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by: Tiara Muller


Marketplace > University of Georgia > History > HIST 2111 > AM HISTORY TO 1865
Tiara Muller
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Muller on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2111 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see /class/201986/hist-2111-university-of-georgia in History at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
OHISTORY TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE oHarding won the 1920 election with the slogan back to normalcy oRoaring Twenties Americans were cutting loose This was a decade of a mixture of interesting amp gloomyscary 0A Mitchell Palmer Wilson s Attorney General ofeared communism and overcasted the Red Scare the rounding up and deporting of individuals of communist activities or sympathies oPalmer had a fear of foreigners mainly germans 02 immigrants Sacco amp Vanzetti Italians were charged with robbery and murder at a shoe factory in Massachusetts They were identi ed as anarchists convicted amp sentenced to death oThe 20s is full of stories of crimes by immigrants oKlu Klux Klan is revived in the South and Midwest and more focused on anti catholic and antisemitic movements 018lh amendment Prohibition 1919 leads to the expansion of organized crime Traditional roles are being redefined 019Lh amendment Women s Suffrage l920 Harding s election is blamed on women because of his good looks oChallenged values amp virtues oCon icts between religion and science 01925 Scopes Trial a local teacher was persuaded to teach evolution in schools although it was illegal in TN at this time amp lost the trial osignificance shows how there was so much change in religion and scientific thought at this time oThe City fathers of Dayton TN wanted to put town on the map and arrange to have a local biology teacher discuss antievolution law by discussing Darwin s evolution theory in class The American Civil Liberties Union just so happened to be looking for a place to test the school system and evolution oThe Trial becomes a huge media event and brings attention to Dayton Tn oIllustrates collision between science and religion oWilliam Jennings Bryan lead witness Believes in literal interpretation of the bible oClarence Darrow defends scopes oHenry Ford Introduces the assembly line went from 14 hour production to 90 minutes per car oModel T Ford Grants every american mobility Designed so that every American could afford to own one Ford gave his employees raises so that even they could a brd one oClara Bow Silent films star who exhibits female sexuality oRudolph Valentino Male movie star oRadio KDKA oBinds many americans because lots of people are doing the same thing at the same time This is a huge way of spreading mass culture oHarding Trusted his friends by giving them federal office positions They stole the country blind oInvolved in scandal his mistress decides to write a book called the presidents daughter oSecretary of interior took bribes to release oil reserves to private companies oHarding dies and Coolidge takes over conservative amp serious oCOOLIDGE strong believer in minimal government activity minimal gov expenditures and no aid for fa1mers didn t say much oAndrew Mellon secretary of treasury kept business pro ts high oServes as an economic advisor to Coolidge 01922 Fordney McCumber TarilT purpose was to protect American Industry from competition oraised the prices on metals and some agricultural products oPrevented Europeans from selling to US discouraged from buying from US 0Fa1mers were encouraged to overproduce Europe couldn t export due to tariffs didn t want to repay the US because they paid their debt in blood the 3 years the Us wasn t in the war oThe bullet above led to the Dawes Plan oChanges the schedule of payments for war debts and we pay loans to Germany which goes towards reparations for allies which is in debt paid to us oTariffs hurt European economies 0US Has serious issue of maldistribution of income 01923 minimum wage is declared UNCONSTITUTIONAL 019231929 average worker output up 32 wages up 8 corporate pro ts up 65 01929 Top 1 of american households are making the same amount as the bottom 42 080 of families had no savings odemand from rich is satiated out of things to purchase owe result to installment buying or buying on credit paying in parts 060 of cars and 80 of radios were bought on installment ofalling farm prices owe place a tarilT on imports so fa1m exports fall odecline of auto amp construction oMargin buying not really regulated made it easy to get into the stock market opeople would buy stock and sell it at a higher price Ex Abuyer pays 10 dollars and borrows 75 from the broker Buys 1 RCA share for 85 dollars The buyer sells the stock at 420 dollars Therefore 420the orginal 10 and the 75 loan plus 5 interest owed to the broker is a 33125 return on a 10 dollar investment oThe stock market didn t fully cause the depression but it did speed it