HORT SCIENCE HORT 2000
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Date Created: 09/12/15
AUGUST mm 2011 1 History of Horticulture dates won t be on test a Begins with intentional planting seed plantediplant begins 2 Origins of Agriculture horticulture a In the beginning i Early humans depended on hunting gathering ii Intentional planting of crops 1015000 BP iii Arose around the 8 centers of origin iv Started with adapted wild plants 1 Particularly wheatiit will shatter native wheat a wind or a touch of something the seed will shatter a One of the rst things that humans did was chose 4 types of wheat that won t shatter b Shatter resistance ibased on selection to nd the one that will not shatter to grow evolution with this characteristic V Allowed for settlements and increases in rates of advancemen in civilization 3 Changes Accompanied Adoption of Agricultural Lifestyle a Increase in population More leisure time Increase in sedentary lifestyle Increase in civilization Increase in warriors and warfare Increase in social strati cation Increased urban problems like crime and disease Decreased knowledge of indigenous plants Increased famine and dietary diseases 4 Changes to Crops mostly by human intervention a Shattering ability in grains b Potato tubers borne close to plant c Thin vs Thick shells in nuts 5 Modi cations to Mustard a Has given rise to all these members of the same groupings of plants i Brocolli cabbage brussell sprouts kale kohirabi cauli ower ii These all are decedents of the mustard plant 6 Corn kernel varietiesipreserved comcobs a Is not what it was several hundred years ago but possibly a cross of several different plants 7 Early Horticulturists a Theophrastus 371286 BP i Wrote two important books on plants ii Earliest known systematic author b Discoirides 4090 i Medical botanist F QOWFDPQFquot b l ii DeMateriaMedica c Pliny the Elder 2379 AD 139 Historic Naturalis 8 Egyptians a Had ability to store large amounts of grainistockpiles that allowed them to get through large amounts of drought etc 9 The Roman Period a Irrigation not just Roman Empire i Allowed more land to be cultivated b Windmills and water mills added c Introduction of fertilizers i Animal manure d Crop rotation 10 Feudal Agriculture Middle Ages a After fall of the Roman Empire i A lot of knowledge gets lost during this time b Peak in about 1100 c Loss of agricultural information d Monastic gardens e 8090 percent ofpeople farmed i In terms of occupation ii Today its more like 5 or less are fa1mers 11 Renaissance and Scientific Agriculture a Scientific revolution i Arguably the beginning of the study of science b Plant breeding c Crop rotations d Drainage brought more land into cultivation 12 Renaissance and Early trade a Spice Trade b Tea from China 2737 BP to England 1644 13 Columbian Exchange a Exchange of crops and ideas of growing b Conquer in the name of trade 14 Settling Taking of America a Some exchange with native peoples i The Squanto story ii Corn beans squash 1 Not native to North Americairather central and south America iii Native fruit and nuts b European British ideas of food and farming i Root crops lettuce peas 15 Age of Enlightenment a To understand the natural world and humankind s place in it solely on the basis of reason and without turning to religious belief b Better food supplies c Increase in agricultural productivity 16 What do these two people have in common a Jethro Toll have the same name i One is in a band with this name and one is an agriculture guy who develops fa1m implements plows etc 17 Early Botanists and EXploreer a 1 Paid by promoters in England to collect plants in the southeast and ship them back ii Did a lot of research in Georgia b James Oglethorpe establishes Trustees Garden c Andre MichauX d W and Monticello 18 Seed compan1es and nurseries a David Landreth seed business at Philadelphia in 1784 first garden supply store b Shaking Quakers Shakersibeginnings of seed packets 1789 i Fatal awicelibacyican t carry on a group of people without reproduction c Park seed co 1868 d Burpee 1876 e Ball 1905 19 Nursury industry a Robert Prince Nursery in Long Island 71737 b Stark Brothers Nursery 71816 i Red delicious Golden Delicios apple Downing Fruit Nursery 71838 Fruitland Nursery7185 8 i Is now Augusta National Golf Course ii PJ Berkmans iii Augusta GA iv Camellias azaleas magnolias 1 Classic southern landscapes 20 Early Horticulture Figures in modern horti a g i 18151852 dies at the age of 37 in a steamboat accident ii Begins as an publisher of The Horticulturist magazine and books 1 Popularized landscape design horticulture 2 Promoted good practices amongst a group of people that at that point in time didn t have access to good information 3 Wrote magazine articles etc to popularize the subject iii Involved in the landscape design of Washington DC iv Forward thinker in horticulture oo 1 a Cons1dered the father of genetics 1 Pundit square a Dominant vs Recessive genes 2 Peas and the breeding of peas c Genetic traits inherited 1111 39 39 a i Responsible for extracting horticulture and making it a separate eld of study ii First president of the American society for Horticulture Science Father of Hort Science iii Became Professor at Michigan State iv Recruited by Cornell 1882 as Professor of V Formation of Scientific Societies 1600s vi Creation of Agricultural and horticultural societies 1700s State supported agricultural research 1800s Luther Burbank i 18491926 ii Wide promoter of a lot of different varieties of fruits and veggies 1 When he passes away he leaves his fruit and veggies to a nursery a Red and golden delicious apples 110 g J C Loudon i 17831843 ii Landscape planner 1 The gardenesque style of English garden design 2 Cemetaries gardens writer AUGUST 2ZN D 2011 Two important societies a The Horticultural Society of London 1804 i later Royal Horticultural Society 1 Society for Horticultural Science 1903 a American Society for Horticultural Science 2 Acts of Congress a Morrill Act of 1862 LandGrant Colleges i 1890 Colleges 1 Support for AfricanAmerican Colleges a Research tied to teaching 2 Hatch Act of 1879 Experiment Stations 3 Early 20Lh Century a Larger farms i Streamcombustion engines 1 Increased use of fertilizers 2 Advanced plant breeding 3 Improved education 4 After WWII a Green revolution Selective breeding of crops DNA technology Intensive cultivation methods Machinery development Pesticides homo 5 QUIZZES 7 open book 6 Who is considered to be the father of genetics a A Downing b Theophrastus LH Bailey 7 Origin of H01ticulture Crops 8 Why important a Genetic erosion i Loss of germplasm b Germplasm preservation i Gene banks 1 Largely seed collections 2 Frozen stem sections c Preservation of natural habitats especially in centers of origin d Debate over native plants 9 Where did our crops rst appear a Three important theorists i Alphonse de Candolle 1806 1893 1 Swiss botanist 2 International Rules of Bot Nomenclature 1867 a Combine culture history and science that develops a theory of how to determine the origin of plants 3 Famous book Origin of C ultivated Plants 1882 a Beginning of crop geography b What evidence determines the origin of a crop i Botanical c Archaeological d Historical e Linguistic b Charles Darwin 1809 1882 i British naturalist ii Theories of evolutaion and natural selection iii Believed all the life on earth evolved l Evolutionary change was gradual c 2 Natural selection and specialization iV On the Origin of the Species 1857 Nikolai I Vavilov i Russian Botanist 18871943 A A 4 Mil ilip 1119112 Li W Trifg quot ii Foremost plant geographer of contemporary times iii VaVilov s concepts 1 Law of Homologous Series in Variation 1920 2 Theory of the Centers of Origin of Cultivated plants 3 Arrest in August 1940 4 Died in Saratov Prison VI HLLFF I4 HIM 7 1 Center of diversity center of origin a Plant species not uniform b 8 primary world centers c comprise small portion of the earth s land area d 23 ofland area e 640 species listed i 56 Old World ii U6 New World 2 Centers of Origin a China i Vegetables ii Fruit 2 Pear 3 Apple 4 Walnut b Indian Center i 2 different areas main center and indomalaysian ii Vegetables and tubers l Eggplant cucumber radish taro yam iii Fruits l Mango Orange tangerine citron tamarind BANANA Breadfruit V Spices Stimulants Dyes and Misc 1 Hemp Black pepper indigo cinnamon tree sugarcane clove nutmeg c Central Asiatic Center Includes Northwest India Afghanistan Tadjikistan Uzbekistand and western TianShan 43 PLANTS iii Legumes and Grains 1 Wheat a Grows in cooler areas 2 Pea Lentil Chickpea Mung Bean mustard iV Vegetables V Fruits 1 Grape apple almonds pistacioa pear d NearEastem Center i Includes interior of Asia Minor Iran and Iraq and highlands of Turkmenistan ii 83 PLANTS iii Fruits 1 Fig Pomegranate Apple Peare tc e Mediterranean Center Europe northern Africa i Vegetables 1 Olives root crops beet cabbage turnip lettuce celery rhubarb pea etc f Abyssinian Center Ethiopia Eastern Africa l7 MesoAmerica i Vegetables 1 Maize corn bean lima bean sweet potato pepper Malabar gourd winter pumpkin ii Misc 1 Papaya Guava cashew wild black cherry cherry tomato h South American Center i 3 subcenters ii 62 plants iii A lot of it follows along the Andes 1 Vegetables a Potato pumpkin beans tomato pepper etc 2 Fruit and Fibers a Egyptian cotton passion ower guava tobacco wild strawberry cashew purple granadilla Quinine tree malaria now used for tonic water i North America i Roots amp tubers Jerusalem artichoke ii Oilcrops Sun ower iii Fruits 1 Strawberry grape concord and muscadine types cranberry pecan iv Stimulant tobacco 10 Pathways of Crop Movement a Dissemination of crops 3 1 D quot1 i Human migration ii Cultural exchange iii Trade iv Warfare Scienti c exploration i Introduction to Europe ii From the Near Ease 9000 BP Movement of Plants 7 pre1500 i Diffusion and deliberate introduction ii Modi cations in landscapes iii After the fall of Rome movement slowed iv Role of the ArabsIslamic empires v Post 200 AD Han Dynasty China imported wheat barley peas Columbian Exchange i To AmericasiColumbus moves to SW Asian European crop system and some SE Asian crops to Caribbean in 1493 ii Main Grains fail iii Citrus successful in Caribbean iv Bananas by 1516 Movement of plants post1500 i Movement greatly acceleratied ii Beginnings of globalization of agriculture iii Europe by 1800 had complete list iv Issues in movement 1 Hard to grow day length sensitive breeding new varieties 2 Cultural bias nightshade Bible issues 3 Huge impacts population growth a Encourages population growth for adversity and cultivation of accessibility of plants Movement to Africa i First exchange later slave trade then missionaries CROPS TO REMEMBER where they originated i TOMATO 1 Native to NORTHERN ANDES MOUNTAIN REGIONS 2 Italians rst grew the tomato about 1544 3 25 years later spread through much of Europe 4 Thomas Jefferson grew it in 1781 11112011 84400 AM Plant Hardiness Zones The Lower the number the colder it is in winter Athens is 7b Drainage Test o Drainage Test Dig 68 hole o Fill with water o Drains in hours good drainage o Drains overnight okay drainage o Drains in day fair drainage o Never drains bog garden Hours of sunlight o Short day plants begin to flower as day gets shorter o Long day plants begin to flower when day gets longer MicroClimate Definition o Climate meteorological conditions including temperature precipitation and wind that characteristically prevail in a particular region o Microclimate the climate of a small specific place within an area as contrasted with the climate of an entire area Frost vs Freeze o Frost no wind less than 32 F no clouds lowest temp 3032 heat radiates from surface o Freeze yes wind less than 32 F yes clouds much less than 32 F invasion of cold air mass Rain effects o Strom damage o Water logging Wind effects o Wind carries oxygen away o Effects on evaporation Temperature Effects o Photosynthesis respiration as temp goes up photosynthesis goes UP o Effects on plant physiology transpiration Flowering and seed formation Vernalizationplant needs cold period prior to budding Temperature up 9 growth up Temperature down 9 growth down Temperature Zone we are in is 73 Soil Fertility o CEC Cation Exchange Capacity Function of the texture of the soil 0 Maximum amount of cations soil can hold at a given pH 0 pH 0 0 Local Soil in the South east ranges around 50 pH naturally acidic 0 Target pH for vegetables and fruits is 6065 o Textures 0 Sand CEC is low 0 Clay CEC is high 0 Organic Matter CEC is off the charts MacroMicro Nutrients o Big Three Nitrogen Phosphorous Potassium NPK Three numbers on a fertilizer bag Percentages of each nutrient o Secondary macronutrients o Sulfur 0 Calcium 0 Magnesium Dolomitic Lime provides Calcium and Magnesium which increase the pH 0 O O O O 0 Components of Soil o Inorganic material 45 o Air 25 o Water 25 o Organic Material 5 Greenhouse Nursery Soil o Termed soil less or media o Various mixes available 0 Custom 0 Premixed o Primary two ingredients peet moss and pinebark Characteristics of Container Media LIGHTWEIGHT o Anchorage o Reservoir for nutrients o Hold water but drain well o Gas exchange KEY CHARACTERISTIC IS WEIGHT IN GREENHOUSES Fertilizer Types o Slow release 0 Coated fertilizer o Sulfur coated 0 Plastic coated o Naturally slow to breakdown ex Urea 0 Many organic fertilizers are naturally slow release o Granular 0 Soil comprised of sediments or other unconsolidated accumulations of particles such as gravel sand or silt having no clay content crumbles easily when dry o Water Soluble o Mixes in water 0 Applies with irrigation or sprayed 0 Typically most expensive per pound Irrigation Hort 2000 WHERE DOES HORTICULTURE FIT INTO AGRICULTURE 8172011 41800 PM Definition of Horticulture o Ethymology 0 From Latin hortus which means garden and coere which means to cultivate o Horticulturist s def o the science art and business of cultivating fruits vegetables flowers or ornamental plants o Teminology o Horticulturist an expert in the of horticultur WHERE DOES HORTICULTURE FIT INTO AGRICULTURE o Agriculture applied to animal sciences or plant sciences o Plant world 1 Horticulturefruits vegetables ornamentals 2Agronomy crop and soil sciences 3Forestry o The Icultures o Olericulture vegetables Viticulture grapes Enology wine and wine making Floriculture flowers Arboriculture urban trees 0 Pomology fruit o The Value of Horticulture 0 Numbers vary from year to year The numbers flutuate because lots of stuff goes unreported droughts etc 0 US production value Fruit 166 billion Ornamentals 155billion Vegetables 149 billion o Georgia Horticulture O O O O O 0 First in pecans depends on years compete with Texas and New Mexico Third in blueberries fastest growing state Michigan is a competitor Fourth in fresh vegetable production watermelons VERY HIGH IN VEGETABLE PRODUCTION California is the number one competitor for veggies CALIFORNIA IS THE NUMBER ONE FOR HORTICULTURE PRODUCING STATE climate size history Third in peaches California is number one South Carolina is number 2 Peaches VERY susceptible to diseases Peach scab Nectarine is a fuzzless peach no nectarine in GA because fuzz protects from disease Mild winter helps with growing greens and other veggies but humidity hurts the plants because they are more susceptible to diseases Humid and hotness produces diseases called pecan scab Spring frost also kills pecans GA is increasing in production because FL is decreasing acreage because value of land in FL has gone up and most growers have come to GA or gone of business GA greenhouse has gone down in because economy is bad Greenhouses are very expensive Pecans have remained stable Furit crops are increasing because of blueberries strawberries Etc Total GA horticulture products in 2008 18 billion O O O O 0 GA has A LOT of chicken houses POULTRY 57 billion Horticulture 31billion have higher yield in acre Row and Forage crops corn soybean tobacco cotton crops you can farm from tractor mass production 20 billion Livestock 13billion Forestry 571 million o Careers in Horticulure O 0 Direct carreers Greenhoseflower production Nursery prodution Florist Golf Veggie grower Teacher Researcher Sales Farm manager Indirect carrers Horticulure therapy Introduction to Horticulture History8172011 41800 PM o Debate able when agriculturehorticulture began Hard to tell when and where it began 0 At some point in time humans stopped being nomadic to plant seeds and stay in one place o Origins of HorticultureAgriculture o In the beginning Early humans depend on huntinggathering Intentional planting of crops 1015000 BP Arose around the 8 centers of origin Started with adapted wild plants Allowed for settlements and increases in rates of advancement in civilization Purely based on selectionselect varieties that are good o Changes Accompanied Adoption of agricultural lifestyle Increase in population More leisure item Increase in sedentary lifestyle Increase in civilization 0 O O O O O O O 0 Increase in warriors and warfare Increase in social stratification Increase urban problems like crime and disease Decreased knowledge of indigenous plants Increase famine and dietary diseases o Change to Crops Mostly by human intervention Shattering ability in grains Potato tubers borne close to plant Thin vs thick shells in nuts Modifications to mustard9 given rise to lost of same groupingcabbage broccoli kale cauliflower Brussels sprouts o Early Horticulture o Discoirides 4090 Medical botanist De