Anybody that s a threat to the rebellion Some like it others are thinking it has gone way to far Not a democracy but a mob rule anarchy o Jays treaty and the quasiwar with france 17981800 France is now a republican country goes to war with Britain in 1792 We send john jay smoothing over things making sure that were okay with Britain Give them favored country status over French French find out were dealing with British so they start seizing our ships Antifederalists find out about this and go crazy that we negotiated with Britain o A revolution of 1800 O Federalistsstrong natl gov broad construction small standing army pronational bank economic diversity more elitist pro British Weak govt states rights Strict interpretations state militias antination bank agriculture more democratic pro French The alien and sedition act of 1798 one of the most important and scary pieces of legislation of this country Alien part immigration says they need to crack down on immigration because they bring with them dangerous political beliefs Sedition becomes illegal to criticize the government Or you go to jail About 25 people do go to jail Kentucky and Virginia are so mad about this pass the resolution saying some laws are so obnoxious and unreasonable they will not obey them o The election of 1800 O O O Federalists scared that if antifederalists win Jefferson they will use alien and sedition act against them And he wins but doesn t smack down Possibly avoiding a civil war Jefferson we are all federalists We are all rebuplicans The revolution of 1800 Was Jefferson an antifederalist president Yes and no Antifederalist he tries to reduce size of army amount of government spending Federalists doesn t get rid of hamiltons bank Doesn t oppose tariffs Irony and the Louisiana purchase used to be Spanish territory sold to the French The French in 1803 are at war with a lot of people and they need money and they offer to sell it to us for practically nothing Constitution doesn t say anything about buying it so antifederalists inside him says he cant do it but he wants that land Super fertile He swallows fear of central power and exercises tremendous authority and buys the land Double size of us The Market Revolution and the rise of industrialism Most important thing that has happened in American history America in 18005 0 agriculture based isolated often subsistenceoriented Not good over land travel Going to change abruptly with war of 1812 ingredients of a market industrial revolution 0 the transportation revolution war of 1812 Britain and france are fighting We declare ourselves a neutral power that can trade with both countries British start getting angry and seizing american ships on their war to france take soldiers and tell them theyre now working for the British imperial army 60008000 men are being impressed by British ships Jefferson passes embargo act and says we are not going to trade with anybody no ships are going to leave America because impressing is getting too far out of hand British ends up not caring because they don t need our trade but has a huge impact on American economy Traders are left with warehouses full of goods they cant trade Federalists are especially angered with antfederalists Jefferson because theyre businesses are coming to a hault Replaces embargo act with non intercourse act saying they ll trade with everybody except Britain and france Rumors of British and Indians start to spread War begins and Washington is burned to the ground However the British have bigger problems with the French They sign a peace treaty treaty of gent with us which is good because we were kind of losing Last battlebattle of new Orleans It brings Andrew Jackson to prominence and America beats British The federalists are now gone as a political party War causes a realization that America is in need of a transportation network The national republicans and infrastructure improvements n Push at the national level for the American system for new roads and new canals Federalists like this because it will promote trade through the country How will they pay for it New call for tariffs on imported good Canals are big improvement Eerie canal in new york most famous in this time period It will improve communication during the beginning of the stock exchange a Farmers benefit Change from growing supplies for them and nobody else Now with new transportation system they grow for more trade Move away from self sufficiency to commercial farming 0 Technology changes in this time period Steam boats that can travel up river Water driven mills 0 New business practices Started with business of three to four people Corporations emerge Sock starts being sold Liability moves from few people to many people Corporations have to be signed off at national level and have to be for the public good Federalists party has disappeared so they start going to congress early form Changes from having to get signed off by national government to just having to pay a fee Gets rid of the law that says it has to be for the public good Government is becoming very pro business Government is very deregulating Where they do use their voice is preventing people from challenging them More employees for these companies and laws are passed stopping strikes and protests 0 Immigration First big wave of immigrants 18211849 you ve got 750000 immigrants coming as immigrants 4 million after a few more years Coming from England Germany and especially Ireland 44 percent of time period mentioned above are irish Irish flock to cities 1815ny city 25000 1840 400000 1890over a million Irish are very poor Come and end up in terrible living conditions Willing to do dirty jobs for not a lot of money Natives are not going to like irish because of economic competition and because theyre catholic Viewed as just one step above African Americans o Results of new industrialism 0 Good 0 Bad Emergence of a middle class Opportunities for people without land Everybody wants land near the coast Go westrisk New economic option for farmers on poor shrinking land base More opportunities for single women Effort to move from stay at home to working at mills Keeping women Christian and pure Paternalistic working conditions so not very bad Time becomes much more important The cult of female domesticityproper role for women is household Restricting them out of workplace Working conditions a 1416 hour days No time regulations Children from the age of 9 are working and some dying Wages keep going lower and lower Have to pay rent to live in dorms by factory Efforts to try and create unions Factory girl association one of first unions Tried to create a ten hour day Female labor reform association tried to get gov to investigate and regulate mills They have limited success Artisans