upintensify it oHoover was considered a great leader but when the depression came along he became the butt of jokes associated with it Hoover was no more responsible than Coolidge administration for letting the country get to this point Hoover took action to help oAgricultural Marketing Act OMade 12 billion available to buy farm products and drive up prices 01932 Reconstruction Finance Corp set up to make emergency loans to insurance companies amp such to keep them from going out of business similar to the new deal Only loaned money to things that would rejuvenate the economy 01930 HawleySmoot Tari oHoover supported this tariff The theory being if we passed a high tarilT in 1922 when things were going well we need one now oShut out markets for products outside the US we don t have enough demand as it is for what we produce This was a BAD idea 01932 Bonus Army oSet up by congress for Veterans of WWI They were promised for their service to be paid in 1945 but they wanted advances oMarch on Washington in DC w no response from Congress oCaptain Douglas McCarthy leads cavalry to take care of the Bonus Army sent by Hoover some men killed oFDR39s number one goal is to restore con dence among american consumers 0 The only thing we have to fear is fear itself oFireside chats FDR encouraged people to not be afraid to spend money and invest oHundred days oWe39re doing something to get out of this mess Never again has so much legislation been passed in the rst hundred days the president held of ce oFDR declares a bank holiday two days after taking the oath of of ce does this to make closing the banks seem festive so citizens wouldn t be scared oEmergency Banking Relief Act closed the banks until Feds decided they were solvent some never reopenedpeople lost If someones bank reopened they knew it was okay to put their money back in oBanking Act of 1933Established FDIC which guaranteed all deposits up to 5000 dollars oCivilian Conservation Corps CCC oEmployed young men 1825 out working to restore rebuild and expand national parks othey lived in the camps where they made 1 day The thinking was that men at this age were most likely to spend it but as it turned out most were sending it back home which didn t help the economy as intended oRoosevelt was looking for a new way to raise prices oAbandoned gold standard 0US dollar no longer redeemable for gold Not every US in circulation was backed by gold causing the value of money to decrease and prices to increase oImplemented a con scation policy if someone had more that 100 worth of gold the government could take it oRoosevelt forbade americans from hoarding gold People could only have 100 dollars woth and those with more had to turn it in for paper currency oRoosevelt believed that the value of the would reduce if we were taken off of the gold standard oTennessee Valley Authority TVA oPut a lot of people to work building reservoirs and dams which generate cheap energy promotes industrial expansion oIdea is to stimulate the economy in the region with low cost power and to give jobs quick oFederal Emergency Relief Act oGave money to cities to provide relief for the poor and do as they see fit oNational Industrial Recovery Act NIRA 0 business labor and government together in a cooperative e brtcreate more jobs and a better income oRegulated competition oFair code of competition laid out standardized wages hours etc oPublic Works Administration PWA provided for the building of dams roads etc to put people back to work Any project that would employ large numbers of people oAgricultural Adjustment Act AAA 0We have overproduction because we can t sustain production levels so we re having to destroy the product kill livestock pour out milk plow up part of plant Gave farmers money to reduce production 0Fa1mers received crop reduction payments come from a processing taX paid by first processor of an agricultural product eX Wheat farmer sells to our mill which paid taX that is passed to consumers oIf you have sharecroppers on your farm you are supposed to evict them but this is not really enforced About 13 of sharecroppers in the S were driven off the land Sharecroppers start ocking into towns and towns don t have relief systems big enough oNew Deal Critics oHuey P Long New deal hadn39t gotten us out of the depression by 1935 and poor people weren t really being helped 0US senator from Louisiana proposes plan called share our wealth oImpose limit on net wealth No one can have more than 58 million dollars Every family has an annual income of 2500 dollars oThis is a massive wealth redistribution and guaranteed income oTownsend plan every person in the US 60 years and retired receives 200 month BUT they had to spend it that month couldn t hold onto it oProvides money for 9 of population but requires funding from 12 oRoosevelt proposes Second New Deal 1935 which is a more aggressive version ofthe first 0WPA Works Progress Administration provided for public housing schools post of ces university buildings etc