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by: Patsy Hodkiewicz


Patsy Hodkiewicz
GPA 3.55


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Class Notes
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patsy Hodkiewicz on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MARS 3450 at University of Georgia taught by Alber in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see /class/202000/mars-3450-university-of-georgia in Marine Sciences at University of Georgia.




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Date Created: 09/12/15
282010 13900 AM Physical Environment o World oceans o 71 of Earth s surface 0 Major basins Atlantic Pacific Indian Arctic Pacific 9 largest and deepest Arctic 9 smallest and most shallow 0 Minor basins Mediterranean Caribbean 0 Southern ocean major basins are connected in Southern hemisphere o Geology of the ocean o Pangaea supercontinent broken up to form basins and margins 0 Plate tectonics structure of Earth s crust o Midocean ridge chains of submarine volcanoes circling the Earth Sea floor spreading new oceanic crust is formed by volcanic activity and gradually moves away from ridge n Atlantic becoming wider n Forms parallel lines of opposite magnetism o Water movements 0 Surface water movements 1 Wind trades westerlies easterlies 2 Coriolis effect 0 Deep water movements 1 Salinity n Increase salinity 9 increase density 2 Temperature n Increase temperature 9 decrease density Circulation pattern 9 water sinks at poles 0 Local movements Tides moon s gravitational force pulls water in the oceans into bulges on both sides of planet a Spring tide exceptionally high or low tides n Neap tide difference in low and high tide is least a High tide 9 advances by 1 hour each day Upwelling winddriven motion of dense cooler and more nutrientrich water toward surface replacing warmer nutrientdepleted surface water a Results in high levels of primary production Classifications O O O O O O O 0 Shelf shallow regions near land mass Slope descending into deep ocean Abyssal plain deep ocean floor Neritic zone more shallow than 200 meters Oceanic zone deeper than 200 meters Pelagic zone any water that is not close to bottom Benthic zone ocean floor Photic zone exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis Aphotic zone not exposed to sufficient sunlight for photosynthesis 282010 13900 AM Chemical Environment o Temperature 0 Varies horizontally Tropical subtropical temperate subpolar and polar o Varies vertically Thermocline rapid change in temperature over short vertical distance o Density 0 Pycnocline rapid change in density over short vertical distance Affected by temperature and salinity o Salts 0 Ocean 9 35 salt 0 Change in freshwater content Sources n Precipitation a River inputs Sinks removal mechanisms n Evaporation 0 Change in salt content Source midocean ridges o Gases 0 Sources Photosynthesis Atmosphere Deep water circulation o Sinks Respiration 0 Carbon dioxide Source of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis Basis for pH buffering system in ocean 7584 o Nutrients 0 Sources Respiration o Sinks Photosynthesis 282010 13900 AM Primary Producers I o Classification 0 By function Autotroph selffeeder fix inorganic carbon and produce organic matter Heterotroph otherfeeder o By taxonomy Archaea 9 not photosynthetic Bacteria 9 singlecelled Eucarya 9 membranebound organelles n Protests 9 singlecelled eucarya n Plants 9 multicellular cell walls a Animals 0 By habitat Nekton 9 swimmers Benthic 9 bottom Plankton 9 drifters n Phytoplankton 9 plant primary producers n Zooplankton 9 animal a By size o Picoplankton lt2pm o Nanoplankton 220pm o Microplankton 20200um n Sampled using plankton net c Find mostly diatoms and dinoflagellates o Groups of phytoplankton o Microplankton Diatoms 10200pm n Pillbox shape o Centric circular and pinnate longthin a Cell walls made of silica n Found singly or in chains a Can be benthic if water is shallow enough Dinoflagellates n 2 flagella motile a Cell walls made of cellulose n Autotrophs