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by: Tiara Muller


Tiara Muller
GPA 3.97


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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Muller on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2112 at University of Georgia taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/201989/hist-2112-university-of-georgia in History at University of Georgia.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
History Notes oReconstruction period 18651877 oLincolnrepublican was president of the states and worried because he believes a lot of poorer whites resent what he has done and will appeal to rejoin the union oThe south will be more powerful now that the civil war has ended because slaves are now counted equally rather than 35 of a person oLincoln wants to come up with a plan to get the states back together and still have a chance of power oComes up with the 10 plan 1863 Lincoln s 10 percent plan OSays republicans need to make a new constitution outlawing slavery and 10 percent of the people who voted must take a loyalty oath to be welcomed back to the union ORadical republicans wanted the south to be treated as traitors They wanted former slaves to vote as republicans rather than poorer white southerners in order to secure power OPeople who are excluded from the bill confederate officialsof cers judges congressmen and military officials who left their posts in order to aid the rebellion OPre war democrats are the ruling party ORepublicans push for free slaves to vote or to find a way to reach out to non slave owners in the south poor and recruit them to the republican party I 01864 Wade Davis Bill 0A majority of the eligible voters must take an oath to the union Only ironclads could vote OThe ironclad oath was a key factor in the removing of exconfederates from the political arena To take the Ironclad Oath a person had to swear he had never borne arms against the Union or supported the Confederacy Owanted a much higher percentage 50 to take an oath that they had never supported the confederacy OLincoln pocket vetoed aka just refused to sign or veto the bill OLincoln wanted the states to re enter the union but the radicals wanted it to be more difficult for them to re enter 0 January 1865 13th amendment Ooffrcially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery and involuntary servitude except as punishment for a crime OBill of rights protects the citizens from the power of central government OEmphasis shifted to protecting people from the states with the passing of this amendment 0 oMarch 1865 Freedmen s Bureau created to assist former slaves in their transition to freedmen reconstruction brought forth pulic schools which didn t really exist pre civil war The bureau olTered help of various kinds including education and resolving disputes with employers The Bureau also helped many white Southerners impoverished by the war It did impressive work but lacked the resources to solve all the problems left at the end of the war OFirst time the government helps the people OSouth is mainly under union control at this time I oApril 9 1865 Lee Formally Surrenders oApril 15 1865 Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth oAndrew J ohnson vice president to Lincoln becomes president Ogot drunk at the inauguration ONot well educated 3rd grade level OHated Aristocrats Oradicals thought he would be better than Abe although his plan was really close to Lincoln s OHe blamed rich whites for the civil war wanted to exclude anyone who had property exceeding 20 thousand dollars in value from voting or holding office until they requested a pardon OAll state governments formed under Johnson proceeded to create black codes I oSouthem States passed the black codes Claws passed in Southern states after the Civil War that restricted travel and other activities of freed slaves The laws varied and some provided for limited rights But generally they deprived blacks of key civil rights Many barred blacks from juries and from testifying against white people Some required that blacks have proof of employment Whites claimed the laws were needed to deal with a population of freed slaves who had little knowledge of life outside slavery Northemers felt the laws were proof that Southern whites intended to keep former slaves in a secondclass status forever ORadicals thought the southemers needed to be treated more harshly Confederates were then denied seats to congress O 1866 OJohnson vetoes Freedmen s Bureau extension which angers the radicals OThey override his veto and extend the bill OCivil rights bill Oanyone born in the United States except native americans was given all legal protections and benefits of citizenship This includes slaves OJohnson vetoes this bill but congress overrides southern states weren39t represented in congress 0141h amendment Othe constitutional amendment that officially made the former slaves citizens of the US after the Civil War Another key provision prohibits states from denying any citizen quotequal protectionquot of the law It says that states cannot take someone39s life liberty or property without quotdue processquot of law This protection was vitally important to freed slaves Initially most Southern states refused to accept the 14th Amendment Partly as a result the US Congress divided the South into military