This plan put unemployables to work oeX buildings had murals by unemployed artists oResettlement Administration took sharecroppers amp farmers who d been kicked off their land and gave them an opportunity to restart on their own land oNational Labor Relations Act guaranteed the right to collective bargaining and protected the rights of workers 0A popular political measure because gov protects labor unions 01935 Social Security Act Set up an insurance program for workers funded by contributions from employers and employees Gave unemployment retirement and death bene ts oRevenue Act soak the rich taX extra tax of 6 on incomes over 501dyear 01938 Fair Labor Standards Act oOnly for businesses working in interstate commerce 40 cents minimum wage per hour 40 hrsweek 0 First national minimum wage guaranteed time and a half for overtime national law against child labor 01938 Second Agricultural Adjustment Act shows that Roosevelt pushed to the left more liberal more government spending etc oRoosevelt was frustrated because the economy was declining supreme court got rid of his national industrial recovery act and agricultural recovery act oHas his supporters introduce court packing plan to reorganize supreme court because he is sick of them ripping apart the New Deal Roosevelt wants the president to have the authority to appoint up to siX new members for every member who serves after the age of 70 Congress says no oFDR almost always gets approval from Congress oNeXt mistake FDR 1938 wants to get people who fought him on New Deal legislation out of o ice o purge campaign Walter George GA isenate for 16 years oFDR says not to reelect him but instead to elect someone he had chosen GA ignores this because they didn t like being told who to vote for oFDR only got one person removed from office oFDR s power in Congress is now beginning to slip The second New Deal is pretty much over 0We now have to begin to get ready to fight because Hitler and Mussolini are starting to build tension 0We start spending more money for defense in case we have to go to war oWhat the new deal had been unable to do our effort to prepare for war did The massive spending and investment in defense was just what the economy needed Unemployment decreased and GDP increased oWas the new deal a failure 0GDP was up the whole time We have to take into account what the purpose was and we don t know what would have happened had it not been in place 0US v EC Butler oExample of how the new deal expanded and became part ofthe new American welfare state oStruck down AAA due to processing taX Supreme court declared this unconstitutional because it burdens part of the population shifting income to the farmer oThe court said congress had no power to regulate agriculture production BUT if the legislation had been designed more generally to promote general welfare it might have had a constitutional purpose oCongress reconvened and passed the soil conservation and domestic allotment act to replace the AAA It is the same thing but payments were called soil reduction payments Farmers would take part of land out of production and plant cover crops to help prevent soil erosion 0The Second agricultural adjustment act oAverage reduction payments and credit warehousing system oGovemment would allow farmers to store crops and wait until a better time to sell them Kind of like the subtreasury plan oThe new deal extends government and becomes part of the fabric of american life We become a country that prides itself on being free enterprise but government controls every aspect of life oJapan invades Manchuria N China oJapan s empire is growing they acquired new territory after WWI Japanese states are growing in Asia response to the depression They are in search of industrial and trading materials to restore Japanese wealth They decide to invade Manchuria The league of nations and US don t want to get involved because we don t want to go to war At the same time in Europe we are witnessing the rise of fascism oFascism Kind of like communism it is a system where the interest of the state prevails over all others but is supposed to provide bene ts to the people Everything revolves around the government The rest of society simply exists to bene t the state oRequires someone who assumes total authority dictator oNOT communism opposites oFascists blame communists for instability oMussolini Fascist dictator Italy oImposed order through chaotic situations role model for Hitler oNational socialists Nazi Party oAdolf HITLER austrian by birth served in WW1 WWI caused Germany to be reduced and pay debts Currency becomes worthlessetc oPicks Jews and communists as scapegoats who got us into the Versailles Treaty so he assembles a powerful force based on the hatred of Jews Hitler wants to make Aryan supremacy a norm oTactics modeled after those of Mussolini who displays outright aggression when he invades Ethiopia oSystematically undoes the Versailles Treaty oRemilitarizes Germany stimulates construction