Materia MEdica o Pliny the Elder 2379 AD Historia Naturalis The Roman Period 0 Irrigation not just Roman Empire Allowed more land to be cultivated o Windmills and ater mills added 0 Introduction of fertilizers Animal manures 0 Crop rotations Feudal Agricultre middle ages 0 After fall of Roman Empire 0 Peak in about 1100 0 Loss of agricultural information o Monastic gardens 0 8090 people farmed at this time Renaissance and Scientific agriculture 0 Scientific revolution 0 Plant breeding 0 Crop rotations o Drainage brought more land into cultivation Renasissnce and early trade 0 Spice trade 0 Tea from china 2737 BP to England 1644 o Settling taking of America 0 Some exchange with native peoples The Squanto Story Native fruit and nuts 0 European British ideas of food and farming Roots crops lettuce peas o Age of enlightenment 0 To understand the natural world and humankinds place in it solely o the basis of reason and without turning into religious belief Better food supplies Increase in agricultural productivity o Early Botanists and explores 0 John Bartram and son William bartarm paid by people in England to find plants and ship them back 0 O O 0 Andre michaux 0 Thomas Jefferson and Monticello o Seed Companies and Nurseries 0 David Landreth seed business at PA in 1784 first garden supply sotre o Shaking Quakers shakers begnnings of seed packsts 0 Park seed 1789 o Burpee 1876 0 Ball 1905 o Nursery Industry 0 Robert Prince Nursery in Long Islandt o Shark Borthers Nurseries Red deliciousgolen delicious apple 0 Downing fruit nursery 1838 o Fruitland nursery 1858 PJ berkmans Augusta GA Azealis Early Horticulture figures in modern Horticulture o ANDRE JACKSON DOWNING o GREGOR MENDEL o LH O o JC Loudon 0 Landscape planner Gardenesque stile of English garden style Cemeteries gardens writer 0 Follower of English garden designers Begins as an editor of hort magazine and is the 0 White house 0 Writes magazines and booksmartha stewert 0 Genetic traits inherited 0 Plant breeding as a science 0 Idea of dominant and recessive traits o Phenotyepe vs geneotype o Luther Burbank 0 American botanist and horticulturist o 8000 diff strains and varieties o worked spurred in 1930 plant patent act 0 promoter of wide variety of fruits and veggies 0 First president of American society for horiculture o Became professor at Michigan state Recruited by cornell in 1882 as professor of practical and experimental horticulture Dean of college of ag at cornell Books 0 O O Origins of horticulture science 0 Formation of scientific societies 0 Creation of agricultural and horticultural societies 0 State supposed agricultural research 0 Two important societies The horticulture society of longon Society for horticultural science American society for horticultural science Acts of Congress 0 Morrill Act of 1862 LandGrant colleges 1890 colleges separate but equal a support for African American colleges research tired to teaching 0 Hatch Act of 1879 experiment stations Early 20th Centaury 0 Larger farms 0 Steam combustion engines 0 Increased use of fertilizers 0 Advanced plant breeding 0 Improved education After WWII 0 Green revolution 0 Selective breeding of crops 0 DNA technology 0 Intensive cultivation methods 0 Machinery development 0 Pesticides Origins of Horticuture Crops 8172011 41800 PM WHY IMPORTANT 0 Genetic erosion Loss of germplasm o Germplasm preservation Gene banks a Largely seed collections n Frozen stem sections Preservation of natural habitats especially in centers of origin Debate over native plants o Where did our crops first appear 0 Three important theorists Alphonse de Candollege a Swiss Botanist B International rules of bot naming a Famous book origins of cultivated plants Beginning of crop geography What evidence determines the origin of a crop o Botanical o Archaeological o Historical o Linguistic Charles Darwin a British naturalist n Theories of evolution and natural selection a Believed all the life on earth evolved o Evolutionary change was gradual o On Origin of species Nikoai Vavliov a Russian botanist n Foremost plant geographer o contemporary times a Vaviloves concepts o Law of homogonous series in a variation o Theory of centeres of origin of cultivated plants o Arrested o Died in prison Theory of the centers of origin 0 O O O 1 Chi O O O O 0 Fruits O O O O O 0 Center of diversity center of origin Plant species not uniform 8 primary world centers comprise small portion of earth 23 of land area 640 species listed a 56 old world more eastern n 16 new world na vegetables Chinese yam Radish Chinese cabbage Onion Cucumber from China Pear Peach Apriocot Walnut Litchi Chinese apple 2 Indian center 0 O O 0 India two subcenters 2A Main center Hindustan Assam Burma veggies eggplant cucumber radish taro yam Fruits mango orange tangerine citron tamarind banana breadfruit Spcies stimulats dyes and etc Hemp Black pepper Indigo 0 Cinnamon tree 0 Sugarcane o Clove o Nutmeg o 3 Central asistic center cool weather 0 northwest India Afghanistan 0 Legumes and grains Wheat Pea Lentil Chickpea Mungbean Mustard 0 Veggies Garlic Onions 0 Fruits Grapes Apples Almonds o 4 Near Eastern Center 0 includes interior of Asia minor Iran and highlands of Turkmenistan 0 83 plants 0 Fruits Fig Apple Pear Cheery o 5 Meditarrian center North Africasouthern Europe 0 veggies olives turnips celery root crops lettuce beet pea o 6 Abyssinian Center 0 sesame 0 coffee 0 indigo o okra o l MesoAmerica central America 0 Maize corn 0 O O 0 came PaPYa wild black cheery tobacco o South American Center Peru Ecuador Bolivian o Veggies 0 Fruit Squash Tomatoes Beans Pepper PumpMn Strawberries Guava Cashew Passion flower Cotton Quinine tree used for treating malaria o North America 0 Roots and tubers o Oilcrops sunflowers 0 Fruits Strawbeery Grape Cranberry pecan o Stimulant tobacco 0 SHORT LIST Pathways of crop movements 0 Dissemination of crops Human migration Cultural exchange Trade Warfare 0 Scientific exploration Introduction into Europe From the Near east Columbus brought back a lot of stuff Movement of Plants pre 1500s 0 Diffusion and deliberate introduction Modifications in landscapes After the fall of Rome movement slowed Role of the ArabsIslamic empires Post ZOOAD han dynasty china imported wheat barley peas o Movement of plants post 1500s 0 Movement greatly accelerated o Beginnings of globalization of agriculture 0 Europe by 1800 had complete list 0 Issues in movement Hard to grow day length sensitive9 breeding new verities Cultural bias nightshade bible issues a Thought tomatoes were poison because night crop Huge impacts population growth because more people were eating better o Movement to Africa 0 First exchange later slave trade then missionaries Native to Andres Mountains Italians first grew the tomato about 1554 35 years later all over Europe Thomas Jefferson grew it in 1781 used as food in new orelans o Peppers capsicum 0 Several species in Mes and South America Some originated southern brazil to Bolivia Most in mexico Columbus took it back 0 O O O O 0 Columbus brought back to Spain by 1544 in china 0 First published mentioned of sweet corn 1801 0 Super sweet corn began in early 1950s 0 Perfectd in 70 s and 80 s 0 o Pineapple 0 Columbus saw the pineapple on he island of guatlope in o Squash 0 Comes from the massachuset Indian word askutaswuas o All 3 native to south America 0 Never became well known in Europe Brought west by Arab conquerors in 327 BP Moved from Asia minor to Africa and finally carried to the new world by explorers and missionaries to Caribbean 0 Mass production of bananas started in 1834 and really exploded in the late 1880s 0 Role f united fruit in Costa Rica and Guatemala Arabia 500 Egypt 1500 England 1650 Brazil 1727 major grower Russia Persia Europe Spain Mexico California What were the 3 main crops native Americans were growng at the time the pilgrims landed Maize corn Lima beans Sweet Qotatoes Pe ers Gourd Winter Qqukins Peaches native to mexico F What crop is native to s America but originally from west Africa coffee History of Landscape Design 8172011 41800 PM o Landscape design 0 O O Horticulture agriculure Culture History o The Garden of Eden 0 O 0 First known garden Paradise garden Essentials for survival 0 Something symbolic in the middle and then four corners closed garden central garden space o Italian Gardens Renaissance 14001600 0 O O O O O O Parterres and topiary Terraces Water features pumps Formal layout Dramatic sitting Manipulated land forms Steep slope topography o French Gardents 16001800 0 O O O O O O O Grandndiose scale opulence Level topography Elaborate beds jar din Le Embroidere Alle long site line Formal style grand style Demonstration of control of nature Unique pruning pleaching pollarding Example Versailles o English Garden 17001800 0 O Spacious lawn meadow Rolling hills Large bodies of water Asymmetrical Large bodies of water A lot of influence on American landscape More informal than before Influenced by painters O O O O O 0 Sir o Transformed the English landscape 0 Naturalized the English formal style 0 Open lawn up to house 0 Put animals on there to cut and grazepart of landscape 0 Engrains Pasture into brains and use of lawns o John Claudius Loudon 17831843 0 picturesque to gardenesque 0 individual plant display 0 Victorian garden Gertrude Jekyll 18421932 0 Color theory 0 Reference to genious loci 0 Link of architecture to landscape 0 Use of earth tone colors o Oriental gardens 0 Harmony with nature 0 Symbolic relationship of man and nature 0 Interior connected to exterior 0 Water real or symbolic 0 Stone that is rake or natural 0 Minimal simplistic plant use o Early American gardens 16001800 0 Use of English garden concepts Mt Vernon Washington Monticello Jefferson Gunston Hall Mason Copy efforts in England 0 Early 1800s a Open lawns n Picturesque look views a Country cottage n Ideas popularized in publications 0 Late 1800s to early 1900s a Landscape as a cure for social ills a City parks central park a University planning standord n Estates Biltmore entrance road a Neighborhoods druid hills riverside a Father of landscape architecture 0 Early 1900s Beatrix Farrand a First woman ASLA n Apprencited under professor a Not that important American Gardens 19405 0 Thomas Church 1940519605 Site planning Garden zones Low maintenance Brings practically to landscape design Wolfgang Oehme and James van Sweden Garden Design today 0 New urbanism 0 Green LEED certified 0 Sustainability 0 Local food Garden design magazines 0 Sunset 0 Martha Stewart 0 Southern living Lawn History in America 8172011 41800 PM o Early Lawns 0 Ca abilit Brown OQen lawn area design 0 First lawns in America Middletone Plantation SC Mt Vernon VA Monticello VA o Lawns and Mower o 1830 budding mower 1852 horse mower 1898 sickle bar mower 1921 reel mower 1933 toro gold tractor 1955 swisher mower o 2009 encore rider mower o Turf Grass Varieites 0 Cool seasoned grasses Most native to England Fescue and bluegrass 0 Warm seasoned grasses Bermuda Africa Centipede China Zoysia China o Lawn as a standard 0 Garden clubs First one in Athens in 1891 0 City ordinances 0 Turn industry o How did the lawn become such a big deal 0 O O O O O O O 0 Design aesthetic Promoted by prominent designers Invention of lawn mower Seed development c Current Environmental Issues 0 O O O O O o 4000 Fertilizers Pollution from power equipment Pesticides Waste recycling Water consumption Noise pollution of water goes to outdoor uses Plant Nomenclature 8172011 41800 PM o Why name plants 0 Manual of Woody Landscape plants dirr 1998 0 European White water lily Nymphae alba 15 diff common English names 44 french o First naming of plants 0 Based on Use Food you eat you die Medicinal you eat you live Dyes o Early Plant Describers 480 species 0 Pliny the Elder 500 species Dioscorides n 600 scies Other acient authors a China 3600 BP n Indian 0 AD n Axtecs o Middle ages 0 Little original work 0 Alberus Mangus 1183012800 Classification system recognizing difference in monocot and dicots 0 Carl Linne Linnaeus Naming based on reproductive parts Binary names Published 1750 Estimated 2000 plant species now estimated 250000 set the standard 0 O O O O O o Linnaeus and Banks Evolution 0 Charles Darwin 18091882 Origin of species Evolutionary concepts Change over LONG time Natural System 0 Advantages to Linnaeus system 0 Mostly French botanists 0 Like plants together 0 Use other ways to describe plants Earliest Latin Names 0 Nepeta floribus interrupete spicatis peduncaulatis catni o Dianthus floribus solitariis squamis calycinis carations Binomical system of nomenclature 0 Two part latin scientific name Genus species Nepeta catariacatnip o Phylogenetic system Interrelationships of living things Changes over time o Euonymus o Petunia o Rhododendrom o Forsythia Betula lutea yellow birch Betula alba white birch Quercus rubra red oak Juglans nigra black walnut O O O O o Itea virginica virgina sweetspire First found in Virginia 0 Taxus Canadensis Canadian yew 0 Authority 0 Acer palmatum Thunb Taxonomist scientist who identifies and classifies living organisms n this case Swedish botanist Thunberg International Code of Botanical Nomenclature Cultivars and Varieties o Variety botanical term on to progeny written with the letters var then underlined or italicized Cultivar written with the letters cv or placed in o Gleditsia triascanthos var inermis skyline common name thorn less honeylocust o Taxonomical Classification of peach 0 Kingdom PLantae Division Tracheophyta Class Angiospermae Subclass Dicotyledoneae Order Rosales Family rosacease Genus Prunus Species persica o OperationalClassifications o Annuals o Biennials o Perennials Evergreen retains leave year round Deciduous looses its leaves typically in the fall or end of growing season 0 Ornamental Herbaceous Annualbiennial perennial flowering vs foliage Bedding plants handing plants houseplants O O O O O O O o Organmentals woody Shrubs trees vines Plant parts and what they do 8172011 41800 PM o Dicots vs monocots o Dicots Net veined leaves Floral parts 2 cotyledons vascular bundles in circles begin life as seed seed splits in 2 first thing to be seen is cotolyn modified leaves plant grows out o Monocots parallel veined floral parts in 35 1 cotyledon scattered vascular bundles grasses don t often see seed come out of ground just comes up out of ground and GROWS no splitting o Plant Growth 0 Meristem cells Area of active cell divisions 0 Types of meristem cells Apical Lateral o Plant anatomy o Roots Anchors plant Absorbs water amp minerals Stores sugars Produces hormones Transports watermineralssugarpheromones Root hairs help absorption Root Cap contains meristematic growth area Conductive tissue conducts water and nutrients to the plant Root types 0 Stem o Vascu Structural roots Fine roots Storage and tuberous roots Surface roots Adventitious roots roots all over the placeair 2 types of root systems Tap root one major core root ex carrot moderately branching roots growing from stem Fibrous root weblike network of roots n n n n n a Support structure of the plant conduction of water and sugars throughout plant contain buds leaf or flower at nodes External anatomy of stems Inernodes areas between the buds Bark lenticels Leaf scars Woody stems Sylem Phloem Cambium Sapwood Heart wood Pith and herbaceous Tree versus climbing Thorns are modified branches Underground stems are rhizomes tubers corm crocusgladiolus Tissues of stem epidermis protection cortex store food photosynthesis lar System composed to xylem and phloem n n n n n n n n n 0 Leaves Photosynthetic unit a Gas exchange 0 Leave Structure Epidermis outer edge Vascular bundles contain xylem and phloem for transport 0 Plant Growth 2 main components of most plants a carbon 40 n oxygen 45 a hydrogen 78 o Photosynthesis Plants get almost all their carbon oxygen and hydrogen from photosynthesis Thus photosynthesis is the process that drives growth Photo light Photosynthesis refers to the use of light to produce plant material sugars Light ENGERY is used to make sugar out of water and carbon dioxide Why does it matter Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological processes on earth Provides oxygen we breathe Consumes much of the C02 Food Energy fossil fuels Fibers and materials 0 Photosynthesis and global warming 0 Description A series of physical and biochemical reactions which first store light energy into chemical compounds and then use this chemical energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar 0 Photosynthesis and Horticulture O O O O O O The goal in horticulture is to capture light energy and transform it into a usable saleable product flowers fruits veggies Light absorption and photosynthesis Plants capture sunlight for use in photosynthesis Chlorophyll in the chloroplast absorbs the light o Properties of light 0 O O 0 Light moves in waves in energy units called PHOTON Energy of a PHOTON inversely proportional to its wavelength Visible light between UV and IR occurs in a spectrum of colors Light is absorbed in pigments Photosynthesis A series of physical and biochemical reactions which first store light energy into chemical compounds and then use this chemical energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar Properties of light Light moves in waves in energy units called photons Types of photosynthesis c3 standard photosynthesis c4 L advantage in high light high temperature coZ many grasses are c4 plants crabgrass corn sugarcane O O Advantage in arid climates Succulents cacti euphorbs bromeliads agaves