being squeezed out by mass production And fear of degredation of craft Agregarians small farmers loss of control over work life decline of agrarian virtues mistrust of elite Felt they were the legacy of constitution and revolution who represented ideal type of world Afraid for moral future of united states Looking for people to hold those morals in government Queue Andrew Jackson Believes in less government less industrialism and less national bank etc The many faces of Republicanism The inauguration of Andrew Jackson 1828 a republican party 0 Up until him most of the presidents had been pretty elite o The rise of democratic republicanism Glorified the self made self reliant individual and the common people popular democracy and majority rule and rejected elitism privilege aristocracy snobbishness the voice of the people is the voice of god Decline of deference Politics in a republican era 0 Trend in increasing the number of white men able to vote leading to universal white male suffrage No property requirements More positions becoming electoral not appointing a Birth of campaigning because candidates have to win votes First view of politicians trying to convince voters they are one of them Connection to common man u The birth of organized political parties democrats and whigs give structure that appeals to common man Move from federalists to antifederalists Andrew Jackson icon of republicanism o Fought in the revolution 0 Portrays democratic republicanism o Arrogant vengeful incredibly racist man O O Marries well lives on plantation in Nashville elected congressman at age 31 Gets representation as tough indian fighter and hard on his own troops Defeats British at battle of new Orleans Self made tough strong willed clever Hes a mans man not too educated south and west where anti federalism was popular before were his strong areas Elected president 1828 Republicanism as policyshaper n Cherokee removal and the trail of tears Want land from Indians Use excuse that theyre uncivilized savages bad Indians Cherokee are a problem because they are very civilized have a written language take on european characteristics like democratic government They resist when whites try to take their land He promises he will expel Indians from south to get elected Believer that states should have all the power In 1838 federal troops round up Indians and relocates 13000 to Oklahoma 4000 die Wants land available for common man Agrarian reasons a The bank war National bank of the united states private company that us does business through Puts our economy in hands of elite Anti democratic Potential tyranny Popular with business men not urban areas He says he will kill the bank When the charter comes for renewal he refuses to sign it He makes gov take out all money and put it into local banks Causes economic slump No federal reserve Elitist say he has become tyrant Hate him and hate policies Antijacksons hate him so much they all get together and form the whigparty In 1850s somewhat leads to the republican party o Republicanism in American society and culture 0 Work and social like In the north with no slavery it becomes harder and harder to get domestic help servants maids and butlers Called the help Will run at the first sign of getting ordered May want to eat dinner with you Boss replaces master Rising of the idea of equality and doing away with elitist o The streets Common people hanging together no social distinction or separate place for elitist No separate rooms in hotels etc o The fashion Rejection of sumptuary laws dressing for a certain class 0 Architecture The white house is actually very democrat Its very simple and clean expressing Greece with columns because they are the birthplace of democracy Also Greece is in a revolution against ottoman turks We love when people are fighting to be free Expressing support for them Cities founded during 1830s often named after Greece 0 art and literature Art in Jackson America reflects radical democracy Before period art reflects elitist self sculptures and self portraits Moves to art of landscape common things non elite things farmers etc sculptures move from sculptures exemplifying almost worship of the subject with how elite they were perceived Beginning of romance novels pulp fiction literature for the common masses 0 Family Democracy makes way into home when men lose some of traditional power over family as somewhat of a dictator Love matches become much more common Not just because of security ties republic motherhood Women begin to assert themselves They gain kind of power because they are in charge of bringing children up the right way 0 Religion The second great awakening 1790s1830s n In 1790 only about 10 percent went to church a Explosion of evangelical religion especially in north Heart of it in burned over district in new york Hell fire and brimstone preaching revivals Americas political ideas fusing with religious ideas you don t need authorities its just you and god very individualism like republicanism Very self serving and questioning authority a Celebration of the common man all are sinners and all can be saved a Christs people can change the world interested in reforming society Will decide that the biggest sin is slavery and leads to abolition movement Fire Bell in the Night Expansion and the slavery question o Manifest destiny from sea to shining sea 0 The thought that it was our mission to expand the US across the continent Idea created by John O Sullivan in 1845 Common people heading west Religious underpinning n Spread way of life Republican overtones n Spread our idea of democracy The common man Racist undertones o The Missouri Compromise 1820 0 Missouri wanted to be a slave state one out of every six people are slaves They apply for state hood But Tallmadge passes bill proposal saying that every slave born in Missouri will be free at 25 and they cant bring slaves in from other places Opposition to this breaks down by reason not party Northerners support southerners oppose We have 22 states before Missouri 11 free 11 slave Northerners afraid it will give slave states a leg up in congress Missouri first state to come out of the Louisiana Purchase They don t want Missouri to set the standard for the rest of the land South saying its states rights to do what they want Northerners saying they ve already banned it in Michigan so they can do it again Tallmadge amendment gets through house but doesn t pass senate o The compromise Missouri enters as a slave state Maine enters as a free state formed from leaving Massachusetts They draw line below Missouri and above Arkansas saying all unorganized territory above line is free and below is slave 36 30 line Henry clay guy who saves the union 0 South think it s a conspiracy of the north to