of vehicles and such oRhineland supposed to be demilitarized Hitler moves troops back in to take the area over from France and Belgium No one wants to get back into any sort of dispute with Germany post WWI which makes it easy for Hitler to take advantage 01935 Mussolini invades Ethiopia owant to secure oil and threaten their enemies oil supplies in the next war ocontrol Mediterranean sea 01936 Italy and Germany form a formal alliance RomeBerlin Axis 01937 Japan invades China oAnti Comintem pact is formed Germany Italy and Japan Rome Berlin Tokyo Axis Basically all of the enemies of the US became allies 01938 Hitler is feeling more aggressive and launches Anschluss which is a non military takeover of austria His goal is to get all german speaking people in Europe under his control so he demands Sudetenland in Czech be given back to Germany and swears he wont try to acquire more territory if this happens lies oThe Prime ministers of GB amp France meet with Hitler in Munich they agree to let Hitler have Sudetenland in exchange for no more aggression in Europe This bought time for preparation for a ght everyone knew was coming oGermany takes over the rest of Czechoslovakia and Hitlers goal is to take over the rest of the territory that was taken away by the Versailles treaty The last thing Stalin Soviet union wants is to ally with germany 0To the shock and dismay of USGB Fr NaziSoviet pact is made Germany then occupies the rest of Czech and German lithuania They then go on to invade poland 0GB and France declare war on Germanv oBlitzkrieg lightning warfare oGermany moves swiftly through Poland 01935 Congress begins passing neutrality legislation Neutrality Acts oUS can t transport any materials of war to nations at war Traveling in warring nations ravel at your own risk no loans to warring nations 1937 can provide military goods to warring nations if they pay cash and pick them up cash and carry oFDR quarantine speech I hate war Eleanor hates war oMay lOLh invasion ofFrance June 22nd France surrenders pitiful resistance oBrits vs Hitler and Mussolini oItaly hadn t gotten involved in the war until then oUS will provide Britain with 50 naval destroyers in exchange for naval bases oPeacetime draft Lendlease act provide vital materials of war to allies fighting in our interest AND arsenal of democracy speech that says we ll provide the supplies to end the Nazi movement oJune Germany invades Russia they broke the treaty with Stalin 01941 Japanese assets frozen oDecember 7m PEARL HARBOR oUS is now war with Japan oHitler after a couple of days declares war on the US Some believed he wouldn t because he had no advantage oEurope becomes our focal point at the beginning of the war Stalin wants the US and GB to launch a second front in Europe to distract German troops but we want Hitler and Stalin to ght to the death and we ll pick up the pieces 0We go through the soft underbelly of Europe oFirst we have to secure our position in the Mediterranean invade N Africa Weren t ready to invade Europe in 1942 We conquer the German territories in N Africa but pursuing this becomes ignorant no strategic advantage oRussia oGermans get stopped in Stalingrad in winter of 19421943 many casualties oRussians conquer Germans surrendered so the Germans head back to Germany Stalin is no longer dependent on anyone which changes the pace of the war Stalin is now in a better position to get what he wants after the war o D Day June 6 1944 oHitler was convinced we would strike Colais amp had troops stationed there oInvading Normandy came as a huge surprise amp Hitler delayed sending troops and tanks oBattle of the Bulge NovemberDecember 1944 08000 troops involved The German counterattack left a bulge oFeb 1945 oChurchill Stalin and Roosevelt meet in Yalta to work out strategies for the duration of the war oAgree to form UN Which is the second coming of the League of nations Soviet union had power to veto many moves made so many things we could have done to them were not oSoviet Union agrees to enter the war against Japan approx 3 months after Germany surrenders oFighting alone would result in 100000 American casualties oPotsdam Germany JulyAugust 1945 oLast wartime conference The US receives word that the bomb we ve been working on appears to work We decide to divide Europe into zones of occupation o4 occupational zones French American British amp Russian owaming sent to the Japanese that if they don t surrender they ll be at risk of us using our weapon of war sent by Truman 2 choices BLOODY INVASION OR ATOMIC WEAPONS oManhattan project suggestion to engage in nuclear warfare Was kept an absolute secret for 3 year The invasion would cost approximately 100000 American lives and the bomb itself would cost roughly 1A million Japanese amp American lives opro war ends sooner ocon large number of deaths some innocent civilians oIf war continued more lives would be lost AND Russia would get involved against Japan meaning we would have to give them territory started the