districts and required the Southern states to adopt the 14th amendment in order to be readmitted as states OCampaign of Johnson v Radicals OJohnson went on a speaking tour and tried to convince voters to elect people who supported his plan ORadicals sent hecklers to provoke Johnson when he spoke causing many shouting matches and causing him to look bad I o 1867 0 First reconstruction act ODivided south into 5 districts OWithin each district the union military governors decide how it39s run oFormer confederates can t vote but former slaves can ORadicals come up with an idea to get rid of Johnson othey want to get Johnson impeached and then Wade could come in Wade just so happens to be a radical OTenure of office act ONo cabinet member whose appointment has to be con rmed by senate can be removed from of ce without approval of the senate oEdwin M Stanton Secretary of War at the time cannot be removed by Johnson oRadical republicans push to get Johnson impeached 1868 OImpeachment trial not removal from office OJohnson managed to stay in of ce by a single vote OUlysses S Grant elected president republican OGrant Scandals O 01869 15 h amendment 1870 Othe constitutional amendment passed after the Civil War that guaranteed blacks the right to vote This amendment affected not only freed slaves in the South but also blacks living in the North who generally had not been allowed to vote Oespecially favored by the Republican party since the votes of the freed slaves helped that party dominate national politics in the years after the war OThis amendment also excludes native americans OSet off the movement for women s suffrage O oForty acres and a mule ORumors started saying that every former slave would get 40 acres and a mule to start their own farms OReconstruction gives blacks nothing but freedom ONow they have political independence but not economic OCarpetbaggers a derogatory term for Northemers who came to the South after the Civil War Some came to do good Others came to take advantage of the situation after the war Some used the votes of black voters to get themselves elected and figured out crooked ways to pro t from holding public office Carpetbaggers and Southern blacks were usually Republicans and held considerable power in the Southern states in the Reconstruction era OScalawags locals who became radicals OKKK Formed in Tenn in 1867 an organization of whites that terrorized blacks in the South after the Civil War The goal of the Klan was to stop blacks from voting Many whites refused to accept any form of equality for blacks and especially resented blacks who held political o ice Klan members claimed they were only trying to protect the safety and rights of Southern whites in the postwar years But the widespread violence against blacks showed that their real goal was maintaining white dominance oThe KK hates republicans oGrant isn39t doing anything about this oPanic of 1873 OThe railroad industry is incredibly overbuilt and stocks are over valued ORailroad industry collapses OVienna stock exchange also collapsed Europeans can t buy as many American products mainly wheat OHorses start dying transportation fails crop failure bank failure Jay cooke and Company a banking company that collapsed closed and brought on a great panic economic depression O 01874 Democrats regain control of congress 01875 Civil rights act extended protection against racial discrimination to places of business this was an attempt to prevent private acts of discrimination oElection of 1876 First time in 20 years that democrats have a chance to elect a president OSamuel J Tilden 184 Oformer governor of NY democrat 01 electoral vote short ORutherford B Hayes 165 Orepublican 020 electoral votes short OJust so happens that 20 electoral votes were in dispute which is exactly how many Hayes needed to win OCongress decides on an electoral commission consisting of 15 members 05 members from senate 5 house of reps 5 supreme court Ohope was that there would be 7 republicans 7 democrats and David Davis an independent from the supreme court ODavid davis resigned and a republican had to replace him on the commission Call 20 electoral votes went to Hayes by a not surprising vote of 8 to 7 Odemocrats were furious and compromise had to be made oCompromise of 1877 Ifthe democrats accept the decision of Hayes as president they would get pledges from northern republicans The republicans promised Hayes would withdraw the last federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina allowing the republican government there to collapse oRetreat from reconstruction pulling the troops out led to the end of reconstruction Reconstruction never offered more than an uncertain commitment to black civil rights and social equality yet it left an enduring legacy the 13m 14m and 15Lh amendmentsnot dead but dormant waiting to be awakened If reconstruction did not provide social equality or substantial economic opportunities for african americans it did create the foundation for future advances 01883 Civil rights cases got rid of civil rights act of 1875 which led to Jim Crow laws segregation laws which prevented blacks from sharing certain places with whites This caused a problem for N gtS railroads prassengers were coming from the North once the train got to a certain point in the south the whole train had to be rearranged and segregated This worked