HERB&MEDICINAL PLTS HORT 3440
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Herbs Spices And Medicinal Plants Study Guide 1 l N Herbs spices medicinal plants a Herb A plant whose stem does not produce woody persistent tissue and generally dies back at the end of each growing season b Spice Any of various pungent aromatic plant substances such as cinnamon or nutmeg used to avor foods or beverages c Medicinal Plant Any plant which provides healthpromoting characteristics temporary relief or symptomatic problems or has curative properties d A spice can be any dried plant product used primarily for seasoning purposes so an herb could be a spice Early trade between Europe and the Far East a Cloves the dried ower buds of the tree b Ginger the rhizome or underground stem of the plant c Cardamom seed ofplant d Turmeric rhizome of plant e Nutmeg nutmeg is the actual seed of the tree f Mace the dried lacy reddish aril or covering of the seed g Cinnamon inner bark of trees h The immature pepper plant drupe containing seed and outer coating is dried to make Black pepper The unripe pepper plant drupe is brined to make Green pepper Ripened red pepper berries soak in water while the esh of the pepper skin decomposes and the naked seed is then dried to make White pepper The ripened red pepper drupes are preserved in brine to make Red pepper Anticancer drugs a Vincristine and Vinblastine i Madagascar Periwinkle Catharanthus roseus ii Native to Madagascar b Taxol i Pacific Yew Taxus brevz39folz39a ii Native to pacific NW of USA iii Grows in spotted owl habitat Cancer is cells that are growing out of control Microtubules form the spindle during mitosis in a cell Vincristine binds to the tubulin protein polymerizes to microtubules and inhibits the assembly of microtubule structures Taxol actually stabilizes the microtubule polymer and protects it from disassembly Taxol ultimately inhibits spindle function Opium poppies coca willows foxglove a Opium Poppies i Morphine and codeine l powerful analgesics pain relievers ii Heroin l Semisynthetic derivative of morphine O V iii The immature fruit capsule is the source of opium b Coca i Cocaine l Alkaloid with stimulant and anesthetic properties 2 Used by Incas to relieve fatigue thirst and hunger ii Novocain and Xylocaine l Synthetics iii Leaves ofplant c Willows i Aspirin l Analgesic feverreducer antiin ammatory 2 The bark is the source of salicin the compound that led to the development of aspirin 3 Salicylic acid can also exfoliate skin and unclog pores to reduce acne ii The roots were used in ancient Greece for pain and gout and by Native Americans for headaches d Foxglove i Medicine comes from leaves ii Digitoxin 1 Heart problems 2 Edema buildup of uid on extremities iii Digoxin 1 Heart conditions Tropane alkaloids class of alkaloids that contain tropane ring in their chemical structure a Members of plant family Solanaceae i Atropine 1 From deadly nightshade Attropa belladonna 2 Jimsonweed 3 mandrake ii Hyoscyamine l Henbane 2 Mandrake 3 Jimsonweed 4 Deadly nightshade iii Scopolamine l Henbane 2 Jimsonweed 3 Brugmansia Angel 3 trumpets b These plants are fat soluble so they are easy to apply to the surface ofthe skin Terms to know a Ebers papyrus Egyptian medical papyrus b Spice islands Maluku islands archipelago that is part of Indonesia and the larger maritime Southeast Asian region c Aril eshy lacy covering of the seed d Panacea the goddess of healing in Greek mythology the panacea in medicine was named after this Greek goddess and was supposed to be a remedy that would cure all diseases and prolong life inde nitely elixir of life e Analgesic pain killer f William Withering English botanist discoverer of digitalis foxgloves g Zoopharmacognosy the process by which animals selfmedicate by choosing soil plants and insects to treat and prevent disease h Opium the dried latex obtained from the opium poppy i Of cinale used in botanical Latin to mean used in medicine J Queen Hatshepsut pharaoh in ancient Egypt established the trade networks that had been disrupted k Rhizome horizontal stem of a plant usually found underground 1 Peyote a small cactus with psychoactive alkaloids m n Hexing herbs henbane and belladonna o Carminative herb or preparation that prevents the formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract or facilitates expulsion of gas p Capsaicin the active component of chili peppers q Scoville scale the measurement of spicy heat of a chili pepper r Curry powder a mixture of spices common in South Asian cuisine typically contains coriander turmeric fenugreek and red pepper s Myristicin present in the essential oil of nutmeg and in smaller amounts in other herbs such as dill and parsley insecticide t Bioassay atype of scientific experiment usually measure the effects of a substance on a living organism essential in the development of new drugs u Hemiparasite ex mistletoe a parasitic plant that derives some of its sustenance from another plant Voucher specimen permanently archived wildlife specimens aid in identification of species w Myrrh the aromatic resin of trees x Tussie mussie a small compact cluster of owers y Dioecious plant has separate male and female parts 2 Native American Church practices Peyotism aa Evil eye look believed to cause injury or bad luck to the person its directed at bb Mescaline the psychedelic alkaline in peyote cc Microtubules form the spindle during mitosis in a cell dd Dropsy Edema buildup of uid on extremities associated with heart issues ee Brugmansia longlived woody trees or bushes with pendulous not erect owers that have no spines on their fruit Angel s trumpets ff Organoleptic aspects of