bomb s race oWas dropping the bomb JUSTIFIED We knew so little about the bomb didn t know the full potential didn t understand the lasting effects of radiation sickness it was in order to maintain credibility If you don t we will We sent Americans to research the damage in Japan Didn t just drop the bomb and get out oGreat Britain leaders of the free world before WWI oAfter 6 years of war they can no longer stand up against the Soviet Union Leadership passes to the US 0 Iron Curtain speech by Churchill former prime minister of Great Britain 0 iron curtain descending over Eastern Europe The soviet union came in and established governments they control Anyone who is going to invade the Soviet union from the west anymore is going to have trouble getting in 01947 Greek Crisis Great Britain has been supporting Greek government against a pro communist movement GB backs out and we move in 1 2 billion in support oGeorge Kennan US foreign affairs Gave a name to the idea of 39 oCreates a policy to deal with communist threats policy of containmen if we see somewhere communists might try to move in we move to stop them We are the limit in front of soviet expansion and keep it from continuing oTruman Doctrine result of the containment policy Set up the idea of containment US will support any free country experiencing subversion overthrow of their government or an attack by an armed minority or outside nation communist 01948 Marshall Plan AKA European Recovery Program oUS provides assistance to allies during WWII to help them rebuild because we fear falling back into the situation we were in after WWI 03 year span 13 billion oremarkable economic recovery in W Europe Europeans buy American goods under this plan in turn stimulating the American economy oBerlin Blockade Soviets surrounded American British and French sections of Berlin This is the 15 1 time containment is challenged oBerlin Airlift lasts almost a year Stalin s blockade failed 01949 NATO N American Treaty Organization oUS W European countries Scandinavian countries and Canada oEveryone has troops in NATO we have the most oPurpose to protect W Europe from active aggression from Soviet Union oRussia gets the ABomb oFall of China to a communist movement 030 year struggle leads to triumph of communist revolutionary movement against Chinese government oMao Tse Tung leader of communist movement oChiang KaiShek made war on peasants in China 2 BIGGEST COUNTRIES IN THE WORLDCOMMUNIST 01950 N Korea Japanese colony prior to WWII invades S Korea 038Lh parallel is put in place this is where Korea was divided into N and S by Russia post WWII oGeneral Douglas MacArthur oLeader of UN forces in Korea who pushes into N Korea pushing them farther back into the river to get them out of Korea and reunite the country 01953 PanMunjon treaty restoring the 38Lh parallel We fought N Korea for 3 years and achieved nothing oHUAC House of Representatives UnAmerican Alfairs Committee 1947 oLooks into the problem of allied nations turning against the US 01948 Alger Hiss identi ed as a communist by Whitaker Chambers oChambers hid info that Hiss had been passing on to the Soviet Union in a pumpkin pumpkin papers oHiss not immediately pinned for espionage but was imprisoned for lying under oath oLater found evidence that Hiss was guilty of espionage oSenator Joseph R McCarthy oDistrict judge in Wisconsin before WWII Joined air corp and fought in the Paci c Called himself Tail Gunner Joe during his campaign for Senate held the record for firing the most rounds ohad been voted worst member of the Senate in 1950 oNeeded a cause to get reelected in 52 oIssue communist spies in US government 01951 gets an invitation to speak to the Republican s women s club in Wheeling WV osays he has a list of 205 members of communist party amp espionage ring working for the government oin Denver he says he has a list of 57 card carrying members who are communists 01950 McCarran Intemal Security Act orequired members of the communist party in the US to register w the justice department violation of the 5g amendment 01953 Julius amp Ethel Rosenberg oexecuted for passing atomic secrets to the Soviets Russians 01954 McCarthy Army Hearings omaking accusations that the army is full of communists oMcCarthy goes too far gets a vote of senture now McCarthy is through oMcCarthy legacy of fear ohe says democrats are soft on communism idea strikes fear in the hearts of the democratic politicians oattacks Marshall oimpact on democrats odemocrats become more confrontational oEisenhower restrained amp looked at situations strategically would not defend Mccarthy opromised a balanced budget John Foster Dulles Secretary of State to Eisenhower oproposes that it s cheaper to have a stock pile of missiles than a large standing army promotes the idea of containment This idea document is known as massive retaliation This is instead of keeping a large standing army it would be cheaper to rely on stockpile of nuclear weapons than keep that many men in