Factors affecting photosynthesis Light C02 Temperature Water 0 Respiration Process of making the energy of food available in a cell I O PLANT REPRODUCTION o Types of Plant Reporduction o Asexual Motherdaughter plants new plant formed is exact dna replica of mother plant advantages n offspring are type to type clone a some seeds hard to germinate sexually 0 Two anomalies NOT NORMAL in Plant world Apomixis and parthenocarpy n Embryo formation without fertilization a Genetic clone of the mother is produced a Advantages o No pollinations required o No male energy a Disadvantages Accumulation of deleterious genetic mutations Restricted to narrow ecological niches No adaptation to changing environments Pathenocarpy Virgin fruit not sex but still kinda a n 0 Flower types Perfect both stamens and pistols carpels Imperfect missing either stamens or carpels Monoecious male and female flowers on same a a plant Dioecious male and female flowers on separate plants 0 Day length many plants flower on the length of day 0 Sexual Reproduction POLLEN Developed in the another Consisted of four pollen sacs Each sac contains thousands of microscopic scope The shape and form of pollen is relied to its method of pollination Insectpollinated species have sticky of barbed pollen grains Win pollinated species are lightweight Small and smooth Corn pollen 0 Getting Pollinator s attention Plants advertise their pollen and nectar rewards with COLORS bees see blue yellow UV while birds see reds Bats don t see well so flowers are white NECTAR or honey guides a visual guide for pollinator to locate the reward pansey Aromas for insects nectar Can also be musty during dung smell Introduction to Plant Breeding 8172011 41800 PM What is plant breeding Changing the genetics of plants to serve the needs of people Variation 0 Reshuffling genes to get new combinations of traits o Create new variation Select desired traits Mendel s Laws First law law of segregation Second law two traits independent assortment F1 hybrids Increased use of corn because of F1 hybridsthey are uniform makes thing easier First done with corn in USA Disadvantages hard to do for a large number of plants use equiment in corn which cut off the tops in hopes of making it easier The green revolution Mexico 1940s Rockefeller and ford foundations to help Norman Borlaug Wheat 0 Semidwarf 0 High yielding 0 Disease resistance 0 Locally adapted India and Philippines in 1960s 0 Rice New crop cultivars o Irrigation o Fertilization 0 Pesticides o Mechanization GMOS transgenic o Genetically modified organisms o Gene transfer using recombinant DNA technology o Between organisms that cannot usually be crossed Marker assited selection o Select for traits o Phenotypes o Just select plants you want o Its like DNA fingerprinting o Gels o Disease screening 0 Resistant 0 Spread by insects Flowers in Horticulture 8172011 41800 PM Flowers in horticulture FOOD o Broccoli o Pansy o Production 0 Pollination ofcrops o Hybridization o Identification Main Parts of a flower o Sepals modified leaves o Petals attractor in pollination Reproduction o Stamens male parts 0 Filaments o Anther o Pistils female parts 0 Ovary 0 Style 0 Stigma Parts of a complete flower o Flowers are modified leaves 0 Sepals located at base of flower Protect emerging flower 0 Petals advertise location of the flower 0 Stamens male reproductive structure Filament Anther o Pistol female reproductive structure Ovary Style catches pollen Stigma Flower classificationVERY IMPORTANT o Perfect both stamens and postols o Imperfect missing either stamens or carpels o Monoecious both male and female on same plant Definition staminate and pistillate flowers on same plant but different structures 0 Dioecious male and female on separate plants Definintion staminate and pistillate dlowers borne on different plants a Ex Holy gink date plam wax myrtle Annula vs periannual Definition of fruit o Ripened ovule or egg o Ovule or egg is fertilized by the sperm pollen and the ovary matures into the fruit o Fruit are usually classified by their structure and number of ovules Confusion over the term fruit o Vegetable is the culinary and trade name 0 Celery asparagus tomato pumpkin Fruit often used as a culinary name 0 Blueberry grape Fruit as a profession name 0 Pomology traditional fruits o Olericulture tradition culinary veggies o Fruit is also a scientific nanme 0 Pumpkin tomato blueberry grape WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING IS AN ANNUL FRUIT and VEGGIE 0 Tomato Fruit is mature ovary o Purpose protects seeds dispersal aid Fruit development c Fruits are mature ovaries o NECTRINE is peach with no fuzz same as peach in genus and species Seed vs fruit o Fruit ovary wall echanism for seed dispersal o Seed embryo and stored food and seed coat Development of fruit from flowe o Simple 1 ovary or 1 flower 0 Apple cherry soybean o Compound multiple ovaries 0 Aggregate of one flower Raspberry blackberry Multiple of many flowers inflorescence n Pineapple Berries o Berry simple furit and seeds created from a single ovary o Pepo berries skin is hardened cucubits o Hesperidium berries with rind citrus Tomato orange cucumber are considered berries Pome o Some or all of the flesh is derived not from the ovary but from some adjacent tissue 0 Apples and pears Drupe o Outer fleshy part exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh surronds a shell the pit or stone of hardned endocarp with a seed inside 0 Olive peach apricot cherry Aggregate fruits o Can be aggregates of o Drupes raspberry o Achene strawberry Each little seed on the strawberry reperents a separate fertilized egg Multiple fruit o Multiple flowers fused together 0 Figs 0 Pineapple 0 Osage orange Fruit Dispersal o Explosive fruits o Mistole o Wind dispersed fruits o Maples and dandelions o Floating fruits 0 Coconut o Clingy fruits Sexual Reproduction o Two steps 0 1 Pollination transferring pollen from anthers to stigma o 2 Fertilization fusion of sperm with egg and polar nuclei Flower initiation o Every plan has its own requirement for initiation o Annul low requirements because happens ONLY ONCE in a year 0 Perennial pecan takes about 7 years began to bear fruit 0 Some plants have temperature requirement 0 Short day plant long day plant Butterflies and moths o Guided by sight and smell o See red and orange o Insect proboscis to get nectar o Moth pollinated flowers that are usually white or place with sweet strong odor for night pollination Flies and beetles o Flies like flowers that smell like rotten meat o Lay eggs there but larvae die due to lack of food o Beetles pollinate flowers that are dull in color but have strong odor Birds o Birds have a good sense of color they like yellow or red flowers o Birds do not have good sense of smell so bird pollinated flowers usually have little odor o Flowers give fluid nectar in great quantities than inscets o Humminbird pollinated flowers ually have long tubular cortex o Nectar is sticky Bats and mice o Bats pollinate at night so flowes are white o Mouse poolnated are usually Why do animals pollinate o RewardFOOD o Nectar Sugar contect o Pollen Protein Plant mimivry o Certain orchids look like female wasps and even smell like them 0 Males try to mate with them Factors effecting pollination o Weather 0 Honey bees fly when temp are 55 and higher o Flower biology 0 Fruit set differ with variety age of tree 0 Flower have life span of 35 days o Plant competition 0 Bees visit other plants o Bee behavior 0 Behavior differ depending on wheatear collecting pollen o Bees differ in rate of flower visitation varietal preference and frequency of stigma contact Types of pollination o Selfpollination o Pollen transferred from the anther to the stigma on the same flower OR 0 From another flower on the same plant OR 0 From a flower on a another plant of the same variety 0 Self pollinated plants are said to be selffruitful Examples strawberries peaches bunch and wine grapes blackberries 0 Self unfruitful 0 Many plants cannot produce fruit from their own pollen and are considered self unfruitful o Called self sterile Required pollen from related cultivar o A plant that will fertilize a self sterile or self unfruitful plant is called a polarizer Example apple pear blueberries most muscadine grapes o HAS NOTHING TO DO WITH BEING MONICOUSDICIOUS Those just explain where the malefemale parts are Human Cotrol of Pollination o Not geneticially modified food c As simple as putting plastic bag of male part and collecting polle and getting the pollen on a female plant Seed and fruit development don t need to know al the steps o Embryo sac and integument become the seed 0 Embryo parts Shoots Root Cotyledon seed leaves which norish the embryo 92211 Plant Propagation o Definition the reproduction of new plants from seeds or vegetative parts of a plant o Making new plants increasing numbers Sexual propagation o Advantages 0 LARGE NUMBERS IN A SHORT PERIOD OF TIME 0 CAN HANDLE LARGE NUMBERS EASILY o PRODUCES HYBRIDES o Disadvantages 0 Some plants produce no viable seeds 0 Some seeds difficult or slow to germinate 0 Genetic variability Seeds o Definition seed is a dormant underdeveloped plant o Seeds contains all the genetic material necessary for development of mature plants o Basic parts 0 Seed coat 0 Sed emryo o Intital food supply in cotley Seed germination o Embryo absorbs water and burts seed coat o Roots emerge and collect water and minerals o Shoots cells elongate pushing stem through soil Protection of apical meristem Seed quality factors c Free of disease o Pure o Most vegetable seeds last 34 years c Qualification for weed needs to be able to last for a long time and then germinate and grow Seed purity and collecting own seeds o Know parents no hybrids or GMO o Wing pollution hard to control Seed germination requirtments o Soil temperature o Soil moisture needs water to germinate o Plant depth plant a seed 34 times the seeds diameter o Every plant has its own thing it wants Seed dormancy o Many seeds will not germinate right away o This solves two problems for the plant 0 1 Intrinsic to the plant developing in the fruit is bad developing near other seeds is bad 0 2 Environmental may mature during winter dormancy ensures seed germination only under the proper conditions Breaking Dormancy o Cleaning and drying o Helps ensure seed is free from the fruit 0 Helps ensure seeds germinate after winter is over Seed coat contains barrier to germination which must be removed Asexual Propagation o Reproduction of new plants from the stems leaves or roots of a parent plant o No seeds are used just portions of the parent plant which are placed in growing medium Benefits of vegetative propagation asexual o True traits o No seed o Disease free stock o Poor germination Genetically IDENTICAL CLONES o Reproductive parts not necessary Vegetative propagationbelow ground division o Potatoes are cut into sections with buds eyes and planted o Bulbs or corms are planted multiply and new blubs are pulled apart and planted separately o Cut up roots blackberries bamboo Vegetative propagation above ground o Cutting o Layering o Budding o Grafting o Tissue culture plant cells When can cutting be taken from o Stems most common most ornamentals are grown from this o Leaves o Roots 0 Stem cuttings o Softwood cuttings o Herbaceous cutting o Semihardwood cuttings o Hardwood cuttings o Take NEWER growth off the plant because it grows better and faster Leaf bud cuttings o Lead petiole and short pieve of stem o Well developed buds o Healthy actively gowring leaves o Insert in medium with the lateral bud just below the surface Enhancing vegetative propagation environmental factors o Microclimatic conditions 0 Relative humidity 0 Temperature 0 Light o Other facts 0 Frowning medium 0 Nutrients o Controlling water Enhancing vegetavtive propatation plant factors o Age of plants with age enhancing decreases o Location of plant o Nutritional condition o Diseases o Water stress Growing mediums o Peat moss and perlite mexture o Verminculite o Sand o Sand and peat moss mixture 0 Grafting 2 plants o Taking roots of one plant and sticking the tops of other plants on the roots o Hopefully the xylem and phloem tissue will connect o Used a lot when you want to have different parts of the plant o Expensive time consuming hard Why graft 0 Height control 0 Compatibility 0 Low rooting potential o Who getes grafted o Apples 0 Pears o peaches o cherries 0 Japanese maples o Mango o Etc o Grafting terms 0 Scion top portion 0 Rootstock bottom portion o Grafting positions 0 Different ways to graft to ensure pollination o Compatabilty issues between scion and rootstock so you can add an intermediate Tissue culture o Routinely used commercially o Not limited by field influences o Diseasefree plants o Many plants from few Asexual propagation summary o Propagation of plants from stems leaves or roots of a parent plant o Cuttings most popoular form o Cuttings are often treated with hormone o Environment very important WATER MOVEMENT 91281 11 Water and plant o Why do plants need water 0 Need water to maintain turgor pressure Keep plant erect Plasma membrane pushes against cell wall 0 Water carbon dioxide glucose 0 Cool down the plant through evaporation Two important questions o Where does the water come from o How does the water get to the leaves 0 From soil to root 0 From root to soil Cohesion Tension Theory o Long distance water transport o Driving force of tansport in transpiration o Evaporation of water from the leaf o Water molecules cohere stick together and are pulling force exerted by evaporation at the leaf surface o Cohesion clumping of like molecules together o Adhesion clumping of unlike molecules water and cellulose attracted to each other reduces water motility o Water potential is the tendency of water to go from one place to the next Transport of water and nutrients o Plants get water and minerals from roots o The path take is soile roots9 stems9 leaves o The minerals travel dissolved in the water o Less than 1 of the water reaching the leaves is used in photosynthesis and plant growth Plant xylem transport o A typical adult tree has o 200000 leaves 0 over 2001000 galloonday to a height of 100m 0 a 1 acre corn filed evaporates 350000 gallons in 100day growing period WATR MOVEMENT INTO ROOT HAIRS o Water diffuses into root hair o Active pumping of salts into xylem o Water diffuses into xylem Xylem Transport o Water and dissolved inorganic salts nutrients o Direction is from root to leaf 0 Pulled up by transportation 0 Relies on coordination between root stem and leaf o No energy cost o Controlled by endodermis and guard cells Products of photosynthesis are transported in the phloem from the Phloem movement o Translocation the movement of organic soults through plants o Produced at photosynthetic sites and are moved to either growing or storage sites sinks o Needs engery Direction of movement in phloem o Supply and demand or source and sink so it can be up or down the stem since leaves or roots can be sources o Stem apex meristem flowersfruits and roots can be sinks Plants in dry enviroment o Time their growth to rainy season o Delvelop waxy cutitlce 8172011 41800 PM Origins of H01ticulture Crops 1 12 08 Why Imp01tant Agenetic erosion loss of germplasm Germplasm preservation gene banks largely seed collections frozen stem sections preservation of natural habitats especially in centers of origin 3 important theorists Where did our crops rst appear Alph0nse de Candolle Swiss botanist 918061893 International rules of bot nomenclature 1867 Famous book Origin of Cultivated plants 1882 the beginnong of crop geography What type of evidence can we use to determine the origin of a crop Botanical Archaeological Historical Linguistic Charles Darwin Origin of Species British naturalist theories of evolution and natural selection believed all the life on earth evolved theories evolution did occur takes thousands of years evolutionary change was gradual natural selection and specialization On the Origin ofthe Species Nicholas Ivanovitch Vavilov Russian botanist 18871943 Foremost plant geographer of contemporary times Vavilov s concepts Law of homologous series in Variation 1920 Theory of the Centers of Origin of Cultivated Plants 1926 Arrested in August 1940 Died Saratov prison Theory of Centers of Origin Center of diversitycenter of origin Plant species not uniform 8 primary world centers Comprise small portion of earth 23 of land area 640 species listed 56 old world 16 new world China Vegetables China Fruits pearchinese apple peach prunus persica botanical name 2 Indian Center two sub centers 2A Main center Hindustand Includes Assam and Burma but not Northwest India Vegetables and Tubers Fruits 3 Central Asiatic Legumes and Grains Vegetables Fruits 4 Near Eastern Center 5 Mediterranean Center 84 plants 6 Abyssinian Center 38 plants 7 Meso America Grans andLegumes 8 South American Center 62 Plantts 3 sub centers A Peruvian Pre Incan B Chioloe Center Island near coast of Chile C Brazilian Paraguayan Center NOTES FROM ABOVE NOT IMPORTANT Pathways of Crop movement Dissemination of crops human migration cultural exchange trade warfare Scienti c exploration introduction into Europe From the near east 9000 BP 1142009 Remember Nichol and Darwin for test Nikolaigives us the 8 centers of origin Not worried about knowing every center but that crops come from different places and get there in various means Movement to Africa First exchange later slave trade then missionaries