the other way with trains going SgtN 01896 Plessy v FergusonPlessy a light skinned black man was denied access to a white car on the railroad The ruling in this case was separate but equal separate facilities were almost never equal oPoll taX taX on the use of the polls Usually no more than 2 per year but much of the population couldn t even afford this because they only made about 30 per year The poll taX was usually paid at the beginning of the year and people were given receipts that they had to show when they voted much later on Ifyou decided to skip a year the taX accumulated and you had to pay double the following ear oSecret ballot had to be able to read therefore many black votes could be thrown out oLiteracy test some states required people to be able to read and interpret parts of the constitution blacks or simple sentences whites oSome states set property requirements meaning people had to own a certain amount of property in order to be able to vote oGrandfather clause a way for some people to vote who otherwise would not be able to The clause said that if your grandfather would have been eligible to vote prior to march of 1867 so could you Reconstruction hadn t started in March of 1867 so blacks couldn t vote and only whites were eligible under this clause OThis was considered a law for poor whites but didn t result in much increased voting because it caused poorer whites to have to expose themselves and many didn39t want to broadcast that they were poor 01898 Williams v Mississippi OWilliams was convicted of murder by an all white jury and his lawyer argued that he was denied his right to ajury ofhis peers OThe jury list was taken from a voter list which brought to light the already known fact that the list was discriminatory OThe claim was that the voting quali cations weren39t unconstitutional because no where did it say anything that people couldn39t vote due to race oCrop lien a credit system that became widely used by farmers After the civil war farmers in the South had little cash The croplien system was a way for farmers to get credit before the planting season by borrowing against the value for anticipated harvests Local merchants provided food and supplies all year long on credit when the cotton crop was harvested farmers turned it over to the merchant to pay back their loan Sometimes there was cash left over when cotton prices were low the crop did not cover the debt and the farmer started the next year in the red The credit system was used by land owners sharecroppers and tenant farmers OThe merchants had to borrow the money to buy supplies and in turn charged the farmer interest as well as a higher price for merchandise bought on such credit The merchant insisted that more cotton or some other cash crop be grownnothing else paid welland thus came to dictate the crops that a farmer grew When farmers suddenly left the area the bills went unpaid and the merchant had to absorb the loss as well as the risk that cotton prices would fall so the raw cotton he was given at harvest time was worth less than the amount he loaned during the year oSharecropping a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land OSharecroppers had no say on when their crop was sold or for how much OAfter the civil war the only thing that was really grown in the south was cotton because it was most likely to be successful The worth of cotton was going down so the only solution was to grow more oBetween 18601910 there was a tremendous amount of urbanization rural areas doubled while urban increased 7 times oIndustrial Revolution OManufacturing capital went from 1 billion to 10 billion dollars OIndustrial workforce increased 4 times ORailroads increased in mileage ODidn t need that much mileage just needed a get rich quick thing ORebates were given to big companies who used the lines OJay Gould owner of Erie railroad in the Northeast which was in competition with NY Central which was owned by Cornelius Vanderbilt oCompetition to ship beef cattle from NY to Buffalo oGould drops rate so does Vanderbilt etc 01887 Interstate commerce act ICC OFirst agency created for 39 regulation Ounless railroads are in violation of the law the ICC can t do anything oTrusts business arrangement where a separate entity is created to govern regulated business Ominimizes cost of doing business oBessemer process allowed an increase in steel production OAndrew Carnegie was the top of the industry and JP morgan also had a steel company which was competing with Carnegie for control of US Steel OMorgan wanted to turn Carnegie Steel into US Steel John D Rockefeller OVertical integration Vertically integrated companies in a supply chain are united through a common owner 01882 Standard Oil Trust DAM 37 Stockholders in various oil enterprises conveyed their stock to 9 trustees receiving trust certi cates in return The 9 trustees thereby controlled all the various standard oil companies I 01890 Sherman Antitrust act Can attempt to regulate the process of farming monopolies Oany company found to be in restraint of trade was illegal OAny kind of business combination was illegal if it could be found to be in restraint of trade 01895 US v EC Knight and company Ocase against the sugar trust Osupreme court declared manufacturing was strictly and interstate activity Orailroads were clearly engaged in interstate commerce and thus subject