uniform oPROBLEM we must be willing to risk nuclear war 01956 Hungarian uprising against the russians oHungarian freedom ghters rise up against a soviet dominated government in Hungary They were waiting for US to come help under the containment policy didn t happenthis left American credibility not so welloff oIF the US got involved this would lead to a potential war with Soviet Union in Europe oHow Israel came into being and how it ts into containment 01917 Balfour declaration After WWI GB announced its support for creating a Jewish state in Palestine oThe League of Nations announces that Palestine is a British mandate and the Jews ock to Palestine oArabs amp Jews are now in close proximity which is problematic The arabs aren t too keen on the idea 01947 Partition The brits hand mandate over to UN Because they don t want to have to deal with the problem oThe UN then splits Palestine into Jewish amp Arab sections The Jews name their section Israel as this is happening the Arbas begin war on israel and attack them in 1948 ol950 s Egypt is run by Nasser playing offthe US and GB against the Soviet Union oUS loans 270 million to construct a hydroelectric dam on the Nile but we back out because Nasser is going back and forth with us and the Russians oNasser declares that he s going to charge for the use of the Suez Canal to raise funds to build the Aswan Dam since we won t provide the SUEZ CRISIS oBrits talk to Israel about taking over the canal They want Israel to invade Egypt as a diversion while the Brits take over the canal 01957 Eisenhower Doctrine decides to support Egyptian rights orestatement of the Truman Doctrine containment applied to the middle east oNow there is the Question of Asia 0Ho Chi Minh Vietnam has been fighting for independent Vietnam for almost 20 years mid 50s Also fought the French and has help from Russia amp China 01954 surrounds the remaining French troops in Dienbienphu oEisenhower says it s impossible to go in amp help the French because if we do Russia might come in launching full scale war oVietnam oDivided by the Geneva Accords at the l7Lh parallel 01955 SE Asia Treaty Organization SEATO oSupported by GB US France Canada Pakistan Thailand and the Philippines oCreated to stop the spread of communism in SE Asia 01973 n a 0 domino theog if S Vietnam fell to communism the surrounding countries would topple like dominoes to communism Cambodia Thailand etc We are pulled into supporting a government that isn39t popular oUS refuses free elections in Vietnam which was part of the Geneva Accords oFighting breaks out to overthrow S Vietnam government oUS sends troops to help S Vietnam OJFK signs onto a plan created during the Eisenhower administration against Cuba under Castro as of 1959 oProsoviet government in Cuba oBAY OF PIGS plan cooked up during the Eisenhower administration 01961 CIA trains Cuban refugees amp hired soldiers othey believe that freedomloving Cubans will rise up w US invaders to take over Castro oUS would give air coverage as troops moved in to establish headquarters olst airstrike failed Kennedy cancels the 2quotd one oDISASTER oBerlin Crisis Russians threaten to cut off access to Berlin AGAIN oBerlin wall is going up 01962 Cuban Missile Crisis oUS puts naval blockade around Cuba oRussians gear up for war oCLOSEST US HAS EVER COME TO NUCLEAR WAR oProposal US removes blockade and agrees not to invade Cuba if missiles are removed oThey would remove missiles from Cuba if we remove them from Turkey oKennedy chooses to ignore the note and sign a noninvasion agreement if missiles are removed oRussian ships surround American ships then retreat 0We never inspect Cuba for missiles oOverhead UV inspections oKennedy stopped the further empowerment of Cuba oThere are Roughly 12000 Vietnam military advisors by 1963 ghting in S Vietnam against N Vietnam and Vietcong 0We support any anticommunist government President Diem S Vietnam oPromised land reformiBreak up land amp give it to peasants Roman Catholic This didn t happen oAnti Buddhist oOPEN REVOLT oCitizens NOT pleased oMonks covered themselves in gasoline and set themselves on re oMadam Nhu Diem s sister in law oMocks the monks calls them Buddhist barbecues 01964 1968 oUS gets a bad rap for supporting this government oKennedy agrees to overthrow President Diem oWant to capture Diem and take him to Cambodia oAssassinated at border 012000 advisors ghting in Vietnam Gulf of Tonkin incident olT N Vietnam oThe US has several gunboats here Report of an attack by N Vietnamese on our boats no indication of attack or 3r party witnesses 0L Johnson says we must escalate our military involvement oJohnson requests the Gulf of Tonkin resolution approved giving johnson power to increase military involvement and deal with Vietnam as he sees fit We began to put troops in N Vietnam gtWar in Vietnam gtUS bombs VietnamgtBring n lots of troops and more bombs 7gt NO ONE IS WINNING We persist and keep bringing in more troops oApproximately 1965 campus protests against