Tomatoes come from the Andes Mountains isouth Americathey made their way from Spain to Europe and then to this country in the 1800 s andes ispaineuropeamerica Peppers Meso and south America Com made way up and down north central and south America Staple of native american s diet Corn built a lot of society s and civilizations Pineapple Christopher columbas saw the pineapple in Guadeloupe in 1493 and again in panama in 1502 Within a few years it gets around the world and ends up in Hawaii major producer of pineapple now but not native of the hawaian islands Squash part of native American diet before pilgrims Squash comes from the Massachuset Indian word askutasquash meaning eaten raw or uncooked A11 3 species of squashes and pumpkins are native to the Western Hemisphere Never become well known in northern Europe the British Isles Banana Origina11y found in S East Asia mianily India Brought west by Arab conquerors in 327 BP Moved from asia minor to Africa and finally carried to the New World by explorers and missionaries to Caribbean Mass production ofbananas started in 1834 and really exploded in the late 1880s Role of United Fruit in Costa Rica and Guatemala Banana s can be controlled with hormones Cacao chocolate Native to meso America Mexico Cortez carried back beans seeds to Spain Cultivated in western Africa in 1878 First chocolate mill in US in 1765 Peaches OriginChina Then Russia Persia Europespain meXico then California Georgia will probably never be 1 in peaches Peaches are originally from CHINA TEST QUESTION Origins of AgricultureHorticulture happened in 1800s In the beginning early humans depended on hunting gathering intentional planting of crops BP Arose around the 8 centers of origin Started with adapted wild plants Allowed for settlement and increases rates of advancement in civilization All 3 of these interested in medicinal uses for plants Theophrastus IMPORTANT Wrote two important books on plants earliest known systematic author Disc0irdies medical botanist De Materia Medica book Pliny the Elder Historia Naturalis book Romans have a big place in horticolture because they occupied a lot of area and well organized and not in a ghting mode Settling and falming mode Renaissance and Scienti c Agriculture forganiation of city states athat become countries Centralize more and more interest in science seen Why things grow And theories develop Spice trade Diaz Columbus Magellan Tea from China to England Columbian exchange he did ope up exchange of crops and ideas of groupwing Conquer in the name of trade 1162009 Columbian Exchange Exchange of crops and ideas of growing conquer in the name of trade Cortes takes meXico Pizzarro takes peru Settling taking of America Some exchange with native peoples The Squanto story corns beans squash Native fruit and nuts iEuropean british ideas of food and farming Root crops lettuce peas Early Botanists and EXploeres John Brtram and son William Bartram American Botanists James Oglethorpe establishes trustees Garden in Savannah Andre MichauX Thomas Jefferson gardens and landscapes his home at Monticello Seed Companies and Nurseries not on test DaVid Landreth seed business at Phily in 1784 rst garden supply store Shaking quakers shakers beginnings of seed packets 1789 Park seed co 1868 Burpee 1876 Ball 1905 KNOW THESE Early Horticulture gures in modern horticulture JC loudon landscape planner the gardenesque style of English garden deisgn Wrote a book about cemeteries gardends writer Publication include The Encyclopedia of Agriculture 1825 Andrew Jackoson D0wning Editor of The horticulturalist Wrote Treatise on Landscape Gardening theory and practice of Landscape Gardening cottage residences and the widely in uenctial architecture of country houses introduced idea of writing magazines and articles about horituclture popularized landscape deisgn and horticulture Gregor Mendel Luther Burbank American botanist and hortiuclutrist ideveloped more than 800 strains and varietites of plants over his 55 year career fincluded fruits owers grasses and vegetables iwork spurred the 1930 plant patent Act LH Baily father of horticulture started taking horticulture away from agriculture and de ned a separate area of study First prez of American Society for Horticulture WROTE TWO BIG BOOKS Cyclopedia of Hortiuclture Hortus Hatch Actexperiment stations 1212009 Hisotry of Landscape Design The Garden of Eden First known garden paradise garden essentials for survival in uenced 3 major gardesn Islamic Egyptian and Spanish Roman Gardens 01000 ADgt Atrium Interior garden Entrance garden Grotto Statuary Islamic gardens 0 AD 1600 AD Central fountain They symbolic Four Rivers Formal Layout Climate control Plants symbolizing life Hunting parks Medieval Gardens 40 AD 1200 AD Space for leisure courting romance Cathedrals as a central focus Gardens associated with the town square Cloister enclosed garden Italian Gardens Renaissance 1400 AD 1600 AD Pareterres and Topiar Terraces extensive water features formal layout dramatic sitting manipulated land forms steep slope topography French Gardens Baroque l600AD 1800AD Grandiose scaleopulence Level topography elaborate beds Jar din Le Embroidere Allelong site line dramatic sitting formal style grand style garden performances demonstarion of control of nature unique pruningpleaching pollarding English Gardens 17001800 AD Spacious lawnmeadow rolling hills large bodies of water asymmetrical large bodies of water Engish Gardens Sir Lancelot Capability Brown on test Transformed the English Landscape Naturalized the English formal style open lawn up to house made use of the ha ha is a stone wall in ground John Claudius London 1783 1843 Picturesque to gardenesque indiVidual plant display Victorian garden William Robinson 1838 1935 Books Alpine owers for English gardens The wild garden or our own groves Shrubbery s made beautiful Founded weekly paper The Garden Herbaceious border Wild Areas Oriental gardens harmony with nature symbolic relationship of man and nature interior connected to exterior water real or symbolic stone that is rake or natural minimal simplistic plant use Early American Gardens 1600 1800 AD Use of English garden concepts MtVernon Washington Monticello iefferson Gunston Hall mason American Gardensearly 1800 s Andrew Jackson Downinggtestl Open Lawn Picturesque Look Views Country cottage Ideas popularized in publications Ideas popularized in publication FL Olmsteadquot Landscape as a cure for social ills City parkscentral park University planning Stanford EstatesBiltmore entrance roa Neighborhoods druid hills riverside 1232009 Geltrude Jekyll arts and craftstest Late 1800 s to Early 1900 s Color theory References to genious loci Link of architecture to landscape Radbum 1930 s isuburbs for middleincome culdesac open green spacealley Issues facing today s designers water use pesticide use storm water native versus exotic plants Quiz 1 Who was the greek guy known for beginning the documenting of plants Theophratus Who is the father of geneticsmendel Corn is originally from meso America Coffee has its origins in wthiopia Columbian exchange brought which group of horticulture crops to Americas witrus bananas coffee History of the Lawn in America A smooth closely shaven surface of green is by far the most essential element of beauty on the grounds of a suburban house Turf Grass Varieties Coolseason grasses most native to englands fescue and blue grass WaImseason grasses bermuda Africa Centipede china Zoysia china Bermudagrass Rapid growth Stolons and rhyizomes Native of Africa Early 1900 s but really 1940 s Lawn as a standards garden clubs city ordinances turf industry So why did the lawn become such a big deal Design aesthetic promoted by prominent designers invention of the lawn mower varieties of seed developed Current environmental issues and the lawn Fertilizers Pollution from power equipment Pesticides Waste recycling Water consumption Noise pollution 1 26 2009 Plant Nomenclature The naming of plants in an organized system Why Name plants 30 million speicies 15 million named Common vs scienti c names EX plntago major broad leaved plantain 45 other English names 11 french names 75 dutch names 106 german names VVVVVVV First Naming of Plants Based on Use Food you eat you die medicinal you eat you live dyes Early Plant Describers Theophrastus 370285 BC 480 species Pliny the Elder 500 species Middle Ages Little original work Renaissance Primarily done by herbalists Mainly worked on uses as medicines Linnaean Period On test REMEMBER 3 Fathers Carl Linne Linnaeus Father of Taxonomy Naming based on reproductive parts Linnaeus Published 1753 estimated 20000 plant species now estimated 250000 set the standard Linnaeus and Banks Natural System Advances to Linnaeus system mostly French botanists like plants together use other ways to describe plants Evolution Charles Darwin origin of the species Evolutionary concepts into classi cation First Latin Names Language to name plants Binomial system of nomenclature Chinese people would understand 2 pa1t latin scienti c name Genus species Nepeta catariacatnip Phylogenetic system Interrelationships of living things changes over time KNOW THESE 2 and KNOW it should either be italicized 01 underlined NEVER BOTH Genus species GenusNoun Capitalized Species adjective lower case Example Hydrangea macrophylla big leaf Will be a question on test about how to write the names with correct capitalization or italicized GenusCommon Name Euonymus Petunia Rhododendron Forsythia Species NameAdjective Betula luteayellow birch Betula alba vhite birch Quercus rubrarred oak Juglans nigrablack walnut Species NameGeography Maybe where someone rst found the plant or where it grows Authority Acerpalmatum Thunb Taxonomist scientist who identi es and classi es living organisms in this case Swedish botanist Thunberg International code of Botanical Nomenclature ICBN Cultivars and Varieties Variety botanical term species with stable mutations passed on to progeny written with the letters var then underlined or italicized Cultivar Species with mutations caused by human intervention written with the letters cv Or placed in Gledz39tsz39a triacanthos var inermis Skyline common name thomless honeylocust Taxonomic Classi cation fro peach KingdomPlantae DivisionTracheophyta Class Angiospermae SubclassDicotyledoneae OrderRosales FamilyRosaceae GenusPrunus Species ipersica 1282009 De nition Horticulture Literally means garden cultivation Is the science and art of cultivating processing and marketing of friuits vegetables nuts and ornamental plants Divisions of Horticulture Mainly based on types of products Pomologyfruit culture includes nut tree culture Olericulturevegetable production Ornamental Horticulture 3roduction and use of omamentals Where does horticulture t into agriculture Agriculture Applied plant sciences Honiculture and society source offood commercial producers homeowners Ornamentals landscaping residential commerical and public Which divison has greatest US production value Fruit tree furit tree nutssmall fruit grapes 34 billion Omamentals Vegetables Irish potatoes 32 billion Georgia Horticulture Dynamic amp diversi ed rsst in pecans and greens second in watermelonssquash and cucumbers third in total fresh vegetables production MISSED FRIDAY 22 Plant Parts and What they do Monoctos Internal Anatomy of Woody Stems Xylem Phloem Cambium Sapwood Heartwood Pith Direct connection between roots and trees Plant Anatomy Roots Anchor Absorb water and minerals Store sugars Transport water minerals sugars and pheromones Produce hormones Interact with Soil Parts of Root Systems Root hairs are involved in absorption of nutrients from the soil Root cap amp Meristemconducting tissue involved in conducting moisture and nutrients to the plants KNOW THESE Taproots primary root with smaller roots growing out from the sides dicots ex Corn lily Fibrous rootsall roots nearly equal in size monocots eX Carrot trees Stems Support contain buds at nodes EXtemal Anatomy of Stems Intemodesareas between the buds Bar lenticels leaf scars KNOW THESEM Xylem conducts water from root Phloemcarries sugars amino acids hormones Leaves Photosynthetic unit gas exchange prevent water evaporation Two Main Pans 1 Blade KNOW Broad at surface 2 Petiole KNOW positions leaf and contains vascular system for transportation of materials Leaf Structure KNOW Epidermisclear cell s that secrete cuticle outer layer CONTAINS stomata opening itself photosynthetic cells Vascular bundlescontain xylem and phloem for transport No vascular bundles in trees Flowers F our main pans Sepals Petals Stamens Pistils Pollination is anther getting to stigma Know that the stigma style and ovarywhere the egg is female Sperm is in the anthermale parts Apollen grain is sperm Flower first fruit second Flower Classi cation Perfecthas both a pistil and a stamen the female and male reproductive structures Imperfectmissing the stamen or pistil Fruit Ripened ovule or egg In most plants the ovule or egg is fertilized by the sperm the pollen and the ovary matures into the fruit Fruit are usually classi ed by their structure and number of ovules simple fruits develop from a simple ovary eX apple peaches Aggregate fruits develop from a single ower with many ovariesblueberry multiple fruit have owers that are separated by closely clustered eX pineapple 2 4 09 Photosynthesis and Horticulture The goal in horticulture is to capture light energy nad transform it into a usable saleable product orgnamental plants fruits vegetable Light Absorption and Photosynthesis Plants capture sun light for use in photosynthesis Chlorophyll in the chloroplasts absorbs light Properties of Light Light moves in waves in ergy units called PHOTONS Energy of a PHOTON inversely proportional to its wavelength Visible light between UV and IR occurs in a spectrum of colors Light is absorbed by pigments The primary pigment for photynethis 6Cox 6H20ight gt C6H1206602 C6H126 is glucose Plant can use this glucose directly for gowth or it can be converted into sucrose startch or other carbohydrates and stored for later use Type s of photosynthesis C3the majority of plants C4C02 temporarily stored as 4C organic acids resulting in more more efficient C exchange rate Advantage in high light high temp low C02 Many grasses corn sorghum millet sugar cane CAM Crassulacean acid metabolism stomata open during night advantage in arid climates Succulents cacti euphorbs bromeliads agaves monocotsinclude corn and other grasses Factors Affecting photosynthesis Light affects photosynthesis Respirationprocess of making the energy of food available in the cell Transpiration Transporting minerals from the soil to plant Cooling the plant through evaporation Moving sugars and plant chemicals Maintaining turgor pressure TEST QueSTionS The pumping mechanism that is responsible for drawing water up from the roots to the stomata TRANSPIRTATION Plant factors transpiration Leaf shape size portsstomata waXiness of leaf The conductive tissues that carries water and nutriest to the leaves is The conductive tissues that delivers stored food and hormones to the foots and other part of plants The actively growing tissue in both the shoot tips and root tips is The primary function of roots is The guy that is credited with being father of plant taoxonmy 2 6 09 Flowers in horticulture Beautypoinsettias oral arrangements dried wreaths Flowers in horticulture Food broccoli pansy nasturtium Productionpollination of crops hybridization identification Flowers for identification Parts of a Complete Flower Flowers are modified leaves Sepals located at base of lfower iprotect emerging ower Petalsadvertise location of the ower Stamensmale reproductive structure filament anther iproduces pollen Pistolfemale reproducvite structure Stigmacatches pollen style ovarycontains the egg Other reproductive structures of horticulture plants isporangia catkin Pine Flowers do not have perfect owersmale owers of loblolly pine Female owers of loblolly pine Flower typesperfect owers have both stamens and pistils Imperfect owers lack either stamens or pistils Monoecious Staminate and pistillate owers on same plant but diff structures EX river birch hickory pecan beech oaks Dioecious De nition staminate and pistillate owers borne on different plants EX Holly ginko date palm wax myrtle Have a whole male and female owers Grape owersmale ower female ower hermaphrodite ower Annual versus perennial Annualcompletes its life cycle within a single year In trade considered annual if useful landscape life is lt1 year BiennialVegetative the first year then reproductive the second then dies Perenniallives several to many years Definition of a fruitripened ovule or egg In most plants the ovule or egg is fertilized by the spermthe pollen and the ovary matures into the fruit Fruit are usuall classified by their structure of number of ovules Fruit mature ovary Fruit development fruits are mature ovaries helps disperse seeds to a wide area Seed versus Fruit Seedembryostored foodseed coat Fruitovary wall mechanism for seed dispersal Aggregate fruitsstrawberries Multiple fruits g pineapple Drupessingle seed enclosed in a hard pit peaches plums cherries True berries More than one seed and a thin skin blueberries tomatoes grapes peppers Acorn is a berry and a sun ower seed Fruit dispersalexplosive fruits misteloe Wind dispersed fruits maples and dandelions Floating fruits coconut Clingy fruits 2 13 09 know perfect and imperfect cell fruitful and unfruitful scion know this word seed