food or other substances as experiences by the senses gg Essential oils concentrated liquids containing aroma compounds from plants hh Umbel a cluster of owers on short ower stalks ex parsley ii Vulnerary plant or drug used in the healing of wounds jj NCCAM National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine US gov t agency V V O kk Parthenogenesis form of asexual reproduction in females where growth and development of embryos occur without males In plants the development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg cell 11 Ricin from the castor oil plant highly toxic Spices used in mummy preparation i Cumin anise marjoram How is frankincense harvested i It is tapped from the Boswellia tree by slashing the bark and allowing the resin to bleed out and harden c Rubbing noses in Arab culture shows respect and trust d The crusades opened up the spice trade 3 major areas of origin for herbs spices and medicinal plants a Old world tropics Paleotropics Africa Asia Australia i Vanilla ii Ginger iii Cardamom b New world tropics Neotropics Caribbean Central America South America i Ginger ii Black pepperilamaica iii Capsicum peppersithe Americas c Mediterranean Europe Eurasia Asia Africa i Basil ii Rosemary iii Thyme iv Parsley a What made old world spices particularly suited for travel i They could be dried out ii They had a long shelflife iii Could be used in small quantities b Why are spices less expensive now i Better transportation ii Agricultural production often largescale iii New centers of production Spice questions a Which old world spice is coppiced to produce numerous long straight shoots i Cinnamon b Which old world spice plant produces 2 different spices from the same fruit i The nutmeg tree c Which old world spice is an ingredient in cigarettes marketed in Indonesia i Cloves d What is the difference between true cinnamon and cassia i Cassia is a member of the same family as cinnamon but is not technically the same thing N What member of the ginger family is often responsible for the yellow color of curry powder i Turmeric What part of cardamom is used as a spice i seed Which of the 3 new world spices did Columbus take back to Europe i Black pepper Ginger family i Perennial herbs ii Shady lowland forests iii Underground stem rhizome iv aromatic Mint family i Opposite leaves ii Square stems iii Herbs or shrubs iv 2lipped owers and fruit composed of 4 nutlets Parsley family i Alternate leaves ii Flowers airanged in umbels iii Radially symmetrical iv Fruit of 2 oneseeded mericarps U V O V Parsley family used for BOTH leaves and seeds a Dill b Coriander plant cilantroleaves corianderfruit Commonly used culinary herbs in the mint family Peppermint Rosemary Basil Oregano Marj oram Sage Thyme The Aztecs used vanilla to avor chocolate A spice that combines the avors of cinnamon nutmeg and cloves in one fruit is allspice Capsicum peppers made the greatest contribution to regional cuisines in Europe and Asia Peyote is the source of the hallucinogenic drug mescaline a Avg cost of bringing new drug to market i 800 mil 17 billion Patents on drugs last 20 years About 120 prescription drugs are derived from plants Pharmaceutical drugs are potent and very re ned vs OTC plantbased drugs 83 2 V Horseradish is obtained from the root of the plant N N U b The plant that provides wasabi belongs to the Brassicaceae family c Fennel from the parsley family has licoricescented seeds d Basil is an important ingredient in pesto Capsicum peppers 2 V Capsaicin is the compound that is responsible for the heat in chili peppers Not all capsicum peppers are hot eX sweet bell peppers Capsaicin doesn t affect birds but does affect mammals Mistletoe is being used in research for cancer treatment The Druids viewed mistletoe as sacred Rosemary is the herb of remembrance The names of alkaloids usually end in ine In glycosides each molecule consists of a sugar often the simple 6carbon glucose molecule bonded to a nonsugar compound The Willow plant contains these Aspirin is a buffered form of salicin that isn t harsh on stomachs Heroin is synthesized from morphine a derivative of the opium poppy Raw opium does not contain heroin because it must be synthesized from the morphine Guest Lecture 831 a What is meant by synergism among the chemicals in an herbal remedy i The combined action of constituents is greater than would be expected from a consideration of individual contributions b Primary vs secondary metabolites i Primary metabolites carbohydrates proteins amino acids lipids 1 Structure ii Secondary metabolites phenolic compounds terpenoids steroids amp alkaloids l Repel animals and pathogens 2 Messenger molecules 3 Provide active constituents Holly Shimizu video a Why are lamb ears herbal BandAids i Soft furry absorbent b Spearmint can sometimes spread too aggressively in the garden Strategies used in search for new medicines a Taxonomic targeting using organismal classifications b Ecological targeting relationships between living organisms and their environment c Ethnobotanical targeting study of relationships between people and plants d Zoopharmacognosy the process by which animals selfmedicate by choosing soil plants and insects to treat and prevent disease Bioprospecting biopiracy a How have concerns over intellectual and genetic property rights affected bioprospecting i Researchers do not want their discoveries to be known by others in fear they will be ripped off b What is biopiracy i bioprospecting activities that do not adequately address issues of intellectual and genetic property rights 1 Define a Herbs nonwoody plant leafy plant grown in temperate climates b Spices other pant