take away their freedom while the north is shocked that the south will hold onto such in immoral antirevolution idea o Texas 0 The birth of the republic of texas 1820s texas is part of mexico Independent of Spanish Not a lot of people and very disorganized They want texas to be settled to get some tax revenue So they encourage Americans in south to move for free land etc but you have to become Mexican citizen and convert to Catholicism 35000 Americans pour into texas Texans from America outnumber Texans from texas 10 to 1 New Texans start complaining about excessive power of Mexican government View Mexicans as inferior and don t really convert to Catholicism Big problem is they want to come in with their slaves but mexico does not support slavery Texans declare independence as republic of texas and war is on Texans gets smeared first at Alamo San jusento kill large numbers of Mexican army Texas becomes independent with sam Houston as president First thing they do is send delegation to dc asking to be admitted into us Andrew Jackson surprisingly isn t supportive and turns them down because he doesn t want to risk war with mexico And doesn t want imbalance of power in congress with salvefree Next two successors turn them down too VanBuren and Harrison but in 1844 Polk becomes president is a huge manifest destiny supporter and wants texas as soon as possible Annexes texas and has his eye on new mexico Arizona and California Has plans with war in mexico that the first thing hell do is send troops and seize those areas o Mexicanamerican war 184648 0 Mexico annexation is an act of war Consider this land stolen Polk tries to buy California they refuse so he sends troops to the border of texas to protect border But their border the rio grande is past what the Mexicans view as border the nueces river They fight our troops and polk has reason to declare war in 1846 o Antiwar feelings Small but significant mostly in new England massacussates Understood why mexico was mad Didn t think the war should have ever happened Knew we were sending troops into their land Though we were contradicting our own revolution Said this was a war for slavery Whigs antislavery types a Henry David Thorough goes to jail because he wont pay taxes because its going to Mexican war o Raulph Waldo Emerson visits and says henry what are you doing in there and he responds no what are you doing out there During an unjust time only just men go to jail a John Quincy Adams Ulysses s grant Abe Lincoln n The Wilmot proviso September 1846 o Says any land we might acquire through mexico will be free no slavery passes house not senate o The war Support for the war drops when people realize its not going to be a walk in the park Sending Kansas troops to santa fe new mexico and to California War starts to turn in our favor Winfield scott lands troops at Veracruz almost exactly where cortex landed and captures mexico city 1847 and wins war The end a We pay mexico 15 million dollars and they give us California and the rest of half its land We also make rio grande the border If you count texas it lost 23rds of is land Didn t lose a lot of people though Lingering bitterness between north and sough slavery supporters and slavery critics a War gets us on the down hill run to civil war 15 years later i The Pursuit of Perfection Religious Revival and Social Reform o The wild America of the 1820s4OS o Beginnings of the expansion of democracy conflict over slavery Beginning of industrialism Texas being annexed etccreating chaos o Reform movements 0 Groups of people set on changing society and organizing the chaos They want to make America a kind of city on a hill A model for the world to emulate Feminism Christian anti slavery etc o reformers are usually always white middle class educated professionals 0 Why Middleclass anxieties about market capitalism industrialism a Middle class starts fearing the rapid growth of lower class They drink a lot theyre catholic they are somewhat feared The second great awakening n its an explosion of evangelistic Protestantism Traveling preachers speaking on the impending judgment of God Tent revivals Converting people a A fallen world o Says everybody they are sinners But says they can Sinner change your ways and their sins are gone and people flee to it n Why so popular o Needs of the frontier 0 Out in the countryside the population is dispersed and thin No regular church So when revival comes to town they go crazy o Boredom with established churches 0 Its fun Unpredictable o Resonance with republican values 0 The common man the rejection of authority equality before God o Hope in an uncertain period 0 Change during this time is somewhat scary Order in a world of chaos Saves them from corruption o The birth of the reform urge 0 Applying evangelism to social problems if sinful people can be saved why cant a sinful country be saved All our sins can be alieviated through effort Underlying tension alcohol abuse prostitutes love of money criminals mentally ill the poor etc Tension of reformers wanting to change people to be like them Sense of elitism and contempt for the less fortunate o Reform in action 0 Temperance tons of alcohol being consumed Concern about domestic violence drinking up the incomes ruin their kids a push to make alcohol illegal Pass out literature have meetings press states government blue laws cant buy alcohol on Sunday Hard liquor consumption in 1840s cut in half Again concern and contempt Tinge of moral superiority we have to save you because you cant save yourselves Cultural prejudice Irish and German are who drinks most Anti catholic o Education want to establish a state education system No matter what class everybody gets molded Contempt to some parents are molding their children well enough 0 Criminalmental health reform believe criminals are like sinners and can be fixed The idea of solitary confinement in a cell to think about what you did made into productive members of society Mental illness if we give them structure and control they can be helped to When we get mental health institutionsasylums o Women and reform o Somewhere where they can give their voice 0 The vital role of women Hospital prison and health reform a Dorothea Dix 180287 teach Sunday school to prisoners Pushes for legislation in education in asylums and conditions Educational reforms moral development good public school extended year standards well educated teachers phys ed women as ideal teachers etc a Catherine beecher 180078 lengthened school year Moral reform preserving girls virtue n Fighting sexual violence rape etchelping fallen sisters in prostitution and violent relationships Age of consent raised 7 in Delaware to 10 12 14 etc Womens rights a Defending property rights a The Seneca falls convention 