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THE US 1877

by: Tiara Muller

THE US 1877 HIST 3071

Tiara Muller
GPA 3.97

Jame Giesen

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Jame Giesen
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Muller on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3071 at University of Georgia taught by Jame Giesen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see /class/201985/hist-3071-university-of-georgia in History at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
The 1920 s were a time that held some of the most intense events in American history It was a time where the comings ofa completely new society clashed with the questionitive walls of the traditional American values When the Industrial Revolution took place and urbanized much ofAmerica American faced major social changes Much of the population had moved into cities and along with this the mechanics of the American society had transformed into what people would like to call the oncoming s of the quotNew Era where Fundamentalists or those who preferred the traditional methods of society con icted with modernists who used the new knowledge of the day to further enlighten the way oflife for America collided and form a cast era of tension Some people wanted to push to new opportunities while some wanted society to get like it was before the big World War I Harding s return to normalcy campaign is a good example of the traditional values and nostalgia while the Progressive movement that occurred on the eve ofWorld War I All this tension was the result of a new modernist outlook of a generation that did not see the significance ofits fore traditions of ethics while the rest ofAmerica embraced a nostalgic fear of the future This tension manifested in social racial and ethical ways which was all incorporated through the modernists versus the fundamentalist s debates This new society was the result of the new lifestyle that industrialization and urbanization had on America The wealth ofa successful nation was in the air and the whole country could feel it New Industries manifested itself such as cars assembly lines and suburbs It was changing the way the nation even looked Document B a piece ofArt from the Newark Museum about the Brooklyn Bridge was made in 1922 illustrating the transformation America was making into a urbanized super society The bridge symbolized much of this era It showed how people needed structures like this to around and how a bridge like this could only be made because the technology like cars allowed for its necessity With cars people could live further away from their jobs All this shows the effect of urbanization and technology and how it demanded new lines in advancement It was just simply a change This society also came with great prosperity and new work habits which in turn allowed people time off from work leisure time which was used by the people to challenge their everyday aws in life People who had this leisure time were mostly of the upper and middle class and as working hours in many factories declined people began to see this time as their own time One of the more popular aspects that were used with leisure time was the Dance halls where a new age of youth came to have fun during their time off They created new dances like the jitterbug and had new groups of quotcoolquot like the infamous appers Those were referred to a quotnew breed ofyoung women who wore short skirts bobbed their hair listened to the new jazz music and aunted their disdain for what was then considered acceptable behavior They also used their free time to watch events like spectator sports like Major League Baseball or visited the theater for entertainment some even pushed for their own private pursuits like schooling There was a rush of a new culture uprising from these new pastimes and knowledge distribution and the con ict between modernist and fundamentalists was beginning to arrive Reasons for tension were everywhere for instance Document H where a chart shows how the marriage and divorce rates increased significantly in the 1920 s era This was indeed due to the introduction of this new bond breaking culture that did not see anything wrong in breaking a holy quotunionquot Schooling and in intellectualism is also a reason for the rise ofmodernists for as the young became intellectualized with theories like evolution the more tension was created by the mass that believed in creationism Schooling was working towards becoming universal and women along with this began pursuing careers A significant minority perhaps over 25 percent did not marry at all but devoted themselves exclusively to their careers What perhaps brought on this topic to visible standards of threat was the new consumer culture brought on my mass production of products America in this era was a society in which many men and women could afford not merely the means of subsistence but a considerable measure of additional discretionary goods and services a society in which people could buy items notjust because ofneed but for pleasure This way of life was called consumerism This is where the social clash between fundamentalist and modernists is first seen The first piece of tension comes first from the Lost Generation where a number ofpoets and writers are turned off by this seen conformity and consumerism by the public They do not see the art where the media and consumer restraints control every aspect ofa person s life what is in or what is not This is clearly seen in Sinclair Lewis Babbitt 1992 in Document A The document is an excerpt from the