organs rhizome underground stem grows in tropical climates c Medicinal Plants plants that are valued for their physiological therapeutic or psychoactive effects d Difference between herbs and spices Herbs Spices Plant Part Used Leafy part Other Parts stems roots fruits owers rhizome et Geographic Origins Temperate Tropical 2 Five tropical species that were important in the early trade between Europe and the Far East and what part of the plant each spice is obtained Cinnamon Bark Cloves Unopened Flower Nutmeg mace Seed and he aril around it Turmeric Root Ginger Root a Describe how blackpepper green pepper and white pepper are obtained from the same plant BLACK PEPPERS WlIITE PEPPERS DRY REMOVE SKIN RED PEPPERS IMMATURE BERRY MATURE BRINE GREEN PEPPERS 3 Name two important anticancer drugs that we discussed in class that were discovered through random screening PlaclitaXil Taxol and Vinblastine a What plants produce them Pacific Yew and Madagascar Periwinkle b What regions of the world are these plants native to Pacific Northwest of the US and Madagascar c Which one shares habitat with the endangered Spotted Owl Pacific Yew 4 Opium poppies coca willows and foxglove are all plants that have provided modern pharmaceutical medicines For each of these species name Opium Coca Willows Foxglove Poppies CompoundsDrugs Morphine and Cocaine and Salicin and Digitalis Obtained from Codeine Novocain aspirin Plant Therapeutic effect Pain Relievers Stimulants amp Pain and Helps heart ofmedicine anesthetics headaches disease Part of plant the Immature Leaves Bark Leaves yields the drug fruit capsule 5 Name three tropane alkaloids and three plants that contain them Atropine from belladonna Hyoscyamine henbane and mandrake and Scopolamine henbane jimson weed and angels trumpets a b What feature of the tropane alkaloids makes it easy to apply them through the surface of the skin Thy are hallucinogenic analgesic anesthetic narcotic and fat soluble What plant family are they found in The Solanae family Brie y define the following terms hop991 wr O U Ebers papyrus scroll with 700 different herbal and mineral meds Spice Islands the Maluku Islands home to spices such as nutmeg Aril eshy appendage attached to a seed Panacea Garlic thought to be the world s best known cure all analgesic group of drugs that relieve pain William Withering English Botanist that discovered Digitalis used for quotcardiac dropsy congestive heart failure Foxglove was a source Doctrine of Signatures herbs that resemble various parts of the body can be used to treat ailments of that part of the body Zoopharmacognosy animals selfmedicate by selecting and using plants soils and insects to treat and prevent disease Opium poppy family Native to Mediterranean immature fruit capsule is the source latex with 25 different alkaloids quotofficinalequot when used as a species name medicinal plant Queen Hatshepsut ordered an exhibition where a lot of myrrh and frankincense were brought back Rhizome horizontal underground root system peyote cactus native to rio grand valley containing alkaloid mescaline new religion arose Native American Church Taxol used in cancer treatment contained in the pacific yew hexing herbs members of the nightshade family of plants eg Belladonna henbane mandrake and datura Contains scopolamine hyoscyamine and atropine glucosinolates found in the mustard family Once crushed interact with an enzyme to yield iothyiocyanates give mustard its heat Malabar Coast western India is where black pepper originales 7 11 Carminative get rid of intestinal gas Capsaicin a compound used for medicinal reasons to warm skin culinary something associated with food and cooking Scoville scale measures the heat ofa paper curry powder mixture of spices ofwidely varying composition based on South Asian cuisine bioassay measure the effects ofa drug on a living organism hemiparasite a parasitic plant as the mistletoe which carries on some photosynthesis but obtains a portion ofits food water or minerals from a host plant voucher specimen An herb specimen used as evidence or proof myrrh tussiemussie a bouquet of herbs dioecious separate male and female owers Native American Church believes sprit of Gods are in plants evil eye mescaline an alkaloid within the Peyote cactus microtubules gg dropsy lymph accumulation in your extremities hh Brugmansia ii Organoleptic any sensory properties of a product involving taste colour odour and feel jj essential oils stored in special cells of plants and are aromatic kk umbel ower stalks from a single point Name three herbs or spices that the Egyptians used in the preparation of mummies Cumin cinnamon anise myrrh marjoram frankincense a How is frankincense harvested By scratching the bark of the tree and letting it leak out Why do Arab spice traders rub noses with their suppliers Smelling each others scents c Following the Crusades did the ow of Old World spices to Europe increase or decrease Increased What are the three major areas of origin ofherbs spices and medicinal plants EuropeMediterranean Old World Tropics India amp Far East and New World Tropics a Name three examples of commercially important plants from each of these areas ltquot EAI1 M quotHCD OU SJN lt mgogm39 b 9 What characteristics of the Old World spices physical chemical etc made them particularly well suited to long distance trade between Europe and the Far East in ancient times In the 21St century spices are still important in commerce but they have declined considerably in value Discuss three reasons why spices are relatively less expensive today than they were in ancient times 12 10 Which Old World spice is quotcoppicedquot to produce