and heterotrophs a Can cause harmful algal blooms n Also found in corals o Nanoplankton Coccolithophores n Shells of calcite n Flagella Other flagellates n Mostly uniflagellate o Picoplankton Synechococcus n Discovered in 1979 epiflouresent microscopy n 1pm in diameter Prochlorococcus n Discovered in 1988 flow cytometry n 06pm in diameter Most abundant type of phytoplankton in ocean o Benthic primary producers o Seaweeds Not plants Have holdfast stipe and blade instead of root stem and leaf Benthic except sargassam that floats on ocean surface 0 Seagrasses Eel grass 9 Northern Turtle grass 9 Southern 282010 13900 AM Primary Producers II o Measuring phytoplankton o How many are there 0 How fast are they growing Measure rate of primary production of organic matter by photosynthesis n 6H20 C02 9 C6H1206 602 o Primary production rate of production of organic matter by photosynthesis 0 Gross PP total Carbon fixed 0 Net PP GPP respiration total amount of Carbon available to rest of system all other heterotrophs o Measuring primary production 0 1 C14 method following change in C02 0 2 Lightdark bottle method a Measure initial 02 concentration a Light bottle photosynthesis amp respiration NPP a Dark bottle respiration a Light dark GPP b Incubate c Measure final 02 concentration o Factors that affect PP o 1 Light Euphotic zone lighted area of ocean n 5 of total ocean n Photoinhibition 9 located at top of euphotic zone and in aphotic zone 0 2 Mixing Thermocline mixing depth a Winter 9 upper water mass and lower water mass mix completely equal nutrients a Summer 9 upper water mass less nutrients and lower water mass more nutrients are separated by thermocline o 3 Nutrients Winter 9 equal nutrients Summer 9 less nutrients in top and more nutrients in bottom o Seasonal patterns 0 Spring and fall bloom 0 Summer nutrient limited and winter limited sunlight 0 Global patterns Tropics 9 permanent thermocline Temperate 9 larger spring bloom and smaller fall bloom summer is nutrientlimited and winter is sunlightlimited Polar 9 bloom in spring and summer light limited in fall and winter 0 Oligatrophic Low nutrients Picoplankton Low rates of PP Ex tropics o Eutrophic High nutrients Pico nano and microplankton High rates of PP Ex polar temperate o Nutrient limitation o Nitrogen and phosphorus Increases photosynthesis when added together N03 9 limiting nutrient P04 9 secondary nutrient 0 Iron Increases biomass 282010 13900 AM Invertebrates I o Porifera sponges o Cellularlevel organization 0 Looselyaggregated specialized cells No tissues or organs 0 All are sessile 9 attached to rocks pilings o Feeding restricted to small particles 0 Porebearer o Cnidaria o Tissuelevel organization Radial symmetry Central space is digestive cavity Three tissue layers 9 epidermis gastrodermis mesoglea Two body plans 9 polyp sessile and medusa planktonic Nettle Nematocysts Cover tentacles and body surface Discharge when stimulated Toxic adhesive entangling repellant Carnivorous 9 mostly for food capture Classes Hydrozoa n Polypmedusa a Small feathery transparent colonies n Siphonophores are exception n Ex Portuguese manofwar Scyphozoa n Mostly medusa stage B Up to 2min diameter a Swimming by contracting medusa bell n Ex jellyfish Anthozoa n Mostly polyp stage n Colonial corals or solitary anemones n Corals secrete CaCO3 n Ex corals and anemones O O O O O O O o Ctenophora 0 Radial symmetry 0 Combbearers 0 Rows of ctenes cilia that beat in unison o Carnivorous 9 zooplankton 0 Ex cone jellies o Cycliophora 0 New phylum 1995 Found on lobster mouthparts Filterfeeders Sessile lifestyle Inner budding larva 0 Ex Symbion pandora o Mollusca o Softbodied 0 External CaCO3 shell 0 Cephalization development of head region 0 Several specialized organs Mantle secretes shell Foot moving and digging Radula teeth for feeding 0 Classes Gastropoda n Onepiece coiled shell n Feeding strategies 9 grazers algae deposit feeders organic matter carnivores parasites n Ex Snails slugs limpits abalones nudibranchs Bivalvia n Hinged twopiece shell n Feeding