1848 o 40 men and 70 women get together and produce declaration of sentiments Very close to declaration of independence Turning ideas of individual rights in new direction a The suffrage campaign o Other reforms Utopian communities shakers oneidians Mormons if you cant change the man change yourself 0 O Shakers intense religious experience Lived communally Celebate No marriage Abolished private property and politics Eliminate distinctions of men and women Female leader Believed god was both male and female Self help movements debate club book clubs lecture clubs Reformers believe that America is a sinful place and they need to be purged Number one sin slavery Cotton is King Plantation society and culture in the antebellum south o North and south same planet different worlds 0 Same language same religion protestant both essentially capitalist individual wealth and mobility both democratic both believe manifest destiny nationalism believe country has unique destiny 0 Key difference slavery Rise of the cotton south 0 Slavery on the skids 18205 soil exhaustion and tobacco gluts Plantations aren t popular in north mainly because its not economically sound Cant grow it up there 4 million black people in south One in every three Only 250000 blacks in north One in every 75 Direct result of slavery 1820 started to look like slavery might be on its way out Slavery is tobacco oriented Soil starts to become exhausted and unfertile And so much tobacco is being grown that prices drop People start having to switch to other crops or investing in fertilizer When people try to switch to corn livestock etc the problem is it doesn t generate money and they don t really need slaves Shortstaple cotton to the rescue a wide demand easy to grow etc a adaptable n expands across region and westward expansion of slavery n 1860 cotton is king 48 million bales a year 70 percent of the worlds supply cotton culture 0 4 percent considered plantation elite Own the best land Hold disproportionate share of public office Very proplantation Not usually family money New money Business people Very sensitive to criticism of slave system they feel like they pulled themselves up and worked very hard to get where they are 0 Nonslaveholding whites 75 percent of whites don t own slaves Why did they support it n Some didn t backcountry Appalachia Very independent Eventually some leave Tennessee and join union army Leads to gorilla warfare n Indirect connection to plantation economy o Steamboat trade etc if you work for it you cant really criticize it Poor farmers trade with plantation borrow money a Desire to join elitedon t want to have to compete with all those blacks for land and jobs if they were freed n The social floor even though theyre white trash theyre still better than the slaves D Other exceptions upper south Delaware Kentucky western Virginia farther away from cotton regions o Defending slavery worry about abolitionist slave rebellions etcalmost paranoia by this point of antislavery thoughts Black inferiority proper place for them Shape of scull argument 0 God the bible and history sanctioned by the bible natural and normal Slavery as humanitarian if it weren t for slavery how many people would still be living in Africa without the gospel enslaving body freeing slow Blacks as children that need to be watched over Slavery as good for white people The insecurity and brutality of northern industrial capitalism v the gentleness of slavery George Fitzhugh the negro is irresponsible and will not accumulate from youth he would become an insufferable burden to society and society has a right to defend this Slavery as vital to white freedom If slavery didn t exist white people would have to do the dirty work like industrial workers in north Owners treat them better than factory workers treat their employees 0 O O O J D B de Bow 0 Southern dissenters critics of system By this point very dangerous to say anything bad about system At one point actually becomes illegal to free your slaves saying it s a threat to system Danger of mobs if youre known to be against the system Cassius M Clay Hinton R Helper n Helper creates lazy class Some may say war was inevitable Democratic Contradictions slavery in the antebellum America o Slaves and slavery a complicated subject 0 Owners will say theyre happy just ask them not a legitimate question because if they say no they will get punished o Elkins theory slavery is so degrading the slaves became what the owners thought they were Surrendered and gave up They accepted theyre fate o Majority resented it o Slaves neither happy nor helpless victims o Slavery conditions contradiction during jacksonian America when theyre celebrating the common man 0 Work conditions Mostly plantation field work cotton picking tree chopping stump grubbing weeding doing it under the watchful eyes of the overseer with a rifle and a whip Sun up to sun down 75 percent of women working in fields Some house servants artisans specialists better food better shelter but more white supervision Few lucky ones might be artisans frederick douglas 0 Material conditions Mainly adequate if not great a Masters economic incentives preserve value of property In case of wanting to sell Expensive to replace in cotton era Didn t put kids in field to avoid stunting growth Put to easier labor o Social conditions some good things 0 A sense of community always going to be a slave with other slaves Nothing bonds people like suffering Gives you mental strength and dignity o Slave region very few slaves are from Africa anymore theyre born and raised in America and don t have African values They become Christians putting off rewards on earth for rewards after this life obey your master interpretation Becomes important to take control of their religious live Sometimes have their own service Punishment will be brought upon the wicked Not dependent of white control 0 Strong family lives slavery is inherited If you re a slave your kid is a slave So owner encourages family and production of kids because more money and slaves for them If they have a family and kids they have something to lose and use as punishment Slaves want kids and marriage too 27 percent married up to 20 years Marriage is very common Gives them something to live for Average slave women 7 children o Some of the bad things 0 Overseer job that attracts the sadistic prone to violence Little education needed Job make sure production happens as quickly and efficient as possible whip and rifle o 10 percent of teenagers sold to other plantations Most marriages that end are ended because one of them is sold 0 Unwanted Sexual relationships very common If you refuse you are punished severely o Resistence 0 Mental resistance free in their mind Common in family life Religion Stories