numerous long straight shoots Which Old Word spice plant produces two different spices from the same fruit Which Old World spice is an important ingredient in cigarettes marketed in Indonesia What is the difference between true cinnamon and cassia What member of the ginger family is often responsible for the yellow color of curry powder What part of cardamom is used as a spice 14 11 We discussed the characteristics of several plant families including the Ginger family the Mint family the Parsley family and the Mustard family Name three characteristics of each family use can use vegetative and reproductive characteristics or features of the family s geographical distribution 16 12 Some members of the Parsley family are used for their leaves eg parsley while others are used for the fruits and seeds eg cumin Name two members of this family that are used for both their leaves and seeds 18 13 List five commonly used culinary herbs in the Mint family 20 14 Fill in the blanks The Aztecs used to avor chocolate A spice that combines the avors of cinnamon cloves and nutmeg in one fruit is The compound in chile peppers that creates the burning sensation is Of the three New World spices the one that made the greatest contribution to regional cuisines in Europe and Asia is Peyote is the source of the hallucinogenic drug 21 15 What is the average cost of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to market from initial discovery to obtaining FDA approval How long do patents on pharmaceutical drugs last How do herbal OTC products differ from pharmaceutical medicines in terms of strength and composition Approximately how many prescription drugs are derived from plants 23 24 16 Horseradish is obtained from what part of the horseradish plant The plant that provides wasabi belongs to what family What plant in the Parsley family has licoricescented seeds What culinary herb is an important ingredient in pesto 25 26 17 Chili peppers and mustard seeds both contain compounds that produce a quothotquot sensation Name the compounds responsible for the quotheatquot in each plant Why do you have to crush mustard seeds in order to elicit the hot sensation Are all capsicum peppers hot How do mammals and birds respond differently to the quothotquot compounds in capsicum peppers 27 28 18 Mistletoe is being tested as a potential treatment for what disease What ancient religious sect considered mistletoe sacred because it grew on N N 1 De ne herbs spices and medicinal plants How do herbs and spices differ from one another herbs nonwoody leafy plant grown in temperate climates spices other plant organs rhizome underground stem grows in tropical climates medicinal plans plants that are valued for their physiological therapeutic or psychoactive effects The difference between herbs and spices is that herbs are grown in temperate climates and the leafy parts are used while spices are grown in tropical climates and other parts are used such as rhizome fruits owers etc 2 Name ve tropical spices that were important in the early trade between Europe and the Far East Explain from what part of the plant each spice is obtained Describe how black pepper green pepper and white pepper are obtained from the same plant lNutmeg seed fMace Aril 2 Ginger root 3 Turmeric root 4 Cloves unopened owerbuds 5 Cinnamon inner barkquills Can you also use Myrrh resin or gum Pepper fruit If you pick an immature berry fruit and dry it out you get black pepper An immature pepper fruit soaked in salt brine results in green pepper When a mature fruit ferments and you have to remove the outer skin you get white pepper 3 Name two important anticancer drugs that we discussed in class that were discovered through random screening What plants produce them What regions of the world are these plants native to Which one shares habitat with the endangered Spotted Owl How do the drugs derived from these plants interfere with cell division TaxolPaci c Yew OWL Native to Paci c Northwest USA Binds to microtubule and causes freezing of the structure Vinblastine Vincristine Madagascar Periwinkle Native to Madagascar Binds to site and prevents chain formation 4 Opium poppies coca willows and foxglove are all plants that have provided modern pharmaceutical medicines For each of these species name the active compounds or drugs obtained from the plant the therapeutic effect of the medicine obtained from each species and the part of the plant that yields the drug eg leaves for foxglove l Opium poppies Morphine codeine pain killersAnesthetic Comes from immature fruit capsules 2 Coca cocaine stimulant Comes from the leaves of the plant 3 Willows aspirinSalicin anestheticglycoside Salicin come from the bark aspirin is completely synthetic 4 Foxglove digitalis compound digitoxin Heart help Comes from the leaves ofthe foxglove plant 5 Name three tropane alkaloids and three plants that contain them What feature of the tropane alkaloids makes it easy to apply them through the surface of the skin What plant family are they found in A Atropinebelladonna Hyoscyaminemandrake Scopolamineangels trumpet henbane B Fat soluble C Solanaceae potato 6 Brie y de ne the following terms Ebers papyrus Spice Islands aril panacea analgesic William Withering zoopharrnacognosy opium of cinale when used as a species name QueenHatshepsut rhizome peyote Taxol hexing herbs carrninative capsaicin Scoville scale curry powder myristicin bioassay hemipamsite eg mistletoe voucher specimen myrrh tussiemussie dioecious Native American Church evil eye mescaline microtubules dropsy Brugmansia organoleptic essential oils urnbel vulnerary NCCAM parthenogenesis ricin Eberys paprus 7 scroll with 700 