growing is germenati0nkn0w this term before a seed can germenate it goes through seed dormancy strati cation requirement says the seed wont germenate until it experiences a period of cold Scarification requires roughing up of the seed coat In nature it comes from a bird eating a seed and then going through the digestive system poops it out and then then seed is ready to go Horitculurture does this by rubbing them up against sand paper We use asexual a lot in ornamental plants to replicate the same exact way Takes out all chance of genetics and mixing pollen What is the number one environmental conditions when you try to cut a plant Water Quiz 2 16 2009 Tissue culture is considered all but one of the following a sexual reproduction b asexual reproduction C coning d micropropagation 2 Grafting apple trees requires a top and a bottom component respectively called the scionrootstock 3 The requirement for a breakdown in the seed coat prior to germination is Scari cation 4 a perennial cgrows from seed owers set fruit and continues its life cycle year to year Sexual Propagation Advantages 1 Large numbers ina short period of time 2 can handle large numbers easily 3 produces hybrids Disadvantages 1 some plants produce no viable seeds 2 Some seeds Breaking Dormancy Drying helps ensure seed is free from the fruit Cold strati cation ihelps ensure seeds germinate after windter is over Disruption of seed coat Scari cation iseed coat contains a barrier to germination which must be removed Asexual vs Sexual propagation the reproduction of new plants from the stems leaves or roots of a parent plant no seeds are used just portions Genetically identical Clones ibene ts of vegetative propogation Vegetative propagation using below ground plant partsdivision Potatoes are cut into sections with buds eyes and planted Bulbs or corms are planted multiply and new bulbs are pulled apart and planted separately methods of above ground plant asexual plant propagation cuttinglayering budding grafting tissue culture stem cuttings softwood cuttings herbaceous cuttings semihardwood hardwood cuttings Leaf Bud Cuttings Consists of a leaf petiole and a short piece of stem with lateral bud must have well developed buds and healthy actively growing leaves insert in medium with the lateral bud just below the Enhancing vegetative propagation of plantsL environmental factors Microclimatic conditions Light temp relative humidity why graft Height control compatibility low rooting potential dwa1f varieties come into production much sooner in apple trees grafting terms scion op portion rootstockbottom portion tissue culture clonal reproduction routinely used commercially not limited by field in uences diseasefree plants 2 20 Effect of Hormones on Plant Growth Plant Hormones iPlant Growth Regulators Hormonesi Different types How do they work Tropisms Know the 4 tropisms what their response is and what is going on De nition of a Plant Hormone a naturally occurring substance that affects plant growth and development at a veryvery low concentration Plant Hormones AuXincell elcongation apical dominance ower initiation inhibits leafdrop Cytokininrelated to chlorophyll production Ethylene Gibberelin Abscisci acid Auxinsthe main plant hormone that affect plant orientation Where are they found in plants Highest concentration in actively growing regions of the plant Decreases in concentration with distance from th apex lower concentrations in roots compared to shoots aging organs have decreasing concentrations Effects at Cellular level Cell Elongationloosen cross bonding of cell wall components Cell division helps from the middle lamella in dividing cells Cell differentiation What is the response within the plant that is occurring within the plant because of exposure to auxin Knowwhatgi quot If r39 r39 quot39 r sides of the plant that occur on both r Phototropism positive phototropism to light PHOTO MEANS LIGHT Cell elongation is stimulated on the shaded side of a stem but inhibited on the lighted side Growing shoot bends towards the light Gravitropismpositive gravitropism to gravity Cell elongation is inhibited on the lower portion of the root but stimulated on the upper portion growing root bends downwards towards the centre of the gravity Thigmotropism positive thigmotropism touch or pressure cell elongation is inhibited on the stem side touching an object but stimulated on the nontouching side growing shoot coils around the object For example in some climbing vines NOTHING TO DO WITH AUXIN Hydrotropismpositive hydrotropism water availability Root tips closest to a source of water and soluble minerals simply grow faster than those further away Hormones not involved here Growth of the root towards a water source ON TEST BETTER TO WATER ONCE A WEEK THOROUGHLY THEN EVERYDAY LITTLE BITS Using hormones on fruits Which way is up Does it matter which way you plant a seed or bulbdoesn t matter which way you grow it It will grow down gravitropism with take over then when it gets to the soil phototropism will kick in Roots will always grow down Shoots will always grow up AuXin Is main reason for these responses in plants You should care though if you are planting massive amounts of bulbs because if you put them down nad up you want them to bulb at the same time 223 Climate versus microclimate KNOW Weatherstate of the atmosphere at a given time and place with respect to variables such as temp moisture wind velocity and barometric pressure Climate the meterological conditions including temp precipitation and wind that characteristically prevail in a particular region Microclimate The climate of a small speci c place within an area as contrasted with the climate of the entire area Temperature The degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment Climate Effectstemp light rainfall wind Temp effect photosynthesisrespiration effects on plant physiology owimg and seed ofrmation enzymes and hormones root growth and nutrient absorption Temperature temperature UpGrowth Up Tempiannual mean temp ranges from 54 degrees F in the northeast to 68 degrees in the south IN Athens we are in cold hardiness zone 7 B ON TEST Temperature frost Versus Freeze Condtion Wind Temp Clouds Lowest Temp What Happens Frost No lt32F No 3032F Heat radiates from surface Freeze Yes lt32F Yes Could be Invasion of cold air mass much less then 32F Temperature Vernalization Chilling requirement Air and soil tempconditions on hot days with no ground cover Lighteffects of intensity on plant growth leaf morphology shape Etiolation sunloving 6 more hours to make direct sunlight turfgrsses KNOW THIS shade loving 4 hours to make sunlight going from zone 7 to 9 is it warmer or colder Warmer lower the number the colder 225 Light Durationshort day Length Short Day Flower rapidly when days get shorter Cause response of leaf drop in fall eX for owering chrysanthemum poinsettia EX for fall color maple sumac Light DurationLong Day Length Things happen when they day length gets longer Examples for owering sedum tuberous begonia eX for runner formation of strawberry Rainfall Beneficial effects Plants are 80 water Water determines productivity and quality Solvent for nutrients Cooling of leaves during respiration Rainfall Negative effects Storm Damage Water logging Golf courses don t want a lot of water Wind Wind carries oxygen away Effects on evaporation Damage from storms Problems with spraying Natural Hazards Hurricanes Hurricaes occasionally move across Georgia although they are usually downgraded to a tropical storm by the time they enter the state Temperature VocabShould know Vemalization Cold hardiness Day Length Frost Freeze Microclimate How much irrigation To provide enough water to keep plants alive and grown to their genetic potential Depends on Season Stage of plant weather evapotranspiration rate approx 1 inch per week Evapotranspiration evaporation transpiration evapotranspiration Using Water Ef ciently How much water do plants really need Whe should you water How can you prevent wasting water Furrow Center Pivot Microsprinkilr Low volume Low pressure Less clogging Hand Watering is still used Irrigation 7 overhead boom good for plugs more uniform than xed sprinklers Hydroponics iherb production aloso used for vegetables and cut owers lettuce primarily How much water do plants need Measure the amount of water in containers irrigate when the water dropes bewlo a predetermined level cyclic irrigation water several times a day apply relatively small amounts do not oversaturate the growing substrate 22709 Guest speaker todaynot sure if these notes are important BMP s for landscape water conservation Design BMP Mythnative plants are more drought tolerant than exotic plants Moderatae wateruse zone Low Wateruse zone xeric zone Once established plants are provided no supplemental irrigation 3 4 09 QUIZGreenhouse soils have to be able to drain well Ga has no top soil Components of soil Inorganic materials 45 Air 25 Water 25 Organic materials 5 Basic Soil components Pore spaces location of air and water Soil Particles mineral and organic Soil Horizons and Pro les Soil Horizons flayers in soil izones of chemical action Soil Pro le isuite of layers Principal Soil Horizons Oorganic Humus often absent ALeaching K Mg Na Clay Removed B Accumulation Absent in young soils distinct in old soils AlAlluminum Fe Clay moist SiCa Arid Cparents material We are livingin in the B and C horizon Important Soil Characteristics Chemical iCEC Cat Eon Exchance Capacity Positively changed Ion If I measure a soil based on this the more negatively charged the greater the CEC CEC is an indicator of soil fertility pHindicator of soil acidity 7 is neutral scale goes ll4 our soil is 5254 in southeast Most horticulture crops owers fruits vegetables like a pH of 6065 Texturehas to do with particle size Sand silt and clay Sandgritty Siltsoftsilky or oury Claysticky The way the soil feels is called soil texture Depends on size of mineral particles in the soil Sandbeach ball Siltfrisbee Claydime Texture determines Pore space permeability aeration water retention fertility Which of the following has a higher CECClay which means they have greater fertility Soil Moisture terms know these Field Capacitywhen soil is full and can t take anymore Permanent Wilting Point point at which literally the plant falls over because of lack of water and can t recover Plants reach this must sooner with sandy soil then clay soil Available Water how much of water in soil is not sticking and has not drained away but is available to plant Clay soils can hold more water but more importantly more available water Soil Moisture Levels At saturationpore Spaces are filled with water At permanent wiltno water remains attached to soil particles Compactedpore spaces are collapsed Soil Drainage Test Dig 68 Fill with water Drains in hours good drainage Drain ovemightok drainage Drains in dayfair drainaged Never drainsbog garden Very expensive to make poor drainaged better Typical soil management practices on construction sites Soil layering Compaction to prevent settling General equipment traf c If you are going to add sand to make drainage better add a lot to improve the drainage Soil amending Don t add PEAT MOSS ino good for clay soils Sand claycement Greenhous soil 1 Clay is negatively charged Opposites attract drainage 3 6 09 QUIZ TODAY A true B False 1 all fertilizers are the same B 2nitrogen is a primary element and a macronutrient B maybe a 3the primary indgredient in lime that lowers the ph is calcium 4 lime increases soil acidity B 5 some soil bacteria x nitrogen to legumes A 6 slow release fertilizers release nutrients over time and cost more A Greenhouse Soil Components Peat Peanut hulls Ground pine bark Compost sand Inert Compounds Perliteto help containers drain better Vermiculite What is an essential nutrient Any element which is required for completion of the life cycle of the plant function cannot be replaced by another element the element must be directly involved in plant metabolism coenzyme etc The primary nutrients Nitrogen Phosphorus Potassium N PK Three numbers on a fertilizer bag Percentages of each nutrient 10 Secondary nutrients Calcium Magnesium Sulfur Secondary nutrients ca1cium magnesium sulfer smaller amounts than primary nutrients Dolomitic lime provides Mg and Ca Macro vs Micro Required in different amounts Macros are typically found in organic compounds nucleic acids prtiens or act as osmotic regulators Micros are generally enzyme constituents Macros are generally mobile in the plant Nitrogen Fixation Organisms in symbiotic relationships bacteria and legumes Soil pH Measure of the relative amount of H ions unit of measurement is pH In the soil it is driven by the ionization of water H20HOh We usually use pH to measure the acidity or the alkalinity basicity of a solution a soil solution Three primary types of ertilizers Slow release Horticulture 8172011 HorticultureEtymology from the Latin hortus which means garden and colere or culture which means to cultivate Horticulturist s Definition The science art and business of cultivating fruits vegetables owers or ornamental plants IIorticulturalist an expert in the science of cultivating or someone that practices horticulture HorticultureAgronomy Forestry Icultures olericulture vegetables viticulture grapes enology wine and wine making oriculture owers arboriculture urban trees pomology fruit Georgia is first in greens pecans depending on the year Third in blueberries Fourth in fresh vegetables production watermelons Third in peaches Texas and New Mexico competes with us in pecan production Poultry 57 Billion in Georgia Horticultures 31 Billion in Georgia 8192011 0 The beginning Early humans depended on hunting and gathering Intentional planting of crops 10 1500 BP Arose around the 8 centers of origin Started with adapted wild plants Allowed for settlements and increases in rates of quotadvancementquot in civilization 0 Changes Accompanied Adoption of Agricultural Lifestyle 0 Increase in population More leisure time Increase in sedentary lifestyle Increase in civilization Increase in warriors and warfare Increase in social stratification Incraseded urban problems like crime and disease Decreased knowledge ofindigenous plants 0 Increased famine and dietary diseases 0 Changes to crops 0 Shattering ability in grains 0 Potato tuber borne close to plant 0 Thing vs Thick shell nuts 0 Corn is the most researched and the evolution ofit is researched 00000 0000000 0 Have found evidence of early corn where the ear was only a couple of inches long Early Horticulturists o Theophrastus 371286 BP I Wrote two important books on plants I Earliest known systematic author 0 Discoirides 4090 I Medical botanist o Pliny the Elder 2379 AD I HistoriaNaturalis Egyptians 0 Known for their agricultural knowledge Roman Period 0 Irrigation I Allowed more land to be cultivated o Windmills and water mill added 0 Introduction of fertilizers I Animal manures 0 Crop rotations Feudal Agriculture 0 After fall or Roman Empire 0 Peakin about 1100 0 Loss of agricultural information o Monastic gardens 0 8090 ofpeople farmed Renaissance and Scientific Agriculture 0 Scientific revolution 0 Plant breeding 0 Crop rotations o Drainage brought more land in to cultivation Renaissance and Early Trade 0 Spice Trade I Tea From China 2 737 BP to England 1644 Columbian Exchange 0 Exchange of crops and ideas of growing 0 Conquer in the name of trade Settling of America 0 Some exchange with native peoples I The Squanto story I Corn beans squash I Native Fruit and nuts 0 European Ideas of food and farming I Root crops lettuce peas Age of Enlightenment 0 To understand the natural world and humankind s place in it solely on the basis of reason and without turning to religious belief 0 Better food supplies 0 Increase in agricultural productivity Early botanists and Explorers 0 John Bartram and Son William Bartram 0 James Oglethorpe establishes Trustees Garden 0 Andre MichauX 0 Thomas Jefferson and Monticello Seed Companies and Nurseries 0 David Landreth seed business sat Philadelphia in 1784 o Shaking Quakers beginnings of seed packets 1789 0 Park Seed Co 1868 o Burpee 1876 0 Ball 1905 Nursery Industry 0 Robert Prince Nursery in Long Island 1737 o Stark Brothers Nurseries 1816 I Red DeliciousGolden Delicious Apples 0 Downing Fruit Nursery 1838 o Fruitland Nursery 1858 I P Berkmans I Augusta GA Early Horticulture Figures in Modern Horticulture 0 Andrew Jackson Downing o Gregor Mendel o LH Bailey C Loudon 0 Landscape planner I quotGardenesque Style of English Garden Design I Cemeteries Gardens Writer Andrew Jackson Downing 0 Base of operations is in New York 0 Begins as editor of magazine called quotThe Horticulturists o Writes articles in magazines and books 0 Dies tragically in steamboat accident Gregor Mendel 0 Father of genetics I Genetic traits inherited After wwii green rev selective breeding dna technology cultivation methods machinery development pesticides Origins of Horticulture Crops genetic erosion loss of germplasm germplasm preservation gene banks largely seed collection frozen stem sections preservation of natural habits centers of origin debate over native plants Where did first crop appear 1 alphonse de candolle a swiss botanist b international rules ofbot nomenclature c famous book origin ofcultivated plants i beginning of crop geography 2 Charles Darwin a British naturaslist b Theories of evolution and natural selection c Believed all life on earth would evolve i Natural selection and