to federal authority OProtective Tariff taX on imported goods OAmerican products are cheaper than foreign so americans raise prices oforeign countries aren39t buying american goods which upsets farmers oforeigners reduce the value of currency it is cheaper overseas Oencourages businesses Oeconomic growth Oraises prices for consumers hurts helps producers Oif trying to start a business or something under protective tariffs it helps Oif a farmer having to buy products protected under the tariff it was harder thus angering the farmer ODepresses the export market Ocountries that put up trade barriers risk an imbalance of trade 01866 National labor union OWere interested in political and social reform rather than bargaining with employees Ocomprised of many small unions to make a union of bigger numbers Owanted things like 8 hour work days equal rights for women and blacks etc Oafter head of the union died support fell Ofinancial panic of 1873 knocked out the labor union completely I 01869 Knights of labor Oopen to all who toil Oemphasized reform measures and practiced boycotts as opposed to strikes to put pressure on employers Obig group didn39t get much done Oexcluded lawyers bankers doctors and those who sold liquor because none of these are considered people who contribute oAnarchism an anarchist doesn39t believe in a formal government and is willing to go to extreme measures against one They believe the government is an abusive device used by the rich and powerful to exploit the working poor 01886 Haymarket Riot grew out of an agitation for an 8 hour workday OKnights of labor set a deadline for adopting the 8 hour workday when it wasn t adopted a fight broke out killing a striker OThe next day a group of people met to protest the haymarket killing when some policeman arrived someone threw a bomb at them The police then fired into the crowd ORiot pinned on the Knights of Labor 01892 Homestead Strike page 813 OStrike surrounded by violence OCamegie was sympathetic of labor unions OWorkers wanted a 12 wage increase Carnegie was out of the country so his associate who wanted to break the labor union said instead of an increase they could have a 22 wage cut OFrick built a 12 foot fence around the plant and hired 300 pinkerton detectives to protect the place that was later to be fcalled fort frick OIn July the Pinkertons oated up the river where unionists were waiting and fired against them I 01894 Pullman Strike OApullman was a car with sleeping arrangements where the first class usually rode OAmerican RR union refuses to put pullman cars on tracks OThe railroad refused to cut rent on houses for workers but they did cut wages Workers went on strike and since they helped produce the railroad equipment the American RR union went on strike too This affected the mail causing Grover Cleveland to call on the army to get the trains running effective OAmerican railway union Orefused to handle any train with pullman cars shuts down the RR in 27 states Oalmost all sleeper cars were pullman O 01886 American Federation of Labor OFounded in 1881 as a federation of trade unions made up of skilled workers They wanted a fair wage and reasonable hours They were not about reform but about laborers sharing power 018871881 Rutherford B Hayes Oconservative period because parties were so closely matched during this time 01881 James Gar eld 01885 Grover cleveland oSpoils System Othe lling of federal jobs with person loyal to the party of the president 01883 Pendleton Civil Service Act Ogovemment hiring based on loyalty because people had been complaining about the spoils system OCongress decided something had to be done once the president was shot after not putting someone in office They decidedjobs had to be filled by qualified persons oDecline in farmers oWhen farmers are buying in a protected market they lose money better to be a producer than a consumer in a protected market 01867 Grange OFarm organization that would buy supplies they needed in bulk to get a reduced rate and sell crops in bulk to get more money OTried to lobby legislatures to pass laws for control of railroads and grain elevator rates and to establish farmers cooperatives O o l 880s Farmer39s alliance OTwo separate organizations NW and southern that took the place of the grange Worked for similar causes and attracted landless and landed farmers to their membership OFarmers start co ops and get involved in politics I oGreenbacks and Greenback party a 2829 01875 Specie Resumption act p 735 01878 Bland Allison Act Ogovemment will purchase 24 million dollars worth of silver coins and put them into circulation each month OPresident Hayes vetoed this because conservatives did not support it but the veto was overridden by congress 01890 Sherman Silver Purchase Act OEXpands on bland allison act Treasury was required to purchase 45 million more ounces of silver each month and issue silver certi cates which were redeemable for 1 dollars worth of silver or gold OThe amount of silver purchased doubled but wasn39t enough to in ate the economy substantially OWhen people panic they redeem their certi cates for gold so there were only as many silver certi cates as there was gold oMary Yellin Lease OAlliance lecturer O farmers should raise less corn and more hell oMcKinley TarilT O39Ihe tariff was detrimental to the American farmers It drove up the prices of farm