book where the character playing the role is observed as someone who s life is led by priests who determine his every religion belief and senators who he follows no matter what way they head their party where his beliefs are not based on his own individuality and ethics but by that ofwhat the mass follows This excerpt portrays the loss ofindividuality in turn for a new culture and a new attitude oflife led by conformity The Lost Generation and its poets who yearn for art and originality rather than a mass produced identity in tension for their publics lost distinctiveness Schooling and intellectualism of the society is also for the rise ofmodernists and the quotfallquot of the fundamentalists for as the young became intellectualized with theories like evolution the more fundamentalists who believed in creationists ourished In this era education was becoming universal and free education was becoming available With this new modernists came to knowledge of their surroundings However this intellectualism was not always allowed or fully accepted For example the Tennessee state law specifically prohibited the teaching of theories like evolution or pretty much anything that went against the Bible Of course there were some learned people who took offense at this restriction and fought back This anxiety that was created manifested in one of the most famous trials in history The Scopes Monkey Trial where a twenty four year old biology teacher John T Scopes agreed to have himself arrested for teaching the theory of evolution A famous former presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan announced that he has agreed to prosecute the teacher and this became one of the most heated arguments in US history for it was Religious Fundamentalists against the New Age modernists This spar between the two sides is illustrated vividly in Document C a primary source of the actual event In this is an exchanging of words during a cross examination from Darrow to Bryan and in this they feud over excerpts from the bible The use of words like quotfool ideas and quotslur at the Bible really shows the intensity of the argument Darrow would end up coming up wit ha fairly decent victory where in he had scored many points in debasing the fundamentalists His crossexamination of Bryan and tricking him into admitting the possibility that not all religious dogma was subject to only one interpretation ultimately calmed down fundamentalists put an end to much of their political activism but did not of course change their religious convictions Even without connection to traditional denominations fundamentalists fundamentalists continued to congregate in independent churches or new denominations of their own In the end the tension can be see where in the religious traditionalist even though being slammed by evolutionist still hold on with a fondness for their religious beliefs This can also be seen as a nostalgia or longing for their traditions which have lived for so long This argument arose from the progress of science which grew to a point to challenge a religious tradition that no one has ever thought to challenge and greatly depicts how far new and changing ideas have come and attacked conventional beliefs Another sciencemodernistic emergent topic were brought on by the Women s Christian Temperance Union which in Document G shows on of the products of the New Era This was not exactly a component of tension creation although a little may be seen from a different prosmoker party but instead a element in the emergence ofmodernist values wherein people use their time to challenge and expose what may believed as aws in their life This specific women s society explains how it is their role as a mother and their newfound career roles to expose the negatives that will effect their youth This shows the new generation and one of many of their similar qualities to reinforce enlighten with the use ofmodern elements like intellectualism and science America to this point never actually had a good grip on this issue of race and how one should perceive another race was not conventionalized Africans still yearned for equality and many whites still held nativist and racist or white supremacy like beliefs Document D shows one of these affairs where Hiram Wesley Evans describes quotThe Klan s Fight for Americanism in March 1926 These Klan members also held a nostalgic view of the new age where they demanded a quota return ofpower to the hands of the everyday not highly culture not overly intellectualized but entirely unspoiled and not deAmericanized average citizen of the old stock They also added their originality representing the quotNordic race which is another way of saying the white population This particular document is on the side of the nostalgic traditionalist against their current government They display nostalgic values by clearing stating their demands of the return of power and supremacy to their quotNordic race and old pioneer stock which are unspoiled in their ways This obviously a race issue from what they admit to as quotnot overly intellectualized depicts a common goal from a mass population to secularize their nation and return it to how the nation was formerly ruled by the average man This however was only one of the divisions of racial issues for the African Americans who could be considered as the opposing modernists found a way for culture to be used to support their argument for racial injustice from somewhat extremists like the Ku Klux Klan The way African Americans of the day handled the racial tensions


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