different herbal and mineral medicines Spice Islands 7 the Maluku Islands home to spices such as nutmeg Aril 7 eshy appendange attached to seed Panacea 7 a cure all Garlic is thought to be world39s bestknown cureall anaglesic 7 group of drugs that relieve pain William Withering 7 English botanist that discovered Digitalis used for cardiac dropsy congestive heart failure Foxglove was a source Doctrine of Signatures 7 herbs that resemble various parts of the body can be used to treat ailments of that part ofthe body zoopharmocognosy 7 animals selfmedicate by selecting and using plants soils and insects to treat and prevent disease Opium immature fruit capsule Heroin Officinale Dandelion Has been used in prescriptions Queen Hatshepsut 31 live myrrh trees to Egypt Rhizome Undergron StemTaXol Found in the Paci c Yew Cancer treatment bind to microtubules IVIicrotubulesIVIicrotubules pull chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell in mitosis Taxol prevents the microtubules from working so the cells cannot divide thus slowing cancer growth Hexing Herbs Herbs believed to be used by witches Carminative Prevents Gas Capsaicin Creates heat in peppers Scoville Scale Original scale for pepper heat Indicates the amount of capsaicin present Organoleptjc based on senses Scoville test Curry Powder Mixture of spices Clove nutmeg and cinnamon Myristjcin Hallucinogenic chemical innutmeg Nutmeg psychosis Bioassay tests for biological activity using living organisms tissues cells etc Hemiparasite Semi photosynthetic Mistletoe partially pamsitic N Voucher specimen A record of where a plant was found w a pressed specimen Myrrh tree Aromatic Resin Tussie7mussie ower bouquets Different meanings Deoecious Two houses Male and Female on different plants Native American Church Use peyote cactus as a sacrament PeyoteFlower from Cactus Brugmansia Woody Daturas tropane alkaloids angels trumpet NCCAMA National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Mesculine Hallucino enic and Alternative Medicine Parthenogenesis Assexual reproduction ex Lady s Mantel Umbel Parsley family Flowers stem from one point Ricin Castor bean Cancer Evil eye curse you can put on people plants cure garlic Essential oils oils you can extmct from plants that usually have medicinal values Vulnerary healing wounds 7 Name three herbs or spices that the Egyptians used in the preparation of mummies How is frankincense harvested Why do Arab spice traders rub noses with their suppliers What effect did the Crusades have on the ow of Old World spices to Europe A Myrrh Frankincense Anise Cinnamon Marj omm Cumin B It is collected from sap C To test each others smell To Test Honesty D It increased the ow of spices 8 What are the three major areas of origin of herbs spices and medicinal plants Name three examples of commercially important plants from each ofthese areas lMeditermnean Horseradish mustard dill peppermint onion 2 Old world tropics Cloves Cinnamon black pepper 3 New world tropics Vanilla Allspice Capsicum peppers 9 What characteristics of the Old World spices physical chemical etc made them particularly well suited to long distance trade between Europe and the Far East in ancient times In the 21st century spices are still important in commerce but they have declined considerably in value Discuss three reasons why spices are relatively less expensive today than they were in ancient times Old World spices were relatively light chemically potent useful in small quantities and had a long life when dried They are less expensive today because of improved transportation largescale agricultural production and new centers of production 10 Which Old World spice is coppiced to produce numerous long stmight shoots Which Old World spice plant produces two different spices from the same fruit Which Old World spice is an important ingredient in cigarettes marketed in Indonesia What is the difference between true cinnamon and cassia What member of the ginger family is o en responsible for the yellow color of curry powder What part of cardamom is used as a spice Which of the three New World spices did Columbus take back to Europe A Cinnamon D Cassia is cheaper E Turmeric F Seed Pods Which of the three New World spices did Columbus take back to Europe Vanilla capsicum peppers or allspice 11 We discussed the characteristics of several plant families including the Ginger family the Mint family and the Parsley family Name three chamcteristics of each family use can use vegetative and reproductive characteristics or features of the family s geographical distribution Ginger Family 7 perennial herbs thick rhizomes alternate leaves pantropical distribution most diverse in SE Asia typically in shady lowland forests with rich soil Mint Family 7 shrubs or herbs square stems leaves opposite each other valuable for essential oils symmetric owers withusually 5 petals ovary divided into 4 compartments called Nutlets Parsley Family 7 Mediterranean compound leaf sheaths the stem forms an umbel old name Umbelliferae usually herbaceous radially symmetric owers fruit 2 oneseeded halves Mericarps 12 Some members of the Parsley family are used for their leaves eg parsley while others are used for the fruits and seeds eg cumin Name two members of this family that are used for both their leaves and seeds CilantroCoriander Dill 13 List five commonly used culinary herbs in the Mint family thyme rosemary oregano marjomm basil and sage 14 Fill in the blanks a The Aztecs used vanilla to avor chocolate b A spice that combines the avors of cinnamon cloves and nutmeg in one fruit is Allsm39ce c Of the three New World spices the one that made the greatest contribution