the war because since troop numbers are going up Men on college campuses are being drafted POSSIBLE ID Tet offensive Broad offensive launched by Vietcong and north Vietnamese SO WHAT This blows the credibility of Johnson and the war effort Causes more protests against the war oTet Vietnamese New Year amp holiday several days oVietnamese launch a surprise attacks at american positions and take the US off guard They take over US embassy grounds in Saigon S Vietnam oThere is Racial tension between BampW troops oTough on Johnson because the war is going nowhere 01968 presidential election Johnson runs for reelection for the Democratic party owins by a narrow margin against Eugene McCarthy in the New Hampshire Democratic primary oRobert Kennedy runs against LBJ oLost 50000 US soldiers number of soldiers lost in Vietnam up to that point oLBJ withdraws won t run for reelection oNIXON former VP of Eisenhower supporter of McCarthy and anti communism He proposes a secret plan in 1969 to end the war as part of his campaign platform 0He is elected president and now makes major adjustments in the way the US was conducting the war oProposed a draft lottery as opposed to taking men according to their birth date Each day of the year put on a ping pong ball Everyone born on that particular day in a given age range would be drafted This gave people a better idea of what would happen oFAIRER oCollege students and married men weren t drafted before the lottery was put into use oMarch on Washington oNixon Doctrine Vietnamization radical notion that S Vietnamese should be doing the bulk of the ghting against the north Troops are withdrawn and there are cutbacks on drafting 01970 invasion of Cambodia part of Nixon s secret plan The purpose to stop the ow of supplies from S and N Vietnam oKent State college students shot for protesting the war 4 killed 01973 January peace treaty oMarch last US combat troops withdrawn from Vietnam we hope S Vietnam will stand for a bit longer oFighting between north and south Vietnam resumes within a matter of months of US troops departure oApril 1975 fall of Saigon S Vietnam to Ho Chi Minh communist oNixon introduces idea of self containment oDetaente with Soviets 1969 oRelaxation of tensionmore open level of communication with soviet union This is a less confrontational approach oNew China Policy 1971 oBegan to open communications with China We realize china will be a bigger competitor to the US than the soviet union Nixon is playing off tension between china and the soviet union We don t want either to think we favor the other oNixon visits China 1972 oBack and forth with Chinese and Russians POINTS TO PONDER What examples could you give to illustrate the tensions between tradition and progress known and unknown etc that permeated the 1920s A Scopes trial against evolution expressed the reluctance to change and the whole scienti c movement at the time Scienti c movement challenged fundamentalism the Bible Women s suffrage and birth control movement challenged the traditional male role Modernists art literature etc were defining a new stylechallenging tradition How did the radio and the automobile affect American lifestyles and values during the 1920s A Radio exposed them to new ideas amp leisure Automobile allowed people to get out more often Prior to these adults were working all the time and children were playing The radio in a way established more family time How did the economic fallout from World War I contribute to the Great Depression A We had lent out a lot of money during WWI and after the war European countries were devastated so they couldn t pay us back we were producing materials for other countries so we then had a surplus of materials and because of the war we started putting tariffs on imports limiting the market This caused a lot of economic stress What were the major causes of the Great Depression A after world war one and the stock market crash there was inequality of wealth which caused a serious problem with consumption The demand for products declined working conditions worsened and workers did not earn enough wages to turn around and be consumers What was Hoover39s response to the Depression A Hoover had a laisseZ faire approach which was a very hands off approach He believed that even when people are in economic trouble the depression will work itself out The only effort he made was with the reconstruction nance corporation but many viewed this effort as too little too late He believed if any help were given it should be voluntary He believed that private businesses would do the right thing if the government asked them to What were the CCC and WPA What was their goal These were agendas of the new deal The WPA is the works progress administration which was a huge relief problem that paid people to do necessary jobs such as painting murals in public places and building sidewalks but it did not bene t everyone because there was still some segregation The CCC was one of the male work programs