and myth 0 Passive slacking off drove owners crazyyy Working slow Breaking tools Stealing 0 Running away usually temporary if you escape your only option really is to get to Canada If you get to the north if youre lucky youll end up abolitionists but authorities will ship you back 0 Armed rebellion Prossers rebellion 1800 theyre given away by an informer virginia authorities execute all 25 of them Veseys conspiracy 1822 freed black man carpenterpreacher Draws heavily on the bible and abolitionists literature Plan to board a ship to Haiti with voodoo spells protecting them Theyre given away and executed Nat turners rebellion 1831 God comes to him and tells him he needs to lead a rebellion of slaves Kill 60 white people Hoping to be an inspiration Captured and executed Free soil free labor free men antislavery and abolitionism in the north Antislavery another complicated concept 0 Radicals abolitionists demand immediate end of slavery and believe in racial equality 0 Some opposed to slavery because they don t like black people 0 Key point antislavery does not equal procivil rights Origins of antislavery sentiment o Abolitionists often former slaves o Quakers Benjamin jundy genius of universal emancipation 0 American colonization society 1816 Opposed to slavery but very moderate Don t think we can just get rid of it They say we should buy slave So we don t ruin the foundation of the country Say they cant just let them stay here so they ll ship them back to Liberia We cant cut them lose because theyre like children Will probably wiped out in an inevitable race war Don t want sexual mixing But slaves are reproducing at a rate faster than they can be shipped over And no slave owners are going to be willing to sell theyre slaves Another problem is that they assume blacks will be willing to go back to Africa but theyre not African theyre American c He second great awakening Reform and slavery o Converted people take their conversion and apply it to society America is a sinner and we can make it better Slavery can be slaved From this awakening comes some pretty intense sentiments o General antislavery sentiments o Slavery as morally suspect o Slavery as bad for blacks o Slavery as bad for whites Makes whites lazy elitist unrepublican Is economicaly backward o Slavery is less honest than free labor 0 Free soil slavery taken land from honest yeoman farmers o Three antislavery campts o Radical abolitionists Slavery as a sin period Heavily influenced by second great awakening Immediatism say we need to end it immediately Usually supporters of racial equality Often supporters of other reforms like people that are intense Critical of moderate people Belief in politics as corrupt prefer moral suasion not a political problem it s a moral problem Need to change Americas heart not just do some more 35ths compromises Belief in slave power conspiracy very paranoid Sometimes pacifists other times violent Small numbers very unpopular considered freaks Over the top a Murder of Elijah lovejoy 1837 son of a preacher born in maine Radical abolitionist Moved to missourri to start a antislavery newspaper Then free black lynched by the crowd Lovejoy publishes an editorial on it a mob attacks his newspaper and sets up another Three times again this happens Finally a group approaches the warehouse where he has his press and lights it on fire And somebody shoots him dead first casualty of the civil war a William Lloyd garrison o The liberator 1831 converted during great awakening and started this newspaper Considered quite a threat and state of Georgia puts 5000 dollar bounty on his head He preaches antislavery Very critical of anyone less passionate Very suspicious of government Once burned a copy of the constitution Believer in racial equality and very feminist 0 Moderate abolitionists 0 Free Gradualists It s a sin but not bad enough to end immediately Not willing to grant racial equality Less supportive of other reforms such as feminism Concentrate on slavery effects on whites and economy Proindustrial Future is industry not farming Leads to republican party soilers The least radical not really evangelically motivated More political and economic than religious The most racist tending to ignore slaverys effects on blacks Economic concerns a Slavery deprives whites of land a Slavery deprives whites ofjobs Fears about free slaves people who want to get rid of them in general Rejection of most other reforms movements Active in politics the free soiler party o Antislaverys popularity in the north why 0 Overreaction by proslavery groups Bounties mobs etc Mail tampering The gag rule in congress 1836 because of 35ths compromise southerners were very strong in congress Passed a law that prohibited people to debate on slavery in politics North finds it violates freedom of speech 0 Slavery as harmful to whites a powerful argument for many 0 Economic arguments Cracks Appear Drifting towards a civil war o The Compromise of 1850 0 After the gold rush in 1849 they have enough people to apply for statehood 0 California statehood and the balance problem again Worried about congress being allied against slavery Setting precedent for a slavefree west Some states even talk about secession if California is admitted of free 0 Henry Clay and the compromise California admitted as a free state Popular sovereignty on the slave questions for all other lands gotten in the mexican war leaving whether they are slave states up to a vote Strengthened fugitive slave law says that when a slave escapes to another state the state is obligated to help you get it back a Northern objections very unhappy about law More so than southerners Unhappy about getting rid of trial that used to happen before slave was returned to owner They said it was forcing them to do the dirty work of catching slaves when theyre the one being immoral and having them in the first place o Harassment of slave catchers lynching if they catch you 0 Anthony burns boston 1854 Abolitionist try to rescue him from jail So he s taken to the port to be shipped and 20000 line the streets End up being his freedom and bringing him back to boston Personal liberty laws states passed laws Saying the citizens of our states will not be obligated in any way to assist in catching slaves and reinstate trials o The KansasNebraska act 1854 0 Stephen Douglas and the transcontinental railroad tries to be next henry clay Can say he got the ball rollin to civil war Wanted railroad from California to Illinois And it goes right through Nebraska so he wants problem settled Northern democrat o KansasNebraska act says were going to divide Nebraska territory into two states Nebraska and Kansas Popular sovereignty for the Nebraska and Kansas territories let them vote on slave or free a What about