to regional cuisines in Europe and Asia is Capsicum peppers d Peyote is the source ofthe hallucinogenic drug Mescaline 15 What is the avemge cost of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to market from initial discovery to obtaining FDA approval How long do patents on pharmaceutical drugs last How do herbal OTC products differ from pharmaceutical medicines in terms of strength and composition Approximately how many prescription drugs are derived from plants The average cost of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market is 800 million 7 S 17 billion Patents will last 20 years 712 years in effect Herbal OTC products differ from pharmaceutical medicines as being less potent Pharmaceutical medicines are extracts of plants mixed with other compounds to produce a desired effect Approximately 120 prescription drugs derive from plants 40 derived from plants 16 Horsemdish is obtained from what part of the horseradish plant The plant that provides wasabi belongs to what family What plant in the Parsley family has licoricescented seeds What culinary herb is an important ingredient in pesto A from root 17 What is the name of the compound that is responsible for the heat in chile peppers Are all capsicum peppers hot How do mammals and birds respond differently to the hot compounds in capsicum peppers A Capsaicin B NOEx Sweet Bell Peppers C Birds are not effected by the Capsicum so that they can spread the seeds 18 Mistletoe is being tested as apotential treatment for what disease What ancient religious sect considered mistletoe sacred because it grew on trees What culinary herb is associated culturally or symbolically with remembrance Mistletoe is being tested as a potential treatment for cancer The druids considered mistletoe sacred because it grew on trees Rosemary is a culinary herb associated culturallysymbolically with 39remembrance 19 How do the names of alkaloids usually end What class of plant secondary compounds consists of a sugar bonded to a nonsugar compound What is the difference between natumlly occurring salicin and aspirin Heroin is produced from opium but mw opium does not contain heroin 7 explain A 1NE B Glycosides C Salicinsaicylic acid Aspirin acetlysalicylic acid Completely syntheticThe idea came from salicin D Heroin is a derivative of Opium 20 Refer to the August 31 guest lecture by herbalist Holli Richey for answers to the following questions What does an herbalist mean by synergism among the chemicals in an herbal remedy What is the difference between primary and secondary metabolites From an ecological perspective what are some of the functions of secondary metabolites Synergism The combined effect of different herbs is better than one herb by itself Primary metabolites carbs proteins lipids Structure Secondary metabolites Alkaloids steroids repel animals messenger molecules provide active constituents HORTPBIOANTH 3440 Herbs Spices and Medicinal Plants Fall 2011 REVIEW QUESTIONS FOR SECOND EXAM The exam will not be limited to these questions but use them to focus your studying and test your knowledge If you can answer all of them based on lecture notes PowerPoints handouts videos shown in class and assigned readings you should be well prepared for the exam 1 Describe the experiment clinical trial that was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of ginger and Dramamine in controlling motion sickness What is the basic design of a clinical trial What is a placebo What is its role in a clinical trial What is a washout period Did the clinical trial of Echinacea at the University of Virginia conclude that Echinacea was a safe and effective preventative for the common cold There were 36 subjects in 3 groups one taking ginger one taking dramamine and the other a placebo The test involved a motion chair and the group who took ginger lasted the longest at 55 minutes A clinical trial includes placebo controlled doubleblindedness crossover and a valid statistical design A placebo is a harmless substance with no effect that can be prescribed for the psychological benefit Its role is to compare the effect of it with real treatment A washout period is time after an experiment for substances to no longer be active in order for a crossover or new experiment to be done U of Virginia did not conclude that Echinacea was safe and effective for preventing the common cold but there were other factors involved 2 During the 18th and 19th centuries there was considerable competition between physicians practicing Regular medicine in the United States and herbal practitioners Briefly define each of the following people or concepts and explain whether they represented the Regular medicine or alternative herbal medicine of the time Heroic medicine Based on Hippocrates ideas that the most desperate cases need the most desperate remedies Treatment options may include mercury dosing blood letting blistering of the skin and the use of emetics to induce vomiting The idea was to rid the body of excess humors 4 humorsBlack bileboodphlegmyellow bieCholer Samuel Thompson Appalled by heroic medicine Was considered to practice herbal medicine He was an American that believed that All disease is caused by cold He drew much research from Native American usage of plants Dr Wooster Beach Also appalled by heroic medicine but he felt that Thompson s views on the matter were overly simplistic He was an herbalist with a degree in traditional medicine who sought to combine the best of herbal medicine with new scientific knowledge to form eclectic medicine Traditional physicians found him to be a thorn in their side Shaker Herb Farms A wholesale herb business in the 