specialization 3 Nikolai Vavilov a Russian botanist b Foremost plant geographer of contemporary times c Law ofhomologous series variation d Theory of the centers of origin of cultivated Theory of the centers of origin center of diversitycenter of origin plant species not unified 8 centers represent a small ofland area of the world 1 China vegetables fruits 2 Indian center Pathway of crop movement dissemination of crops human migration cultural exchange trade warfare scientific exploration introduction into Europe from the near east Movement ofplants pre1500 diffusion and deliberate introduction modifications in landscapes after the fall of rome movement slowed role of the arabsIslamic empires post 200AD china imported wheat Columbian Exchange to Americas Columbus moves SW Europe crop systems to Caribbean main grains fail citrus successful in Caribbean bananas by 1516 Movement ofplants post1500 greatly accelerated globalization of agriculture Europe by 1800 had complete list issues ofmovement hard to growgt breeding new varieties cultural bias huge impacts population growth Movement to Africa first exchange later slave trade then missionaries Tomato native to andes mountains italians first grew the tomota about 1544 25 years later spread theough much of Europe thomas Iefferson grew it in 1781 used as food in new Orleans Peppers several species in meso and south America Domesticated in mexico 6000 years ago Corn origin andes Guatemala columbus brought it back to spain 1544 in china first published mention of sweet corn 8242011 0 Tomato 0 Native to Andes Mountain 0 Peppers 0 Several species in Meso and South America I Some originated southern Brazil to Bolivia I Most probably in Mexico 6000 years ago 0 Corn 0 Origin Andes Guatemala 0 Columbus brought it back to Spain by 1544 in China 0 First published mention of sweet corn1801 0 Super sweet sweet corn began in early 19502 0 Perfected in 70 s and 80 s 0 Pineapple 0 Wild species from lowlands of south America I Brazil Paraguay Bolivia 0 Dispersal in tropical America prior to 1492 0 Squash 0 Comes from the Massachusetts indian word askutasquas meaning eaten raw or uncooked o All three species of squashes and pumpkins are native to the s America 0 Never become well known in northern Europe and British isles 0 Banana 0 Originally found in south east asia mainly india 0 Brough west by arab conquerors in 327 BP o Moved from Asia minor to Africa and finally carried to the new world by eXploreers and missionaries to Carribean 0 Mass production ofbananas started in 1834 and really exploded in the late 1880s 0 Role of united fruit in Costa Rica and Guatemala 0 Cacao 0 Native to Meso America 0 Cortez carried beans to spain o Cultivated in Western Africa in 1878 0 First Chololate mill in US in 1765 o Co ee 0 Native to Ethiopia I Arabia 500 I Egypt 1500 I England1650 I Brazi11727 0 Peaches 0 Origin I China I Russla I Europe I Mexico I California o HISTORY OF LANDSCAPE DESIGN 0 The Garden of Eden 0 First known garden 0 Paradise garden 0 Essentials for survival 0 In uenced Islamic Egyptian and early Spanish gardens 0 Italian Gardens 0 14001600 0 Parterres and Topiary o Terraces 0 Water features 0 Formal layout 0 Dramatic setting 0 Manipulated land forms 0 Steep slope topography 0 French Gardens 0 16001800 0 grandiose scale opulence 0 level topography o elaborate beds Iar din le EMbroidere o Alle long site line 0 Formal style grand style 0 Demonstration of control of nature 0 Unique pruning pleaching and pollarding 0 English Gardens 0 Spacious lawn 0 Rolling hills 0 Large bodies of water 0 Asymmetrical 0 Large bodies of water 0 Sir Lancelot Brown 0 17161783 0 transformed the English landscape 0 naturalized the English formal style 0 open lawn up to house 0 made use of the HaHa Iohn Claudius Loudon 0 17831843 0 Picturesque to Gardenesque 0 Individual plant to display 0 Victorian garden Gertrude Iekyll 0 Color theory 0 References to genious loci 0 Link of architecture to landscape 8312011 why name plants manual of woody landscapes plants European white waterlily o 15 different common English names First naming plants 0 Based on use I Food I Medicinal I Dyes Early Plant Describers o Theophrastus I 480 species 0 pliny the elder I 500 species 0 dioscorides I 600 speicies Middle ages 0 Little original work 0 Albertus Magnus I Classisfication system recognizing difference in monoct and dicots Charles Darwin 0 Origin of the species 0 Evolutionary conepts 0 Change over time Natural system 0 Advances to Linnaeus system mostly French botanists 0 Like plants together 0 Use other ways to describe plants Binomial system 0 Genus species I Genus noun capitalized Hort 2000 Part 2 Notes Auxins How does the plant know which way is up 0 When a seed is planted in the ground 0 Tropic Response Photo Tropism 0 Positive response to light 0 Cell elongation stimulated on shaded side 0 Growing shoot bends towards the light Gravitropism 0 Positive response to gravity 0 Cell elongation inhibited on lower portion of root but stimulated on the upper portion 0 Growing root bends downwards towards center of gravity 0 Opposite effect on shoot Thigmotropism 0 Positive response to touch or pressure 0 Cell elongation is inhibited on the stem side touching an object but stimulated on the nontouching side 0 Growing shoot coils around the object Hydrotropism 0 Positive response based on water availability 0 Root tips closest to a source of simply grow faster than those further away 0 Hormones not involved 0 Growth of the root towards a water source Auxins and Adventitious Roots Ethylene o Stimulates leaf and flower senescene Inhibits shoot growth Induces leaf abscission Induces seed germination Induces root hair growth OOOO Stimulates fruit ripening Vegetables Classification Life Cycle Annual most vegetable crops Biennial sugar beet carrot Perennial asparagus Vegetable Classification 0 Perennial o Edible or Economic Parts 0 Pods beans peas 0 Roots sweet potato carrot beet o Bulbs onions garlic 0 Tubers yam irish potato Rye Zone is an underground stem Scolins is above ground stem 0 Leaves spinach collards kale 0 Flowers Broccoli cauliflower o FruitgtBerry tomato 0 FruitgtBerrygtPapo watermelon gourd squash o Adaptation o Coolseason 6065 I Broccoli cabbage spinach chard 0 Warm season 6580 I Tomato peppers okra corn eggplant Climate Versus Microclimate Weathe r state of atmosphere at a given time and place with respect to variables such as temperature moistures wind velocity and barometric pressure 0 Climate I o 39 quot 39 including r r I and wind that characteristically prevail in a particular region 0 Microcli of an en 0 Temper Temperature 0 O O 0 Enzyme o Temper o Temper o Temper mate the climate of a small specific place within an area as contrasted with the climate tire area ature the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment Photosynthesis respiration Effects on plant physiology transpiration Flowering and seed formation s and hormones ature up 9 growth up ature down 9 growth down ature Zone we are in is 73 Frost and Freeze Heat Transfer 0 Conduction o Convection 0 Radiation Frost no wind less than 32 F no clouds lowest temp 3032 heat radiates from surface Freeze yes wind less than 32 F yes clouds much less than 32 F invasion of cold air mass Temperature Vernalization o Vernalization responses we see 0 Timing o Treesshrubs do not flower in winter even if warm 0 Interacts with day length 0 Flower development differentiation of buds o Requires cold period 0 Many fruits like apples cannot grow in south 0 Flower initiation may happen in the bud trees Light 0 Effects of intensity on plant growth 0 Leaf morphology shape 0 Etiolation Light Seed Germination 0 Some seeds will only germinate in the light therefore sow on surfaces to see sunlight o Lettuce is a prime example Light Duration short day length 0 Short day flower rapidly when days get shorter 0 Cause response in the growth Light Duration long day 0 Spinach Rainfall 0 Plants are at least 80 water 0 Water determines productivity and quality 0 Solvent for nutrients 0 Cooling of leaves during respiration Rainfall negative effects 0 Stromdamage o Waterlogging Wind 0 Wind carries oxygen away 0 Effects on evaporation Temperature Vocab o Vernalization o Coldhardiness 0 Day length 0 Frost 0 Freeze o Microclimate 0 Athens is in 73 area Components of Soil 0 Inorganic material 45 o Air 25 0 Water 25 0 Organic Material 5 Principal Soil Horizon o Oorganic humus often absent 0 A leaching o KMgNa Clay Important Soil Characteristic Soil t Texture Chemical 0 CEC 0 pH Soil Water properties 0 Drainage extu re The way the soil quotfeelsquot is call the soil texture Depends on size of mineral particles in the soil Sand silt and clay 0 Sand gritty o Silt soft silky or floury 0 Clay sticky Particle size determines texture 0 Sand silt and clay or 0 Coarse medium and fine Soil texture determines o Fertility o Pore space 0 Permeability o Aeration 0 Water retention Soil Moisture Terms 0 Field Capacity 0 Permanent Wilting Point 0 Available Water Common Soil Management Practices on Construction Sites 0 Soil layering o Campaction to prevent settling 0 General equipment traffic Drainage Test 0 Dig 68quot hole Fill with water Drains in hours good drainage Drains overnight okay drainage Drains in day fair drainage 0000 Never drains bog garden 0 General Comment on Soil Amending 0 Peat moss no good for clay soils 0 Sand clay cement o Tillage to loosen most important 0 Pinebark or compost best amendment 0 Thoroughly tillage or mixing required 0 Soil Chemistry 0 What is Soil Chemistry I Elements simplest kind of matter 0 Cannot be broken down into anything simpler o Nitrogen N Phosphorous P Potassium K Oxygen O are elements and they can exist alone but in nature they seldom do I Elements tend to combine with each other 0 Clay particles carry a negative charge Cation Exchange Capacity 0 Cation exchange capacity CEC o Nutritional Cations o Catoins absorbs roots Texture and CEC 0 Sand CEC is low 0 Clay CEC is high 0 Organic Matter CEC is off the charts Greenhouse Soil 0 Termed soil less or media 0 Various mixes available I Custom I Premixed Primary two ingredients peet moss and pinebark Characteristics of Container Media 0 LIGHTWEIGHT Anchorage Reservoir for nutrients Hold water but drain well 000 Gas exchange What is an Essential Nutrient 0 Any element which is required for completion of the life cycle of the plant 0 Cannot be replaced by another element 0 Must be directly involved in plant metabolism Essential Elements Mineral Primary Secondary Mineral 0 Carbon C HCOZ C02 0 Hydrogen H 0 Oxygen 0 Primary 0 Nitrogen N o Phosphorous P 0 Potassium K Secondary 0 Magnesium Mg 0 Calcium Ca 0 Sulfur S The Primary Nutrients o Nitrogen o Phosphorous 0 Potassium o NPK 0 Three numbers on a fertilizer bag 0 Percentages of each nutrient Secondary Macro Nutrients 0 Secondary nutrients 0 Calcium 0 Magnesium o Sulfur o Smaller amounts than primary nutrients o Dolomitic lime provides Mg and Ca Soil Nutrition Micronutrients o Zinc o Chlorine o Boron o Molybdenum 0 Copper 0 Iron 0 Manganese Macro Vs Micro 0 Required in different amounts 0 Macros are typically found in organic compounds nucleic acids proteins etc o Macros are generally mobile in the plant Principles of limiting factors what ever is the missing factor is the only limiting factor example you need potassium it does not matter how much nitrogen you can add it wont change the outcome 0 Light 0 Heat 0 Mechanical support 0 Organic matter 0 Phosphorous 0 Potassium o Nitrogen o Other nutrients 0 Water 0 Air Nitrogen Fixation Organisms is symbiotic relationships eg rhizobium bacteria and legumes Factors affecting nutrient uptake 0 Soil pH Fertilizer form 0 Soil composition 0 Coil microorganisms 0 Nutrient availability 0 Soil aeration 0 Soil temperature 0 Competition Local Soil in the South east ranges around 50 pH naturally acidic Target pH for vegetables and fruits is 6065 How do horticulturists adjust pH 0 Lime 0 Raises pH 0 Consists of Calcium andor magnesium o Finely ground 0 Pelletized versus podwer How do horticulturists lower pH 0 Sulfur or Aluminum 0 Fertilizer materials that contain these 0 Apply directly 0 Trickier to lower than raise Fertilizer Material 0 Definition contains 1 or more recognized plant nutrients 0 Natural or manufactured 0 Solid or liquid 0 All theoretically promote plant growth Simple Fruit 1 ovary of 1 ower ex apple cherry soybean Compound Fruit multiple ovaries Aggregate of 1 ower ex raspberry blackberry Multiple of many owers ex pineapples Berries simple fruit and seeds created from a single ovary ex tomato Pome some or all of the esh is not derived from the ovary but from some adjacent tissue ex apples and pears Drupe anything with a pit outer eshy part surrounds a shell pit or stone of hardened endocarp with a seed inside ex olive peach apricot cherry Achene aggregate fruit like strawberry what appears to be seeds are achenes of fruit containing the seed are also formed by one carpel and don t open at maturity Tomatoes peppers eggplant fruit vegetable annual Self Pollination pollen transferred from anther to the stigma on the same ower OR from another ower on the same plant OR from a ower on another plant of the same variety Self unrruitn many plants cannot produce fruit from their own pollen and are considered self unfruitful or self sterile require polled from related cultivar ex apples pear blueberries most muscadine grapes Pollinators bees butter ies moths ies beetles birds bats mice Gross pollination transfer of pollen from anther of the ower of one plant to stigma of ower of another plant Plant Hormone a naturally occurring substance that affects plant growth and development and is at very low concentrations growth development cell elongation cell division and differentiation auxin development etc ethylene stimulates fruit ripening gibberelin germination sex expression etc cytokinin promotes cell division abscisic acid Frost frequent site speci c 1To wind clouds low between 30 32 F heat radiated from surface frost protection irrigation thickness of ice does not insulate plant blankets irrigation for frost control when the ice has melted off the owers the following day Freeze not site speci c Wind and clouds could be lower than 32 F invasion of cold air mass Components of Soil Inorganic Material 45 Air 25 Water 25 Organic Materials 5 Soil Provides support air water nutrients Particle Size determines texture Sand beach balls silt frisbee clay dime GEC cation exchange capacity high CEO high plant fertility cations absorbed by the roots related to nutritional holding capacity function of texture Fertility clay higher in natural fertility high permeability in sand highest water retention with clay Greenhouse materials 1 Polyethylene 4 5 years glass lets most light in permanent Polycarbonate rigid plastic 90 light transmission 7 10 years diffuses light and reduces condensation Greenhouse Soil termed soil less or media arti cial mix Various mixes available custom or premixed peat moss and pine bark Characteristics of container media lightweight anchorage reservoir for nutrients hold water but drain well gas exchange far less problems with disease Primary Nutrients NPK 1Titrogen Phosphorus Potassium 5 s on fertilizer bag shows of each Secondary MacroNutrients Calcium Ca Magnesium Mg Sulfur S Micro Nutrients needed in small amounts Macro Nutrients needed in large amounts GA pH 50 52 naturally acidic Most crops 60 75 pH Veggies like 60 65 pH Azaleas blueberries rhododendrons camilla cranberries like lower 5 55 Lime raises pH Ca Mg Sulfur or Aluminum lowers pH Optimum pH maximizes the absorption of nutrients by roots Fertilizer Slow release Coated many organic fertilizers are coated Common traditional readily available cheapest Water soluble mixes in water usually most expensive Phototropism positive response to light cell elongation stimulated on shaded side growing shoots bend toward light Gravitropism positive response to gravity cell elongation inhibited on lower portion of root but stimulated on upper portion growing root bends downwards towards the center of gravity opposite effect on shoot Thigmotrophism positive response to touch or pressure cell elongation is inhibited on stem side touching an object but stimulated on the non touching side growing shoot coils around the object Hydrotropism NOTHING to do with HORMONES positive response based on water availability root tips closest to a source simply grow faster than those further away hormones not involved growth of the root towards a water source Pruning trees and shrubs only to remove dead or bad limbs no more than 25 30 at a time 3 legit places to make a pruning out just above a bud at a fork at the ground Open vase pruning vs central leader 3 4 scaffolded branches spaced only inches apart on trunk central leader trunk supports several scaffolded branches Prune when dormant or after blooming or before growth starts in Spring 3 Cut Method half cut further out all the way then nal Collar tissue will cover wound never really xes but compartmentalizes the wound Totipotency every cell in a plant has inherent genetic ability to reproduce the entire plant Hours of sunlight Sun loving 6 8 Ha f sun 4 6 Shade loving less than 4 Drainage test 6 8quot hole and ll with water drains in few hours good drainage all night okay drainage never drains bog garden Plant Hardiness zones higher number warmer 4 9 B is warmer than A Athens 7b from 9 to 5 colder Climate meteorological conditions including temp precipitation and wind