the 36 30 line northerners are saying it is above line and is already free o Stephen Douglas Missouri compromise is now void southerners very happy Northeners are extremely upset They really respect henry clay and the sacred line Negative northern reaction a Douglas gets enough votes from his fellow northern democrats Loyalty to region will over take loyalty to party Some in fact leave the party 0 n The birth of the republican party 1854 disgruntled democrats and antislave people Pro industry Pro free soil Northern party Aren t in republicans in south for another 100 years bleeding Kansas 185457 0 tipping the electoral scales in Kansas don t want the other side to have leg up in congress emigrant aid societyNortheners paid settlers to go to Kansas to vote against slavery Handed you a rifle and bible Antislavery have majority Its pretty clear if a vote is held and its held honestly it will be a free state Voting fraud and Missouri border rufians n Proslavery people wins a Twice the number of votes are cast than live in Kansas n Border rufians pro slavery Missourians cross over vote and head back over a Kansas people say no they wont acknowledge this legislature Set up another legislature and capitol So they have two of each The technically official pro slavery one and the acknowledged one Violence erupts n Wakarusa war Violence between pro slavery and anti slavery Pass legislature saying its illegal to criticize slavery o The sack of Lawrence 8OO pro slavery head to Lawrence fake capitol Go to the major abolitionist newspaper and say theyre burning it and taking writer to Lecompton While theyre on their way back they stop for a drink and abolitionists capture writer and take her back a Bushwakers vs jayhawkers o Pro slavery bushwackers Abolitionists jayhawkers Start attacking each other o John browngods abolitionist warrior o The pottawotammie massacre may 24 1856 Doesn t believe in anti violence Thought he was chosen by God to lead a war on slavery Even slaves themselves john brown and his followers they come across cabin with pro slavery citizens so they hack them to death Starts war in Kansas War before the war MissouriKansas The Lecompton controversy 1857 n Proslavery legislature bans vote on slavery allows voting only on slave importation because they know antislave citizens outnumber them so bad even Stephen douglas says this is not a legitimate election No anti slavery vote in it so of course it gets approved o Importation supporters win Of course o National debate over valididty of election house says yes senate says no so the election is void o John Geary sent to bring order 0 New vote Kansas goes 6 to 1 against slavery o Bleeding Kansas 200 people dead Cracks Widen The final road to the civil war o Charles Sumner Caning o Antislavery activist Maybe a senator Part of the whig party but they weren t extreme enough for him so he goes and joins free soil party Converted to cause by radical abolitionist book by Olivia child Wants to keep slavery from expanding Kansas Big critic of the Kansas problem May 1856 during the time of sack of Lawrence he is on the floor of the senate giving a speech 0 The crime against Kansas speech Very long Refers to Stephen F Douglas as a noisome squat nameless animal Tells pro slavery senator that slavery is his mistress etcrelative of senator shows up at his office with cane used to train hunting dogs Preston brooks He beats him up bad Suffers health problems for the rest of his life Three years till he returns to the senate o The caning Southern reaction hit him again didn t challenge a duel like gentlemen or equal Just beat him like scumdog Wins next election a The role of southern honor Northern reaction bleeding Kansas bleeding sumner this confirms to northerners that southern pro slave people are violent bullies They will silence free speech with a cane Prefers violence over counter argument that they don t have Republican party grows rapidly o The dred scott case 1857 o Dred scott slave who spent time in the north and sues for his freedom went with his master that was in the army and was stationed in Illinois Wisconsin etc says he was a free man when he stepped in Wisconsin Lawyers so no dred scott is still a slave and not a citizen so he cant sue Saying Wisconsin isn t even set in stone because its revoked Saying congress has no right to limit slavery anywhere Decision made by chiefjustice taney 0 Enter the supreme court havent got involved till now Majority appointed by proslavery presidents The question re dred scott a Does residence in the north make a slave free says he s still a slave Just a visitor a As a slave and black man does he have the right to sue says has no rights to sue a Was the Missouri compromise unconstitutional yes it is Saying slaves are property and the federal government cant take away your property just because of where you are Reactionpredictable Northerners start think abolitionists are extremely crazy Pro slavery president elected Republican party grows o Harpers Ferry 1859 0 John brown strong belief that slavery is a sin Old testament kind of way If you sin through this God is going to bring blood upon you Not scared of violence 0 plancapture federal armory Arm slaves and establish base in the mountains and engage in gorilla warfare against south till we end slavery Support from radical abolitionists Not Frederick douglas o Executing the plan a total disaster armory capture is a disaster Try to use hostage Marines come in secure bridges all around armory and theyre trapped Brown loses 8 men including 2 of his sons and hes captured to be put on trial 0 John browns last act Sentenced to execution Southerners browns a crazy man Proof of abolitionists plan to destroy the south Northeners browns a martyr like jesus Northeners are going to break him out ofjail but wont go Accepting his martyr role makes gallos as glorious as the cross raulph waldo emerson o Election of 1860 0 Long story short Abe Lincoln wins election and antislavery forces now control the white house a lot to do because democratic party split Abe Lincoln is racist but antislavery 0 South responds with recession leaving the united states one at a time in order of slavery importance North vs South The Balance Sheet o Armies 0 South has no army yet North has an army but its small Only 16000 men They re afraid of big armed forces because the army is the muscle of tyranny 2000 of 16000 leave for the south Most of them are out west fighting the Indians Guys from each local area form their own regiments 0 Both smallnonexistent inexperience Potential recruits 0 North bigger population 4 to 1 advantage 0 South slaves free white men to fight Former slaves often go fight with the north 0 Advantage union Navies 0 South no navy some innovations no