1800 s that sold over 400 different herb types to physicians Know for quality control and a consistent product manufacturers of patent medicines Produced a product that was 2550 alcohol and contained powerful drugs such as opium sennaantimony and ipecac as emetics These medicines were advertised as blood purifiers Lydia Pinkham Developed an herbal recipe to cure Female Complaints It was a profitable patent medicine and the chemists that developed synthetic organic compounds such as aspirin Developed through advances in regular medicine Modern science and pharmaceutical companies were growing during the 19th century What were the primary treatment techniques used by practitioners of heroic medicine during George Washington s era Blood lettingBlisteringMercury dosingEmetics According to Samuel Thompson what was the primary cause of disease Cold Did Dr Wooster Beach share this belief While mainstream physicians were not in agreement with him Dr Wooster did open a medical school in Ohio to share his beliefs What segment of society did Lydia Pinkham target with her herbal products Mostly women but it did appeal to men as well If their women were happy so are the men 3 Did the second century physician Galen place more emphasis on pragmatic evidence and observation or on theoretical interpretations of disease His ideas were built on theory He lived from 131AD to 200AD however his influence lasted for the next 1500 years He developed a rigid system of diagnosis and treatment He was supported by professional physicians rather than traditional ones How did his belief in the four bodily humorsquot justify the treatment techniques of subsequent practitioners of heroic medicine He believed that there were 4 bodily humors that needed to be balanced to be healthy Draining the body of excess humors was thought to help heal and restore the balance This is the principal concept on which heroic medicine is built Botanical garden curator Pam Butts described Georgia doctor Lindsey Durham in her lecture on 19th century healthcare October 3 How did Dr Durham s practice reflect the beliefs of the Eclectic School of medicine Dr Durham was a professional physician who spent much time learning about herbs and their usages He combined his knowledge with that of the Native Americans use of herbs to practice professional medicine in combination with herbal remedies This is the same idea promoted by Dr Wooster at his eclectic school of medicine in Ohio 4 In the first decade of the 20th Century which group of practitioners was more numerous in the United States Regular physicians or Eclectic herbalists Herbalists homeopathiceclectic were still in great number but the American Medical Association regular physicians was dominant Explain why the Flexner Report resulted in the closing of so many medical colleges in the early 20th century Flexner traveled across the US from one medical school to the next in an attempt to locate those schools that were below standard level and turning out Bad Doctors He surveyed 168 schools in 15 months As a result the Flexner Report was published in 1910 and it strongly criticized most all irregular schools They were closed down By 1920 there was only one eclectic school left it too closed its doors in 1938 Did the Flexner Report strengthen or weaken the American Medical Association Strengthen lt placed the AMA firmly in control How did Flexner s principles for medical education depart from the beliefs of irregular practitioners like the Eclectics He placed an emphasis on pharmacology and deemed botany no longer necessary made laboratory science the center for curriculum and switched the focus from prevention to cure That is to say he focused on cures for diseases rather than focusing on how to prevent them Which piece of federal legislation put restrictions on patent medicines Food and Drug Act of 1906 Which piece of legislation was the first to require that drugs be proven safe before they are put on the market Food Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 This act was put in place after the Sulfanilamide disaster to prevent a repeat 5 European countries and the United States have taken different approaches to regulating the manufacture and sale of herbal medicines What is the role of the German Commission E It is the German Equivalent of our FDA It holds a standard of Reasonable Certainty What are the basic regulations concerning the sale of herbal medicines in the United States as defined by the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 Act stated that herbs are not drugs but dietary supplements As such they do not need prior FDA approval and are only taken off the market once they are proven to be toxic Dietary Supplement cannot claim or refer to medical benefits Explain what you consider to be the strengths and weaknesses of the German vs United States 39 to g 39 quot g herbal quot 39 If you were a manufacturer of herbal medicines in the United States today why might you pay for the services of Consumerlabcom or the US Pharmacopeia Are herbal manufacturers in the USA required to provide a system for consumers to report adverse eventsquot to the FDA 6 Field cultivation hydroponics artificial shade cultivation in a woodland setting and green house production of herbs and medicinal plants each have particular advantages and disadvantages from the commercial standpoint Describe each method and give an example of a situation where it would be appropriate to use it Review the enterprise budgetsquot or production budgets for field and shade r 39 quot of f 39 39 39that we quot 39 in class and be familiar with the relative magnitude of the different expense