that characterizes a speci c location Micro Climate climate of a small speci c place within and area contrasted with the climate of an entire area Botanical Nomenclature Carl Linnaeus Gultivar species with mutations caused by human intervention written with the letters cv or placed in Variety botanical term species with stable mutation passed on to progeny written with var and underlined or italicized Genus Noun capitalized common name and species adjective lower case Vegetable Production Common Commercial Crops in GA onions potatoes melons asparagus lettuce spinach cauli ower Planting methods direct seed fairly inexpensive and keeps well pelletizedgelplain negative weather birds vegetable transplant bare rootcell pack Basic Flower Parts sepals modi ed leaf wraps around bud to protect it located at base of ower petals to attract pollinators doesn t contribute directly to pollination advertises location stamens male organ consists of anther and lament anther produces pollen pistils female organs stigma style ovary stigma catches pollen style pathway to ovary ovary contains egg Fertilization Asexual entire plant or plant parts form the next generation Sexual specialized cells gametes Perennial plant that doesn t have a life cycle within a season may create seeds but doesn t die out it will remain and grow back year after year ex most turf grass oak tree Annual plant that completes its life cycle in one year one growing season Biennial plant that takes longer than a year but less than 2 years to complete its life cycle ex cabbage Photoperiod short day vs long day plants can be manipulated like in a greenhouse day can be lengthened or shortened to promote growth like with poinsettias Vernalization the requirement that a plant must have a cold period prior to bud initiation Dioecious vs Monoecious imperfect vs perfect owers Dioecious male and female owers on separate plants ex holly shrubs staminate and pistillate owers borne on different plants Monoecious male and female owers on same plant ex cucumbers same plant but different structures Perfect owers both stamen and pistils carpels ower has both male and female parts Vascular tissue vascular bundlequot consists of the xylem and phloem together which run through the plant like a network Xylem conducts water and mineral elements from soil and moves them upward soil to leaves Phloem takes what the leaves manufacture from photosynthesis and sends the sugarwater products down to lower parts of plant that are actively growing ower seeds root Cambium Layer ring around tree grows one annually when wood dies layer between bark and wood Georgia Horticulture Crop Rankings Pecans 1st but compete with NM and TX Greens 1st Peaches 3rd behing CA Laums Warm vs Cool Season Cool season no warmer than zone 7 Fescue most popular in Piedmont and Mountain areas of GA Warm season goes dormant during winter no colder than 7 80 95 F Bermuda Zoysia St Augustine Centipede Mowing Heights no more than 1 5 of leaf Seed Cheap takes longer to establish varietieshybrids most fescue in south is done by seed Sod Bermuda grass is a good sod eXpensive instant requires lifting capabilities Sprig cheaper than sod faster than seed resolves hybridvariety issue Grafting taking roots from one plant and connecting to those of a different plant line up xylem and phloem so they will hopefully grow together Scion top portion Rootstock bottom portion Used for height control apple trees compatibility and for plants with low rooting potential Tissue culture creating new plants from plant cells instead of plant parts routinely used commercially clonal asexual reproduction Hybrid plant offspring Clone exactly same as parent plant Scari cation seed coat contains a barrier to germination that must be removed must be scratched abrasively rubbed go through digestive tract etc before germination can occur Strati cation seed must experience a period of cold before it can germinate helps ensure seeds germinate AFTER winter is over Irrigation Timing less often and longer for more dense and deep root systems Application Methods Furrows trophs Central pivots turns in a circle lose water through evaporation because it is dropped from overhead Drip saves time and cuts water use by 50 70 applied directly to plant media Field Capacity when a plant is completely saturated Wilting point point where plant collapses and won t come back Nurseries often use overhead watering and water soluble fertilizer Cyclic irrigation water several times a day Dripline area under the branches Disease Insects Weeds Host Environment Pathogen Fungus main disease 8 5 Insect Types Chewers Caterpillars grubs beetles Piercers Weevils bugs Suckers aphids lace bugs mites Vectors cause disease in plants Weeds Petunia in tomato eld weed they compete with crops for sun water nutrients appearance harbor insects and plant diseases Allelopathy when one plant puts out a chemical that inhibits other plants to grow ex Black Walnut They are effective because most weeds germinate early rapid seedling growth large leaf area large root area Threshold how long do I wait for that certain time to use methods to get rid of the weed or other pests LD 50 the dose that kills half of the animals tested lethal dose lower more toxic higher less toxic Insecticide kiJls insects Fungicide kills pathogens Herbicide kills weeds Tree Shrub Planting Hole Size don t dig deeper than it was growing width 2x as big as root ball or big as you can Amendments don t add anything besides water Staking and tying guying watering holds tree while roots establish loose but taught leave for 10 12 weeks of growing seasonsoak with water to ll voids water to maintain if you can squeeze water out it is too wet B 8 B containers if you buy a B 8e B plant you are buying one that s roots are wrapped in burlap sold based on gallon weight Arboriculture trees Floriculture owers Pomology fruit Enology wine Viticulture grapes 01ericu1ture vegetables Arboriculture Tree protection physical injury occurs to the trunk or crown critical that the ROOT ZONE is protected from physically cutting roots soil compaction smothering roots Tree roots most effective tree roots are not more that 12 inches deep roots go 1 12 Structured Soil soil volumezsize plant grows Crop Origins Coffee Africa Ethiopia Cocoa S America Brazil Camellia Asia China Theobroma Meso America Columbia Plant Reproduction and Development Asexual entire plant forms next generation New plants from stems leaves or roots No seeds just portions of parent plant Advantages offspring are true to type some seeds are hard to germinate Totipotency every cell in the plant has the ability to reproduce the entire plant Apomixis genetic clone no pollination embryo formation without fertilization genetic mutations are passed down restricted niches no adaptation to changing environments Sexual specialized cells fertilization Parthenocarpy means virgin fruit production of fruit without fertilization 2 steps pollination transfer of pollen from anthers to stigma fertilization fusion of sperm with egg and polar nuclei Flower types perfect has both male and female parts imperfect missing either stamen or carpels Pollen developed in the anther four pollen sacs insect pollinated species have sticky pollen grains wind pollinated are small lightweight and smooth Plants advertise their pollen with o Colors bees see blue yellow birds see red bats cant see c Nectar or honey guides o Aromas Bees most important live on nectar eat pollen guided by sight and smell Butterflies and Moss sight and smell red and orange insect s proboscis to get nectar Flies and Beetles flies like flowers that smell bad lay eggs there beetles like dull color and strong odor Birds yellow and red not good sense of smell Bats and Mice white flowers mouse inconspicuous Animals pollinate plants for food Plant Mimicry plants look like female wasp and males try to mate with them Selfpollination anther to stigma on the same flower from another flower on the same plant flower on another plant of the same variety self fruitful strawberries peaches grapes blackberries SelfUnfruitful not self pollinating self sterile pollinizer fertile with a self sterile plant apple pear blueberries muscadine grapes Plant propagation 2212011 62300 PM Sexual Advantages o Large numbers shortly o Can handle large numbers easily o Produces hybrids Disadvantages o Some plants have no viable seeds o Some seeds slow to germinate o Genetic variability Seed Germination o Embryo absorbs water and bursts seed coat o Roots emerge and collect water and minerals 0 Shoot cells elongate pushing stem through soil Protection of apical meristem Seed Quality Factors Free of diseases Viable able to germinate o Pure Stratification plant has a cold requirement to germinate Scarification disruption of seed coat seed coat contains barrier to germination which must be removed Asexual Reproduction o Human intervention o Stems leaves roots involved in reproduction Benefits True traits of parents No seed Disease free stock Poor germination Clones Reproductive parts not necessary Cuttings is the most common method Auxin promotes cell division and elongation Soil What is Soil o Dynamic o Living o Provides Support 0 Air 0 Water 0 Nutrients Components of Soil o Inorganic Materials mineral matter 45 o Air 25 o Water 25 o Organic Materials 5 Takes 100s of years to makes soil Soil Horizons o Layers in the soil o 0 Organic none left in GA A Leaching none left in GA 8 Accumulation 0 Absent in young soils 0 Distinct in Old Soils o C Parent Material Zones of Chemical Action o Soil Profile o Suite of Layers Soil Characteristics o Texture o The way it feels 0 Sand gritty beach ball silt soft silky clay sticky o Determines pore space permeability aeration water retention fertility o Chemical 0 CEC 0 pH o Soil Water Properties 0 Drainage 0 Test Dig 68 in hole fill with water a Drains in hours good u Overnight ok a A day fair n Never drains bog garden 0 Retention o Organic Matter o Structure o Bulk Density o Color Soil Chemistry N P K O o Clay particles have a negative charge o Peat moss no good for clay soils o Sand clay cement o Tillage to loosen most important o Pine bark or compost best amendment o Thorough tillage or mixing required CEC measurement of the amount of negativity that the soil has o Think of it as an indicator of the soils fertility o Sandy soils low in fertility because of low CEC o Least to greatest CEC sande silt 9 clay organic matter Greenhouse Nursery Soils o Termed soil less or media o Various mixes available 0 Custom 0 Premixed Characteristics of Container Media Lightweight Anchorage Reservoir for nutrients Hold water but drain well Gas exchange Test question CEC is a measurement of fertility Nutrition 2212011 62300 PM Essential Nutrients CHNOPS CHO never are an issue NPK are used in the greatest amounts and by all plants Mg Ca S secondary nutrients NPK 0 Three numbers on a fertilizer bag 0 Only thirty percent of fertilizer 0 Test 100 lb bag of 51010 how many lbs of P N 10 5 micros generally enzyme constituents macros are generally mobile in the plant micros are immobile principle of limiting factors the most limiting factor determines the yield potential nitrogen fixation take nitrogen from the air and turn it into a nodule legumes beans peanuts mimosa o rhizobium bacteria factors affecting nutrient uptake 0 soli pH fertilizer form soil comp soil microorganisms nutrient availability soil aeration soil temp competition 0 O O O O O 0 Micro Zinc Chlorine Boron Copper iron Manganese Molybdenum Soils in SE Acidic Soils in W basic Ideal pH is 60 66 Adjust pH With lime increase Consists of Calcium primary ingredient and or Magnesium o Takes a year for applied calcium to have an effect moves an inch per year the finer it is ground the better the effect c Lower o with sulfur of aluminum 0 apply directly 0 trickier to lower than raise Fertilizer Material o Contains 1 or more recognized plant nutrients o Natural or manufactured o Solid or liquid o Promote plant growth Three types of fertilizers o Slow release sulfur coated plastic coated naturally slow to break down many organic fertilizers are naturally slow release o Common granular traditional readily available cheapest o Water Soluble mixes in water applies with irrigation or sprayed most expensive Horticulture Study Guide Test 1 Early Honiculturalist o Theophrastus 371286 BP 0 Wrote 2 important books on plants 0 Earliest known Systematic author 0 John Bartram American Botanist 0 James Oglethorpe 0 Established trustee garden in savannah Roman Agg 0 Trade in wine and olive oil 0 Cotton spun in India 2000 bc Renaissance 0 Scienti c revolution 0 Plant breeding 0 Crop rotation o Drainage brought more land into cultivation European ideas for food and farming 0 Root crops 0 Lettuce o Peas Feudal Agg middle ages 0 Began after fall of roman empire 0 Reached its peak in about 1100 0 Loss of agg and horticulture info 0 Mosatic gardens Types of Honiculture o Olericulture 0 Vegetable 0 Viticulture o Grapes o Enology 0 Wine 0 Floriculture 0 Flowers 0 Arboriculture o Urbantrees o Pomology 0 Fruit Post WWII 0 Green revolution 0 Norman Borlaug father of green revolution Selective breeding of crops Pesticides Fertilizers DNA technology Intensive cultivation methods Machinery development Andrew Jackson Downing 0 Editor for the horticulturalist o Remembered for writing horticulture stuff for the average man Gregor Mendel father of genetics Peaches are from China Tomatoes are Native to SA Corn Guatemala Pineapple from Brazil Pathways of Crop Movement 0 Human migration 0 Cultural exchange 0 Trade Welfare 4 Major Parts of Plants 0 Sepals protect ower while in bud o Petals attractant of the pollinator o Stamen Anther protects pollen o Pistils stigma Perfect 0 Both Stamens amp Pistols both male and Female Imperfect 0 Missing either stamens of pistols only 1 sex per ower Monoecism 0 Both male and female on same plant imperfect Dioecious 0 Male amp Female on separate plants perfect Vegetable is not a botanical term it is a culinary term Fruit is actually a botanical term Peach Nectarine Fruit Ovary wall mechanism for dispersal Seed embryo Development of fruit from ower 0 Simple o 1 ower 1 ovary I apple cherry 0 Compound 0 Multiple ovaries I Aggregate of one ower 0 Blackberries Raspberries I Multiple of many owers 0 Pineapple Berry 0 Simple fruit and seeds created from a single ovary tomatoes oranges cucumber Drupe o Outter eshy part cexocarp or skin and mesocarp or esh surrounds a shell the pit of hardened endocarp with a seed inside 0 Olive peach apricot coffee Plant Nomenclature o The scientific naming of plants in an organized system Albeltus Magnus 0 Classi cation system recognizing differences in monocot and dicots Cultivatures 0 Species with mutations caused by human intervention written by placing Binomial System 0 Genus species 0 Genus noun capitalized 0 Species adjective lower 0 Both are italicized Tissue Culture Principles 0 Totipotency 0 Hormonal effects 0 Colonal asexual reproduction o Sterile environment Breaking seed dormancy o Scarification external dormancy seed cover is really tough so it has to be physically hit to be removed 0 Stratification dormancy broken due to good situations Asexual propagation o Reproduction by the use of stems leaves roots of other plants Vegetative asexualA propagation o Advantage 0 Disease free 0 Genetic clones 0 Reproductive parts not necessary 0 Disadvantage o Costly to plant 0 Space and time 0 Reduce gene pool Types of Pollination 0 Self Pollination o Pollen transferred from anther to stigma on the same ower or from another 0 From a ower on another plant of the same variety 0 Self pollinating plants self fruitful 0 Self Unfruitful 0 Many plants cannot produce fruit from own pollen o Called selfsterile o Require pollen from other plants Embryo Parts 0 Shoots 0 Roots o Cotyledons seed leaves which nourish embryo Plant propagation o Reproduction of plants with human interference Sexual propagation o Advantage 0 Large in a short time 0 Can handle large s o Produces hybrids o Disadvantage 0 Some plants produce no visible seeds 0 Some seed difficult to germinate 0 Genetic variability is large Seed Germination o Embryo absorbs water and burst out of seed coat Photosynthesis Main Components of most plants are 0 Carbon 40 0 Oxygen 45 0 Hydrogen 78 Light Energy is used to make sugar out of water and carbon dioxide Photosynthesis Formula 0 A series of physical and biochemical reactions which rst store light energy into chemical compounds and then use this chemical energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugar Light Absorption and photosynthesis o Chlorophyll in the chloroplasts absorbs light Properties of Light 0 Light moves in waves in energy units called photons Engergy of PHOTON inversely proportional to its wavelength Light is Absorbed by Pigments 0 Primary pigment for photosynthesis is chlorophyll o It absorbs blue and red light not 2 Types of Photosynthesis 0 C3 plants include more that 95 percent of the plant species on earth Trees for example are C3 Plants 0 C4 plants include such crop plants as sugar can and corn They are the second most prevalent photosynthetic type C4 0 C02 temporarily stored as 4 C organic aids resulting in more ef cient C exchange rate 0 Advantage in high light and high temp CAM Crassulacean acid metabolism 0 Stomata open during night 0 Advantage in arid climates o Succulents cacti euphorbs bromeliads agaves Respiration Process of making the energy of food available in the cell Transpiration o