strategies 9 suspension feeders particle through water column and deposit feeders n Ex mussels clams oysters scallops Cephalopoda a Most complex of all invertebrates a Loss or reduction of external shell n Mantle is thick and muscular n Locomotion by forcing water through mantle cavity a Suckerlined tentacles Ex octopus squid cuttlefish nautiis 282010 13900 AM Invertebrates II o Annelida o Segmented Parapods side foot with bunches of setae stiff bristles Lifestyles 9 pelagic burrowing interstitial tube dwellers Feeding 9 carnivores herbivores deposit feeders filter feeders 0 Ex polychaetes o Arthropoda 0 Chelicerata Merostomata a Rich fossil history a Live on soft sand and mud n Found in shallow water a Carnivores n Ex horseshoe crabs Pycnogonida a Long legs and small bodies a Carnivores n Ex sea spiders o Crustacea 9 two pairs of antennae and eyes stalked chitinous exoskeleton Copepoda a Filter feed on phytoplankton and bacteria n Ex copepods Cirripedia a Heavy CaCO3 plates a Filter feeders n Feathery filtering appendages n Ex barnacles Malacostraca n Largest group of crustaceans n Carnivores n Ex krill amphipods isopods crabs lobsters shrimp o Echinodermata O O O 0 Radial symmetry 0 Spinyskinned 0 Internal water canals and tube feet 0 No head oral and aboral sides 0 Most adults are benthic 0 Classes Asteriodea n Radiate from central disk D Carnivores n Ex sea stars and starfish Ophiuroidea a Long and flexible n Rounded central disk D Deposit feeders n Ex brittle stars Echinoidea n Herbivores filter feeders and deposit feeders n Ex sea urchins and sand dollars Crinoidea n Stalked filter feeders n Sessile or slowly moving a Ex feather stars and sea lilies Holothuroidea a Reduced spines n Muscular body wall a Deposit feeders n Ex sea cucumbers o Chordata o Urochordata Tunicates Saclike bodies Filter feeders Colonial or solitary Sessile sea squirts or planktonic appendicularians larvaceans Ex sea squirts and larvacean make mucus houses for filtering efficiency 282010 13900 AM Zooplankton I o Zooplankton heterotrophs in plankton o Holoplankton spend whole life in the plankton o Protista o Animalia Cnidaria jellyfish Ctenophora cone jellies Chaetognatha arrow worms a All marine n Almost all planktonic B Up to 4cm long a Voracious carnivores n Hermaphroditic Mollusca n Gastropoda Arthropoda n Crustacea o Copepoda 9 70 of net plankton Chordata n Urochordata o Meroplankton spend part of life in the plankton 0 Most animal phyla o Larval strategies More than 80 of marine organisms have planktonic larvae Planktotrophic a Feed in plankton a Small eggs n Many eggs a High mortality a Better dispersal n Shallow water tropical Lecithotrophic a Don t feed in plankton a Large eggs n Fewer eggs a Low mortality a Lower dispersal a Deep sea polar o Larval settlement cues Light Salinity Chemicals Currents Substrate Adult presence Pressure Depth 282010 13900 AM Zooplankton II o Patterns over time 0 Seasonal cycles 100 days Polar seas n Biomass high in summer Tropical seas n Biomass never high Temperate seas n Biomass high in spring 0 Reproductive cycles 10 days 0 Diel cycles 1 day 9 vertical migration 0 Feeding swarms 01 day o Patterns over space 0 1000 km scale Plankton provinces 9 gyres continental upwelling water mass boundaries 0 100 km scale Warm and cold core rings 0 10 km scale Turbulence 9 estuarine mixing island wake effects 0 011 km scale Fronts o 001 km scale Langmuir circulation 282010 13900 AM Harmful Algal Blooms o HAB proliferation of algae that is either directly toxic or indirectly leads to major ecological impacts o Types 0 Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning NSP Toxin brevetoxin Fish and marine animal death by respiratory failure Human symptoms 9 nausea and vomiting Paralytic shellfish poisoning PSP Toxin saxitoxin Relaxes smooth muscle and causes paralysis and eventually respiratory failure in humans Ciguatera fish poisoning Toxin ciguatoxin One of most potent marine toxins Amnesic shellfish poisoning ASP Toxin domoic acid Degeneration of hippocampus of brain Brown tides