significant tradition of seafaring Iron clad First submarine Floating mines 0 North long maritime tradition eventually large navy allows blockade Both have to learn how to be river navies o Advantage union Cavalry 0 South much greater tradition of horsemanship most prewar cavalry officers were southerners Horses cost more Aren t effective in wooded areas Don t take a lot of casualties 0 North wagons vs riders Were always pulled never rode o Advantage confederacy until 1863 then even Artillery 0 North massive production potential many northern artillery officers rifled cannon much better aim 15 times the iron production 25 times number of locomotive South little production potential smoothbores excellent chief of ordinance o Advantage union Rifles 0 Both sides many smoothbores technical problems 0 North more repeating rifles access to European arms makers o Advantage union Leadership 0 0 South better generals in the east until grantSherman came along martial tradition 0 North better generals in the west more west point grads better presidential leadership in terms of tacticsstrategy Lincoln very good at planning 0 Advantage even o Diplomacyforeign policy 0 Both sides competing for European 0 Advantage even Eventually tipping to union British at first taking hands off approach o War production supply and finance 0 Food South massive shortage reliance on foraging Bread riots Lack of salt no preservation Often requisition from civilians Some say they took Pennsylvania for the food not to intimidate north North immensely productive agriculture more horses and livestock mechanization Advantage union 0 Supples shoes clothes etc North massive industry access to Europe South little industry blockaded by union Advantage union 0 Finance South very poor Blockade stopping them from selling crops North access to Britain Advantageunion o Geography all south has to do is not lose North has to actually overcome the south Movie day Lincoln realized it wasn t possible to get back to the original union Only option emancipation 1862 Then the darkest then brightest day o Mclendon desperately calling for more troops o Jackson keeping three federal armies busy Jackson took Sabbath seriously Wouldn t mail letters if it would mail on Sunday Fought so many battles on Sunday and people said because the Lord would be more with him His men didn t love him Demanded to much Sucked constantly on lemons Lifted one arm in the air to keep balance Brought victories Duty in shanendoah to keep federal army busy so they couldn t help mclendon In just over a month troops arched over 400 miles Kept federal troops off of peninsula Butler hated Desperate slave owners were scared of slave rebellion Butler took their slave away Slave owners told them to go to the union Lincoln started paying for slaves to be freed Abolitionists called Lincoln a first rate second rate man Robert lee All but one of the seven day battles were won by the union Lee had lost 20000 men McClellan treated them like losses and kept going In just seven days he was out generaled He had not lost but had failed to win If he didn t continue fighting the offensive Lincoln was going to take them out of the peninsula Richmond was still the rebel capital Lincoln after long thought had decided to emancipate the slaves Shocked everybody Swore would never become abolitionst Said they had to wait for a victory so it didn t look like a shrieking last resort Pope fought stonewall Jackson to a standstill Then rebels disappeared Found them at bull run and attacked Jackson started hurling rocks when ammunition ran low It was another union disaster 25000 men were dead missing at second bull run Lincoln sent pope and reluctantly put McClellon back in command After second bull run Lincoln states his duty is to save the union not to save or destroy slavery September 3 1862 40000 confederate army with Robert e lee into Maryland First time entering into union Dirty Mismatched Could barely tell officers from leaders Lees target was pittsburg Pennsylvania Mcclellon found lees battle plans Knew he was dividing army But did nothing for 18 crucial hours If he had hurled War and his troops that day they might have won the war Next day was really three battles Attacked Jackson at 6 am by corn field Hooker union general lost around 200 of 300 men By 10 am 8000 men dead or wounded Jackson held his lines ebattle of antitum Second part of battle union attacked general killed confederates were told to hold at all costs Tables eventually turn Bloody lane filled with southern bodies Mccllelan decided wasn t prudent to attack again Third battle burnside lead union army 12500 men against 500 georgians Took three hours to get across creek Union victory seemed certain 3000 More confederates come lead by hill Burnside withdrew back over bridge they fought so hard to seize Noland gained Union lost 20108 Lee lost 10318 bloodiest day in history Mcclelan could have won the war but he didn t battle of antitem President had meeting with him telling him to pursue lee Didn t really listen so Lincoln relieved him of duty Lincoln reinstated general grant Invasion of Maryland fails And then some more Lincoln passes emancipation proclamation society the northern experience War matters the civil war as total war entire society giving their all Country will never be the same afterwards 610000 dead in a population of 30 million 200 times revolution 50 times Mexican 20 billion dollars spent Five times more than gov had spent in its entire existence Stimulating the northern economy War takes place on southern soil so they are effected differently Massive boost in industry and economy And agriculture Creation of large and powerful government Moves from fight to keep union together to fight to end slavery O O O O 0 Industrial demand coal iron and steel lead wool leather etc Financial problems from not doing business with south A need grows because soldiers need canvas for tents shoes clothes rifles etc large business friendly due to volume birth of large factory corporation The seeds of the gilded age and the Robber Barons 0 Agricultural demands The role of mechanization 0 Corruption labor strife price gauging Produce least quality to save money but charge as much as possible Keep wages down Prices go up 76 but wages only go up 42 Employ a lot of cheap labor immigrants Irish Union forming Army disciplined work force little rebellion Industry is growing concern in the north exactly what republicans wanted o Centralizing power 0 The republican party the original big government party Started out as anti slavery party Very free labor Very industrial Believed it was governments duty to create conditions to foster industrial growth Similar to federalists 0 Currency control no uniformed currency at this time 7000 