equipment since wages and imported components were more expensive and failed to halt sliding agricultural prices possibly since there wasn39t much competition with imported goods since American agricultural produce was already cheaper than imports Ohe McKinley TarilT Act raised tarilTs and brought new trouble to farmers who were forced to buy highpriced protected products from American manufacturers but sell their own products into highly competitive unprotected world markets This equity upset many rural voters who voted many Republicans out of office in the next congressional elections 01892 Populist Party Opeople39s party formed by farmers ODraws up Omaha platform which lists their demands OFree and unlimited coinage of silver Osubtreasury plan oFarmers could deposit their crops in government warehouses and get credit for crops being used as collateral ONational ownership of railroads telegraph and telephone Opostal savings bank bank by mail Osecret ballot they think too many poor working people are intimidated and in uenced with public ballots this protects the little man Odirect election of senators Oinitiative referendum recall means of getting something in the ballot before the legislature Oworks by petition more power in the hands of the people I oPanic of 1893 the country was hit by another economic recession 08000 businesses fail along with 6000 banks OThe Sherman silver purchase act repealed because the gold supply was being drained and cleveland thought this would destroy the economy 01895 JP Morgan Bond Sale OCleveland democrat gets morgan to buy bonds but to pay in gold so that money would go back to the treasury 01896 Campai gn convention ODemocrats adopt the silver issue and elect William Jennings Bryan who gives the Cross of Gold speech ODemocrats say if populists support them they will choose Thomas E Watson a renown populist as VP ODemocrats decide they can t have 2 gold bugs on the ticket and take Watson of and add Sewell OWilliam McKinley Opromises prosperity to everyone ORepublican president Owants gold standard 0 gains support of gold bugs conservative democrats OSlogan full dinner paid OFront porch campaign he would stay at home and voters who wanted to hear him would come so he could speak oDaniel DeLeon Socialist oSocialism common popular ownership of property or means of production Oindustrial union organized by industry Ocraft union organized by skill O 01901 McKinley assassinated by Leon Czolgasz OFirst elected in 1896 reelected in 1900 0VP Teddy Roosevelt modern american president becomes president OBom in NY cousin of FDR was police commissioner of NYC investigated corruption and was all about ethics oProgressive Era expand governments role to protect public interest OProgressives don t think government should have anything to do with the state of society 01902 Northern securities case ORoosevelt sues the N american railroad under the sherman anti trust act oAnthracite coal strike ORoosevelt doesn39t want to bring in the troops but rather sits down and talks to the strikers 01914 Clayton Antitrust act Outlawed the business of having common directors for related companies or restrictive trade agreements 01916 Federal Farm loan act Set up funds to make loans to federal farm banks and provided credit to farmers 01919 18111 Amendment Prohibition of the sale and distribution of alcoholic beverages takes affect in 1920 01920 Women39s suffrage 19Lh amendment Obefore these amendments some states had already outlawed alcohol and awarded suffrage to women oManifest Destiny OThe american belief that the United States was destined to expand across the North American continent from the Atlantic seaboard to the Paci c Ocean oReligious Zeal OZeal Enthusiastic devotion to a cause ideal or goal 0We are producing so much that we re starting to have trouble consuming all of it We need to find new markets for our products with less competition oWe39ve cut into more specialized products that are in demand so we need cheap raw materials o white man39s burden is to socialize educate etc the people of the world oAmericans begin getting involved in worldly affairs oAmericans begin looking at asian lands for sugar OBuy a lot from Hawaii OHawaiian sugar was no longer favorable for americans OAmericans took over their sugar plantations and annexed them as an american territory in 1898 0111 the 1890s Cuba was still possessed by Spain 01895 Cubans rebelled against spanish rule and set re to sugar plantations ORebellion coincides with the rise of national journalism OJoseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst are in competition to get the most subscribers and sell the most papers OYellow joumalism much like tabloid journalism oValieriano butcher Weyler a spaniard OTook cubans and put them in concentration camps to separate rebels from the others oDeLome letter Spanish ambassador to US DeLome describes McKinley as being weak and following the crowd OLetter comes a few weeks before the explosion of the US battleship the Maine in Havana which sets off the war 01898 remember the maine the hell with spain OSpaniards crumble and say they ll do anything to avoid war but McKinley says we need to declare war oTeddy Roosevelt wants to send commodore Dewey to Manila Harbor in the Philippines in the event that we went to war We captured the Philippines OAs a result of the war we acquired Guam