Unique to Gulf of Mexico No effect on humans o Reasons for increase 0 Plants 0 Physical relocation o Pollution Temperature and nutrients O O O O Nekton I Marine Fishes 282010 13900 AM o Nekton capable of active locomotion in water 0 Most are vertebrates exception cephalopods Chordata o No marine amphibians o Marine fish taxa o Oldest vertebrates o Lifespan to 100 years 0 Classes Agnatha jawless fish n n n n Cartilaginous skeletons No paired fins and no jaws Round muscular mouth No scales Lots of mucus Examples o Hagfish o Strictly marine o Scavengers 0 Locate food with tentacles o Bore into food with toothed tongue 0 slime eels o Lampreys 0 Mostly freshwater o Parasitic rasp with teeth until blood flows secrete anticoagulant Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fish n n n n Cartilaginous skeleton Moveable jaw Welldeveloped teeth Paired fins Small scales Gill slits Spiracles openings behind eyes for breathing Carnivores Examples Adaptations o Sharks 0 Tail asymmetrical o Fins stiff and fleshy don t fold o Conveyer belt teeth o Skates and rays 0 Flattened body 0 Demersal 9 live near sea floor 0 Gill slits on bottom o Ratfish 0 Deep sea Osteichthyes bony fish n n n n n n Bony skeleton Moveable paired fins Flexible and symmetrical tail True scales Gill cover 9 operculum Ex coelacanth Differences in chondrichthyes and osteichthyes n n o Buoyancy Bones cartilage and shells more dense than water Store oils and fats in liver Chondrichthyes o Not maneuverable Gill slits o One dorsal fin o Asymmetrical tail o Swim with mouth open Osteichthyes o Very maneuverable 9 swim backwards or stay stationary o Operculum gill cover o Two dorsal fins o Symmetrical tail o Mouth does not need to be open 9 operculum forces water over gills Air bladders 9 countercurrent system Constant swimming Ion replacement 9 only squids 0 Unique sensory organs Lateral lines a Detect low frequency of sound Electroreception n In cartilaginous fish n Ampullae of Lorenzini Detect electrical currents 282010 13900 AM Nekton II Marine Reptiles and Mammals o Marine tetrapods 0 Land vertebrates reinvade ocean 0 Have lungs not gills 0 Classes Sauropsida reptiles a Dry skin covered in scales n Leathery shell covering eggs n Ectotherms a Special glands for salt secretion n Orders o Testudines 0 Shell fused to backbone 0 Live in warm seas 0 Lay eggs on land 0 Ex sea turtles o Squamata 0 Tropical seas o Paddleshaped tails o Reproduce in ocean Carnivores 0 Ex sea snakes and marine iguanas o Crocodilia o Mangrove swamps 0 Very aggressive 0 Ex crocodiles Mammalia mammals n Endotherms a Body covered in hair a Bear live young feed with milk a Orders o Carnivora o Pinnipedia Cold seas Reproduce on land 0 Conserve heat with blubber thick fur and large body size Examples a Sea lions 9 external ears rear flippers move forward a Seals 9 no external ears rear flippers can t move forward a Walruses 9 rear flippers move forward only Arctic ocean o Musteloidea Smallest marine mammal No blubber only thick fur Reproduce in water Ex sea otters o Ursoidea Arctic Ocean Dependent on sea ice Feed on seals Ex polar bears o Sirenia o No rear limbs o Herbivores 0 Live up to 80 years Ex manatees dugongs and stellar sea cow extinct 282010 13900 AM Nekton III Mammals o Mammalia o Cetacea Complete return to water Resemble fish Lost rear limbs Blubber Suborders n Mysticeti o Baleen whales larger o Gulpers 9 feed on bigger organisms Blue Humpback Rorqual whales o Skimmers 9 feed on smaller organisms Right o Largest 9 blue whale o Blowhole with 2 openings c Find food because of dense patches of copepods and krill 0 Sense pressure 0 Food is concentrated there o Right whale 0 High female mortality rate a Odontoceti o Toothed whales smaller o Largest 9 sperm whale o Blowhole with 1 opening o Highly social Swimming a Rapid breathing n More red blood cells Diving n Increased 02 storage a Peripheral vasoconstriction keep flow to heart and brain restrict flow to limbs 02 conservation n Gliding instead of swimming


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