that were government jobs created to restore morale of workers and make them feel productive It was the civilian conservation corps which sent workers out to plant forests and build trails What was the AAAAct What does it illustrate about the New Deal The agricultural adjustment act was one of the agendas of the new deal It addressed the agricultural crisis by paying farmers not to farm and to destroy the excess The idea was that the supply would decrease so the demand would increase This would increase the prices of crops which would give farmers buying power to turn around and be a consumer and stimulate the economy The reason this was established is because after the depression farmers produced an abundance of crops in hopes to sell them in mass quantities The program failed because most of the money went to corporate farming agencies so those in power stayed in power What was the quotSecond New Dealquot The second new deal was intended to make life better with things like the social security act to give the elderly a safety net and the wagner act which officially protected the right of workers to form unions Why did the New Deal fail to end the Depression What brought recovery The new deal failed because the money pumped into the economy through the various programs stayed in the hands of the wealthy and was never evenly distributed Recovery was not brought on until world war 2 when the need for labor increased and almost all Americans were employed with jobs that manufactured materials for the war Peoples spirits were lifted and this combined with the stability of labor allowed Americans to turn around and be consumers and keep the economy gomg How did the longterm effects of the Versailles Treaty contribute to the beginnings of World War 7 A This meant that Hitler had a time period where he had to rebuild armies and remilitarize certain areas ie Rhineland What were the major points of disagreement between the US and Japan leading up to World War II A Japanese were trying to gain more and more land openly militant As they captured Manchuria and moved into China we were attempting to stay isolated for the sake of peace How did changes in the Neutrality Acts re ect changes in FDR s attitude toward the war in Europe A At the beginning he was being completely isolationist He put limitations on sending arms to countries in battle He then changed to the cashcarry system where we could send materials to other countries if they got them with their own ships Next when GB was in danger of falling he put us on a lendlease system so that we could provide direct grants to our allies in need Finally we provided 50 destroyers for access to the naval and air bases in the Caribbean for 99 years How did alliances shift among Great Britain France Germany and Russia during World War II A Great Britain and France were allies against Russia and Germany Germany captured France so France and Russia became enemies not by choice later Germany invaded Russia so alliances shifted Why did Hitler sign a nonaggression pact with the USSR Why did Stalin sign it A Stalin wanted to buy time because he knew that Hitler was going to attack but he wasn t ready Hitler was fighting so many other battles at the time that he wanted to put Russia on the backbumer How did the outcome of the Battle of Stalingrad affect relations among the Allies in the later years of the war A GERMANY WENT INTO RUSSIA DURING WINTER amp GERMAN TROOPS WERE CAPTURED AND SURRENDERED It created tension between the Soviet Union and other nations because Stalin was no longer dependent on other nations In this battle he asserted his independence Who wanted a quotsecond frontquot and who preferred the quotsoft underbellyquot Why A Stalin wanted the second front because he wanted to lessen the tension on his own front We wanted to attack by surprise and have the upper hand Why were the Russians allowed to participate in the capture of Berlin Why was this significant A They were such a large power amp it was sort of a peace effort on our part It showed what a world power Russia was at this point What happened at Yalta Potsdam A Yalta Britain US and Russia came together and created the UN amp attempted to come up with a plan for the rest of the war Potsdam last wartime conference after Germany surrendered Here they divided Europe into French British American and Soviet zones Truman got word that the bomb worked What were the arguments for dropping the atomic bomb Against dropping it A Ifwe kept ghting Russia would get involved and we would have to share gained territory Also fighting would cost more American lives We have the bomb so why not use it Against we don t know the effects innocent lives lost How did dropping the bomb affect relations between the United States and Russia A It started the arms race It asserted our power over them at the time and made them want to get back on even footing with us SUGGESTED READING Chapter 26 102244


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