the Philippines and Puerto Rico OMcKinley decided it was our duty to take control of the philippines in order to educate uplift and christianize 01899 Philippine insurrection OEmilio Aguinaldo lead a revolt against American control in the Philippines leading to a bloody counter attack 01901 Platt Amendment OCubans were instructed to add 2 provisions to their constitution OAmericans were granted Guantanamo Bay OCubans could not make any treaties that would impair the independence of Cuba cuban non entanglement oNow we decide to get involved in trade and commerce in China 01899 1900 Open Door notes OSpheres of In uence we recognized that everyone who got to china before us already had in uence to certain parts of trade and we wanted them to respect free trade and chinese territory we didn t want them taking over China Oaccomplished letting everyone know our expectations 01901 Hay Paunce Fote Treaty Oway of getting foreign in uence out of our backyard OPhillipe Bunau Varilla 01903 Hay Bunau Varilla Treaty OWe were given the rights to build a canal through Panama OAmerica recognizes Panama39s independence 01823 Monroe Doctrine OEuropeans can t intervene or colonize in our hemisphere O 01904 Roosevelt Corollary added to the doctrine 0 US will assume police power in the western hemisphere and if there is a problem we will deal with it 01905 Russo Japanese War ORoosevelt chooses to play peacemaker because he39s concerned that one side may be able to take over trade and commerce 01906 San Francisco Yellow Peril OJapanese were overwhelming SF and it was decided by the schoolboard that schools would be segregated ORoosevelt made a gentleman s agreement between SF Ca and the japanese saying the Japanese would reduce ow into California if the schools stayed integrated ORoosevelt felt weak for compromising and sent out a US Great white eet to cruise around the world and pass Japan on it s way OCongress wouldn t pay for this so Roosevelt decided he had enough money to go halfway and he would pay for that leaving it up to congress to bring the eet back OThe Japanese thought it was an honor that the US sent a eet to see them so this plan failed 01908 Root Takahira Agreement OBoth countries will respect the status quo in Asia OThe Japanese believed this mean we were agreeing that they were powerful and we thought it meant that the Japanese wouldn39t increase asian affairs or anything else they did 01870 Franco Prussian War OGermans had taken Alsace de Lorraine which was part of France OGermany had become more powerful but Britain France and their allies were concerned that Germans were trying to increase the navy OTRIPLE ENTENTE oGreat Britain France and Russia OTRIPLE ALLIANCE oGermany Austria Hungary Italy ORussia Serbia Bosnia and Montenegro are all slavic 01914 Franz Ferdinand Austria Hungary39s archduke OSerbia reject the Austria Hungary ultimatum OFranz is shot down providing AH a reason to declare war OGermany backs AH ORussians mobilize then the Germans then the French OWhen Germany invades Belgium in route to France GB declares war on Germany OUS proclaims neutrality the british blockade the north sea OGerman uboats Germans couldn39t do anything to keep GB from bringing In supplies without angering the US 01915 Germans sink the Lusitania losing over 200 american lives oThe germans then sink the French vessel Sussex oSussex pledge says German uboats won39t sink vessels without advance warning 1917 READ SECTION ON WILSON ADMINISTRATION OJanuary Reinstate unrestricted submarine warfare OFebruary Zimmerman note OMessage from German foreign minister Zimmerman OMexicans willing should US get in war with Germany Mexicans should attack the US and Germans would give the Mexicans back their territory that the US had taken over the years along with nancial support OApril US enters the war OWorld must be made safe for democracy ONovember Russian revolution Leads to the establishment of a communist government OMarch 1918 Separate peace Takes russia out ofthe war 01918 Wilson s fourteen points Oopen covenants covenant agreement or treaty oEveryone knows about it so it39s moral and just Ofreedom of the sea Oremove economic barriers OLeague of nations ointemational peacekeeper ready to intervene in cases of international aggression oWilson believed this would accomplish the provisions he set forth willing to compromise on almost everything BUT the league of nations 1918 Appeal for democratic congress OYear for congressional election Wilson is halfway through his second term OWilson tells people they must elect a democratic congress so they ll choose his treaty of versailles OWants to shut republicans out from making the peace Made the republicans angry and want control of congress OVersailles OCordon Sanitaire sanitary line that will contain russians on the east OReparations make germany pay for causing the war OGermany was stripped of territory war guilt clause oHad to take sole responsibility for causing the war OHenry Cabot Lodge oRival of wilson OTreaty of versailles must be approved prior to league of nations OArticle X of league of nations Lodge says it obligates us to go to war to defend any member of the league if attacked OWants to vote for treaty ONLY if article x is amended so US has a choice to go to war I OOctober 1919 Wilson39s speaking tourstroke


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