different bills Cant control inflation if they cant control money supply Leads to revival of national bank The greenback direct descendant of civil war centralization needs A national bank 0 Assisting industry Developmental people tweaking the law to make them more government friendly Public land and the railroads give railroad corporations free land to build on for westward expansion and war efforts Then they could sell it to settlers and make a profit 0 Politics Conscription ie the Draft sends some states into secession n n n n Abe Lincoln in 1862 give states quotes to meet for number of soldiers relying on volunteers and threatening a draft They start to pay bounties In 1863 the north will have the enrollment act all men 1825 are able to be drafted Work really hard to get people to volunteer Half a billion dollars eventually paid in bounties Bounty broker gets people from around the state to join in your city if you aren t meeting quota If you absolutely didn t want to join you could pay commutation fee 300 bucks Average working man making 600 dollars a year Only rich can avoid service Rich mans war poor mans fight Or pay for somebody else to go for you Commutation club all kick in ten bucks If one gets drafted well save your butt 90000 men run to Canada to avoid draft Dissent the copperheads after emancipation proclamation some northerners get very upset Especially the racist ones who didn t want to fight for freedom of slaves A lot are democrats Anti war Anti Lincoln Plan to run for office in 1864 and call for a proclamation of peace to leave slavery like It is but stop fighting Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus1861 if you get arrested they have to charge you with a crime with evidence within 24 hours There s a side note that says it can be suspended during wars and such to be able to arrest people that are antiwar and are threats of terrorists etc Lincoln suspends writ and throws a lot of copperheads and such in jail The new york draft riot 1863 new york did a lot of trading with south and major actually talked about secession at one point Fire burns new york drafts office Republican houses attacked Lynching people 100 people killed Last for days worst riot in American history Rioters Irish working class folks Worried about freeing slaves that will be competitors for jobs Troops come fresh from battle of Gettysburg to put it down 0 United state sanitary commission Red cross mixed with uso supporting troops Young women few places they can get involvedconcerned with cleanliness in hospitals in the field Get together and knit socks o Emancipation 0 Saving the unionand not much more Haven t broken south 0 The failure of northern advantages 0 How to win Answer total war to break the south as a society a Key freeing the slaves not necessarily because they re antislavery but its strategic Also don t want another civil war o Emancipation proclamation 1863 statement that showed shift of war 0 180000 colored troops join the union army from escaping south North much more industrial much more centralized government and very sure that slavery needs to be destroyed Test 3 232012 95200 PM Name Date Time Period Artistlocationmediafacts Purse cover 625 AD barbarian Gold glass and cloisonn garnets Portrays from Sutton men amd beasts Highly abstract Mirrors hoo each other Large bird of prey on top of duck Animals very popular Snake like forms to become very popular Cross inscripted 698721 Tempura on vellum Very durable No text page from No narrative Very chaotic Long serpentine lindisfarne forms gospels St matthew St matthewman with wings Figure peeking page from the from behind curtain probably moses Not lindisfarne very natural depiction Very abstract gospels Garments drape very unnaturally Attempted foreshortening just not very successful More concerned with spiritual aspect rather than natural depiction Chirhoiota Late 8m Chirhoiota first three letters of Christ page of the century book of kells South cross Late 8 11 century Middle ages Ahenny Ireland Sandstone Mettle work One of the few sculptures of the middle ages Criss cross pattern from metal workingchiseling Latergic ritual March around with rope like pattern around edge Stone replica Circle used to maybe support arms of cross 13 feet tall Monumental work High cross of muiredach east face Monasterboice Ireland Sandstone Very large Near cemeterymonestary Closs to saints Squarish ends like latin cross Circle used to connect four beams Irish cross Decorated with figures Bigger figure in center Arrival of wise men bringing gifts to christ With joseph in front Story of last judgment San juan bautista 661 Banos de cerrato spain rare work of architecture Christian church Smaller than other churches old st peters Horseshoe arch doorway Equestrian statuette of charlemagne or Charles the 9th century Early middle ages Holding orb Representing powersoveirgnty Bronze Big in relation to horse Marcus aurelius is more natural compared to Charlemagne Charlemagnes horse is more bald abstracted and smoother Caralingian rulers clothes drape almost perfectly Not necessarily religious imagery but emperial imagery St matthew 800 Ink and tempora on vellum Huge halo from the behind head Modeling with shading More coronation depth than lindisfarne st matthew Tells us gospels charlamagne was bringing in artists from different parts of Europe St matthew 820 Ink and temera on vellum Scribble from the ebbo gospels landscape in back Much less naturalism In particular the completely wrinkled garments Messy hair Shows diversity in rome Palatine chapel of Charlemagne 792805 Aachen Germany Centrally planned Rounded arches on three stories Two towers on sides of entry way Speyer cathedral 1100 SpeyerGermany Groin vault changes the direction of the pressure of the forces in the vault Changed from barrel vault Major effect is that it opens up the walls so the architect could put in clearastory windows Much brighter than st sernin Much more variation of the outside Saint etienna 1067 Norman architecture Borrowing from carralingians and attonians Looks a lot like church at corvey Buil by William the conqueror Used to have wooden ceiling Later was renovated with ribben groin vault ceiling Not as much weight placed on webbing as plain groin vault Helps direct forcespressures in more efficient manner Sexpartite vault and allows clearastory windows Pisa Cathedral 1063 Multiple layers of galleries and bottom of lined arcade Inserted marble in fagade incrusation Very wide transept Some borrowed from early Christian architecture and some features borrowed from modern romanesque Five eisle vasilica arcades up and down nave resting on columns and not on piers ba ptistery 1153 Centerplanned Lined arcade
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