categories 7 Define or explain each of these terms anthraquinones a harsher stimulant laxative found in aloe plants and Senna plants bulk vs stimulant laxatives Bulk laxatives add volume to the stool and encourage bowel movements and are the gentlest laxatives Stimulant laxatives chemically alter water and mucus secretion and are much harsher laxatives sennosides stimulant laxatives found in plants of the genus Senna A form of anthraquinone demulcent a compound that coats soothes and protects body surfaces eg mucous membrances laxative compounds taken to induce a bowel movement or loosen the stool emetic Drug to induce vomiting ricin Highly poisonous compound found on the outside of castor beans Frances Kelsey FDA scientist who opposed the approval ofthalidomide which was later found to cause birth defects allopathic medicine refers to the practice of conventional medicine purgative are foods compounds or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool tonic a substance with a nourishing or restorative effect on the body a revitalizer adaptogen helps the body respond to physical and emotional stress a performance enhancer allicinallinase a compound found in garlic has a distinctive pungent smell and has antibacterial and antifungal properties Elixir of Sulfanilamide A poisonous drug that led to the death of over 100 deaths and the passing ofthe Food Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 Sulfanilamide was safe but the diethylene glycol added to it to make an elixir made it poisonous to humans absinthe organoleptic analysis using the senses chemotype plants with specific chemical profiles Eclectic physicians Good Manufacturing Practices GMPs thalidomide cure for morning sickness that caused birth defects Never received approval in US thanks to Frances Kelsey patent medicines peptic ulcer berberine alkaloid found in goldenseal antiinflammatory and anti bacterial hydrodistillation carminative relieves gas spasmolytic muscle relaxant relieves spasms essen aloHs contraindication are conditions that can be dangerous to take a specific herb glycyrrhizic acid horticulture that part of agriculture that deals with garden plants accession astringent causes the contraction or constriction of tissues Goldenseal dries up secretions of mucous membranes 8 Aloe leaves contain a powerful laxative and a healing gel Where are each of these substances located within the aloe leaf The seeds of castor bean contain a laxative castor oil and the deadly compound ricin How is the castor oil extracted from the seeds without extracting the ricin The laxative an anthriquinone is found just under the leaf s surface and the healing gel is found in the fleshy middle ofthe leaf picture 9 The German physician Dr Samuel Hahnemann developed the system of homeopathy as an alternative to heroic medicine Describe the basic beliefs and practices of homeopathy Define the Law of Similarsquot the Law of lnfinitesimalsquot and succussion Why are adverse side effects usually less of a concern with homeopathic medicines than with pharmaceutical medicines 10 Name at least one herb from our Herb Cabinet list that is useful for treating each of the following conditions stomach ulcers licorice motion sickness ginger diarrhea psyllium minor burns aloe vera constipation psyllium senna high cholesterol garlic colds and flu echinacea 11What did Dr Giannasl s taste stripquot demonstration in class suggest about human variation in the ability to sense or react to different chemical compounds Each individual may react differently to different chemical compounds When you chewed the mustard seeds during Dr Giannasi s lecture what was the name of the hottasting compound that was created when the substrate glucosinolate and the enzyme 39 reacted 39 39 How did chewing the seeds enable this chemical reaction to take place The chemicals within the seed needed water saliva to react Why are active natural plant constituents sometimes called secondary metabolitesquot Because they are not required in primary metabolic functions such as respiration photosynthesis digestion etc They preform secondary functions to increase growth and survival 12 What are the basic steps in the commercial harvest of peppermint and the extraction of peppermint oil When wholesalers test the composition of peppermint oils from different sources what types of differences are they trying to detect 13 Why does herbalist Paul Beyerl featured in the DVD we watched in class often prefer commercial preparations of herbs to ones that he grows in his own garden Why does he recommend stainless steel or glass pots for preparing herbal formulas How does he store his herbs Does he think Comfrey is a dangerous herb They are more finely ground not porous or reactive elements interacting fitting lids airtight jars under a blanket to keep them in the dark no in general no herb is unless in very large quantities 14 Researchers at Purdue University evaluated and selected basil chemotypes in an effort to develop new cultivars with what two characteristics they wanted to increase the content in the essential oils to have a more aromatic product in a smaller quantity 2 wanted to isolate basil with stronger Cinnamon qualities What role did the common gardenquot or horticultural trial at the Purdue experimental farm play in their research common garden minimizes the environmental factors present soil air mulch nutrients are all the same What is the difference between quotevaluationquot and selection 0 Evaluation you growthe different plants side by side and notice any differences in them includes collecting samples etc
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