Transporting minerals from the soil to plant 0 Cooling the plant through evaporation 0 Moving sugars and plant chemicals 0 Maintaining turgor pressure Plant Factors Transpiration 0 Leaf shape 0 Size 0 Pores stomata o Waxiness ofleaf Products of photosynthesis are transported in Phloem from source to sink Phloem Movement 0 Translocation movement of organic solutions through plant 0 Produced at photosynthetic site SOURSE and are moved to either growing or storage sits depending on the time of the year SINK Translocati0n Energy is being used Direction of movement of Phloem 0 Supply and demand or source and sink so it can be up or down Plants in dry environments 0 Time growth accordingly 0 Develop waxy cuticle o Regulate stoma opening so they open at night CAM plants 0 Reduces surface area of leaves temporarily 0 Only produce leaves during rain 0 Changing leave orientation Plants in wet Environments o The development of pneumatophores cat tails 0 Shallow root system 0 Some plants actually metabolic anaerobically Plants need water to maintain turgor 0 Keep plants erect 0 Plasma membrane pushes against cell walls Water Soil to root Root to leaf Cohesion tension theory 0 Longdistance water transport 0 Driving force in transporting transpiration Cohesion o Clumping of like molecules Horticulture 2000 o Horticulture the science art and business of cultivating fruits veggies flowers and ornamental plants 0 Horticulturist an expert in Horticulture gardener etc o Horticulture is the human manipulation of plants hormones pruning cell division etc o The culturesquot 1 Olericulture vegetables 2 Viticulture grapes 3 Enology wine and wine making 4 Floriculture flowers 5 Arboriculture urban trees 6 Pomology fruit 0 Grapes are the highest grossing Fruit 0 Potatoes are the highest grossing Vegetable Irish Potatoes come from Peru 0 Georgia Horticulture 1 First in Greens and pecans depending on yearwe compete with Texas and New Mexico in pecans 2 Third in Blueberries 3 Forth in fresh vegetable production watermelons 4 Third in peaches default state to guess in competition CALIFORNIA 0 Georgia should be considered the Chicken State Poultry is 57 billion but Horticulture 31 billion 0 Careers in Horticulture 0 Greenhouse flower production Nursery Production Florist Golf Courses Landscape designer or architect Landscape artist Vegetable grower Fruit grower Public gardens Researcher Extension career Sales or marketing Teacher Horticulture therapy Agrochemical development OOOOOOOOOOOOOO Machinery development In the beginning 0 Early humans depend on huntinggathering o Intentional planting of crops 1015000 BP 0 Arose around 8 centers of origin 0 Started with adapted wild plants 0 Allowed for settlements and increases in rates of quotadvancementquot in civilization Changes Accompanied Adoption of Agricultural Lifestyle 0 Increase in Population 0 More leisure time 0 Increase in sedentary lifestyle 0 Increase in civilization Changes to Crops o Shattering abilities in grains 0 Potato tubers borne close to plant 0 Thin vs Thick shells in nuts Early Horticulturist Theophratus 371286 BP 0 Wrote two important books on plants 0 Earliest know systematic author Discoirides 4090 0 Medical Botanist 0 De Materia Medica Pliny the Elder 2379 AD 0 Historia Civilizations that helped horticulture were the Egyptians The Romans started with Irrigations aqueducts windmills fertilizer crop rotations Key Ideas in Horticulture growth Scientific Revolution Spice Trade Exchange of crops and ideas of growing Columbian Exchange Peaches are From CHINA massive movement Settling in America 0 The Squanto Story 0 Corns beans squash not native to North America 0 Native Fruits and nuts 0 Root crops lettuce peas European Idea Age of Enlightenment 0 To understand the natural world and humankind 0 Jethro Tull 0 John Bartram and son William Bartram 0 James Oglethorpe establishes Trustees Garden 0 Andre Michaux 0 Thomas Jefferson and Monticello Acts of Congress 0 Morrill Act of 1862 Land Grant College 0 1890 Colleges addition to morrill act African American colleges support research tied to teaching 0 Hatch Act of 1879 Experiment Stations After World War 2 0 Green Revolution 0 Selective breeding of crops 0 DNA technology 0 Intensive cultivation methods 0 Machinery development 0 Pesticides 1Who is considered to be the father of genetics ad 2What were the three significant crops native americans were growing at the time the Pilgrims landed Why Important 0 Genetic erosion Loss of germplasm I Germplasm preservation gene banklargely seed collections frozen stem sections 0 Preservation of natural habitats especially in centers of origins 0 Debate over native plants Where did our crops first appear I Alphonse de Candolle 18061893 Swiss Botanist 0 Charles Darwin 18091882 British Naturalist I Nikolai Vavilov 18871900s Russian Scientist 1 China I Peach 2 India I Bananas Fruit I Sugarcane and Nutmeg spices 3 Central Asiatic I Mustard I Wine Grapes 4 NearEastern Center IraqIran Fertile Cresent I Apples I Fig 5 Mediterranean 6 Abyssian o COFFEE 7 MesoAmerican latin America I Maize I Papaya I Cocao however Ghana and Ivory Coast are biggest exporters 8 South Ameica Center I Tomatoes 0 Peppers 0 Tobacco 0 Wild Strawberry Pathways of Crop movement I Dissemination of crops human migration cultural exchange trade warfare 0 Scientific exploration introduction into Europe from the near east 9000 BP Tomatoes Native to South America in the Andes Mountain Peppers From South America the meso America area Corn Andes and Guatemala Pineapple Hawaii and south America Squash Massachusetts Banana South East AsiaIndia Cacao Native to meso America 82411 Detailed History of Cacao o 1000 BP Earliest name kakawa in use among the Olmec o 400 BP 100 Maya adopt the word cocoa Coffee Peaches China Russia Persia Spain Mexico California Landscape Design 0 Horticultureagriculture 0 Culture 0 History The Garden of Eden 0 First Known Garden 0 Paradise garden 0 Essentials for survival Influenced by slmaic Egyptian and Roman gardens Italian Gardens Renaissance 14001600 0 Parterres and topiary o Terraces 0 Water features 0 Formal layout 0 Dramatic sitting o Manipulated land forms o Steep slope topography French Gardens 16001800 Versailles o Grandiose scale opulence 0 Level topography o Elaborate beds Jardin Le Enbroidere o Alle long site line 0 Formal style grand style 0 Demonstration of control of nature 0 Unique pruning pleaching pollarding English Gardens 17001800 0 Spacious Lawns meadow 0 Rolling hills 0 Large bodies of water 0 Asymmetrical 0 Large bodies of water Sir Lancelot quotCapabilityquot Brown 17161783 0 Transformed the English Landscape o Naturalized the English formal style 0 Open lawn up to house 0 Made use of the quothahaquot haha is a stone wall built below the ground John Claudius Loudon 17831843 0 quotPicturesquequot to quotGardenesquequot 0 Individual plant display 0 Victorian Garden Gertrude Jekyll 18431932 0 Color Theory 0 References to genious loci 0 Link of architecture to landscape Oriental Gardens 0 Harmony with nature 0 Symbolic relationship of man and nature 0 Interior connected to exterior 0 Water real or symbolic 0 Stone that is rake or natural 0 Minimal simplistic plant use Early American Gardens 16001800 0 Use of English garden concepts 0 Mt Vernon Washington 0 Monticello Jefferson 0 Gunston Hall Mason American Gardens Early 1800s 0 Andrew Jackson Downing 0 Open lawn o Picturesque look views 0 Country cottage Olmstead father of landscape architecture 0 Landscape as a cure for social ills 0 City parks central park 0 University Planning Stanford o Estates Biltmore 0 Neighborhoods Druid Hills Riverside 0 Beatrix Fa rrand 0 First woman ASLA 0 American Gardens 1940s 0 Thomas Church I Site Planning I Garden zones I Low maintenance 0 Wolfgang Oehme and James van Sweden 0 Garden Design Today 0 New urbanism 0 Green LEED certified 0 Sustainability 0 Local Food 0 Garden Design Magazines History of the lawn in America I A Smooth shaven surface of green is by far the most essential element of beauty on the grounds Frank J Scott First lawns in America I Middleton Plantation SC I Mt Vernon VA I Monticello VA Early Lawn Proponents Lawns and the Suburbs Levitt Town Lawns and the mower I Early scythe I 1830 budding mower I Horse mower 1852 I Sickle bar mower 1898 I 1921 reel mower I 1933 toro golf tractor I Swisher mower 1955 I Modern 0 turn tractor Cool Sea son grasses I Most native to England I Fescue and bluegrass Warm Season grasses I Bermuda Africa I Centipede china I Zoysia china Lawn Sprinklers Lawn as a standard I Garden Clubs I City Ordinances I Turf Industry How did the lawn become such a big deal I Design aesthetic I Promoted by prominent designers I Invention Current Environmental Issues I Fertilizers I Pollution from power equipment I Pesticides I Waste recycling and lawns I Noise Pollution and Lawns Plant Nomenclature This is the formal and scientific name for plants Why name plants Manual of Woody Landscape Plants Dirr 1998 European White Water Lily has 15 different common English name 44 French 105 German and 81 Dutch However The Plant Nomenclature is Nymphaea alba which is universal for all First naming plants Based on use Food you eat you die Medicinal you eat you live Dyes Early Plant Describers o Theophrastus 370285 BP 0 480 Species o llPliny the Elder 2379 AD 0 500 Species o Dioscorides Middle Ages 0 Littleoriginalwork o Albertus Magnus 11831280 0 Classification system recognizing difference in monocot and dicots Linnaen Period 0 Carl Linne Linnaeus1707 1778 0 Father of Taxonomy 0 Naming based on reproductive parts 0 Binary names 0 Published 1753 Species Planetarium 0 Estimated 20000 plant species 0 Now estimated 250000 0 Set the standard 0 Linnaeus and Banks Evolution 0 Charles Darwin 0 Origin of Species o Evolutionary concepts 0 Change over time Natural System 0 Advances to Linneaus System Earliest Latin Names 0 Nepeta floribus interrupte spicatis pedunculatis catnip o Dianthus floribus solitariis squamis calycinis subovatis brevissimis carnation Binomial System of Nomenclature o Twopart Latin scientific name 0 Genus Species o Nepeta cataria Catnip o Genus Species o Genus Noun Capitalized 0 Species adjective lowercase I Both are either italicized or underlined Genus common name 0 Euonymus o Petunia o Rhododendron o Forsythia Species Name Adjective o Betula lutea Yellow birch o Betula alba white birch o Quercus rubra red oak o Juglans nigra Black Walnut Species Name Geography 0 tea virginica Virginia sweetspire o Taxus canadensis Canadian Yew Authority 0 Acer palmatum Thumb Taxonomist scientist who identifies and organisms living organisms In this case Swedish Botanist Thunberg 0 International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ICBM Cultivars and Varieties 0 Variety botanical term species with stable mutations passed on to progeny written with the letters var then underlined or italicized o Cultivar species with mutations caused by human interaction written with the letters quotcvquot or placed in parenthesis Taxonomic Classification of a Peach 0 Kingdom Plantae 0 Division Tracheophyta 0 Class Angiospermae o Subclass Dicotyledoneae 0 Order Rosales 0 Family Rosaceae o Genus Prunus 0 Species persica Operational Classification 0 Annuals o Biennials o Perennials 0 Evergreen Retains leave year round 0 Deciduous looses its leaves typically in the fall or end of growing season Dicots vs Monocots Dicots 0 Net veined leaves 0 Floral parts in 4 s and 5 s 0 2 cotyledons 0 Vascular bundles in ring Monocots o Parallelveined o Floralpartsin 3 s 0 1 cotyledon o Scattered vascular bundles Plant Growth 0 Meristem Cells 0 Area of active cell divisions 0 Types of meristem o Apical 0 Lateral Parts of a plant Roots Anchor Absorb water and minerals Store sugar Transport water and minerals Produce hormones Interact with soil Parts of the roots 0 Root Hairs involved in absorption of water 0 Root Cap tap o Meristem active growth 0 Conducting tissue conducts water and nutrients to the plant Root Types 0 Structural roots 0 Fine roots 0 Storage and tuberous roots 0 Surface roots 0 Adventitious Root Systems 0 Fibrous root system thin moderately branching 0 Tap root Stem Support Contains buds leafs or flower at nodes External Anatomy of Stems o nternodes area between the buds o Bark lenticels 0 Leaf scar 0 Vascular System 0 Xylem conducts water and nutrients from root to leaves 0 Phloem carries sugars amino acids hormones mostly from leaves to other areas 0 Woody Stems o Xylem Phloem Cambium Hea rtwood o o o Sapwood o o Pith Leaves Photosynthetic Unit 0 Gas exchange 0 Prevent water evaporation Two main parts 0 Blade I Broad flat surface 0 Petiole I Leaf stem Leaf structure 0 Epidermis outer layer CUTICLE IS THE OUTERMOST LAYER 0 Vascular bundles contains xylem and phloem for transport 0 Stoma important word breathing port through this oxygen is released and carbon is taken in Kinda like our mouth Plant Growth The main components of most plants Carbon Oxygen and Hydrogen Plants get almost all their carbon oxygen and hydrogen from photosynthesis Photo light Photosynthesis refers to the use of light to produce plant material sugars Light ENERGY is used to make sugar out of water and carbon dioxide Why does it matter 0 Photosynthesis is one of the most important biological process on earth 0 Provides the oxygen we breathe o Consumes much of the C02 0 Food 0 Energy fossil fuels 0 Fibers and materials Photosynthesis and Global warming A description of photosynthesis Written a series of physical and biochemical reactions which first store light energy into chemical compounds and then use this chemical energy to convert light energy into Photosynthesis and Horticulture the goal in horticulture is to capture light energy and transform it into a usable saleable product like ornamental plants fruits vegetables Light Absorption and Photosynthesis 0 Plants capture sun light for use in photosynthesis o Chlorophyll in the chloroplasts absorbs light Where does photosynthesis occur The Leaf Properties of light 0 Light moves in waves in energy units called PHOTONS Energy inversely proportional to its wavelength 0 Visible light between UV and IR occurs in a spectrum of colors Light is absorbed by pigments o The primary pigment for photosynthesis is chlorophyll A o It absorbs blue and red light not green green is reflected back Overall reaction of photosynthesis Glucose is used by plants for direct growth or it is converted into sucrose starch or other carbohydrates and stored for later use Types of Photosynthesis C3 0 The Majority of plants C4 0 Carbon temporarily stored as 4 C organic acids resulting in more efficient C exchange rate o Advantage in high light high temperature low Carbon 0 Many grasses corn sorghum millet sugar cane and CRABGRASS CAM o Stomata open during night 0 Advantage in arid climates o Succulents cacti euphorbs bromeliads agaves Factors affecting Photosynthesis LIGHT 12 Hzowc leo 602 six enzymes 5 quotrmquot molecules o car on of o em dioxide 9 twelve six molecules molecules of water of water one molecule of gluco a plum biomass Light 0 Rate of photosynthesis increases with light intensity C02 0 Rate of photosynthesis increases with C02 Concentration Temperature 0 Rate of Photosynthesis varies with temperature change Bell Curve Respiration 0 Process of making the energy of food available in the cell C6H1206 602 gt GHZO 6C02 energy glucose oxygen a waler carbon diuxide energy Transpiration o Transporting minerals from the soilto plant 0 Cooling the plant through evaporation 0 Moving sugars and plant chemicals 0 Maintaining turgor pressure Plant Factors Tra nspiration 0 Leaf shape 0 Size 0 Pores stomata o Waxiness of leaf Types of plant reproduction o Asexual entire plant or plant parts from the next generation 0 Sexual specialized cells gametes unite through fertilization to produce the next generation Asexual reproduction o The reproduction of the new plants from the stems leaves or roots of a parent plant 0 No seeds are used just the portion of the plant runner 0 Advantages offspring are truetotype clone and some seeds hard to germinate Totipotency 0 Every cell in a plant has inherent genetic ability to reproduce the entire plant Two anomalies in the plant world apomixes and parthenocarpy o Apomixes asexual repro o Embryo formation without fertilization o A genetic clone of the mother is produced 0 Advantages I No Pollinators required I Avoid male energy 0 Disadvantages I Accumulation of deleterious I Carries all traits even bad one o Parthenocarpy sexual repro o Literally means virgin fruits 0 Production of fruit without fertilization Sexual Reprodution Two Steps 0 Pollination transferring pollen from anthers to stigma o Fertilization fusion of sperm with egg and polar nuclei Flower Types 0 Perfect both stamens amp pistols carpels all parts are present o Imperfect missing either stamens or carpels missing anything 0 Monoecious male amp female flowers on same plant 0 Dioceious male and female flowers on separate plants Flower Initiation 0 Certain 1 39 Juvenile Adult lightflowering 0 Aging Day length light temps Pollen o Developed in the anther o Consist of four pollen sacs 0 Each sacs contains thousands or microfibers o The shape and form of pollen is related to its method of pollination o Insect pollinated species have sticky of barbed pollen grains 0 Windpollinated species are lightweight small and smooth corn pollen Getting Pollinators Attention Plants advertise their pollen and nectar rewards with 0 Colors bees see blue yellow UV Birds see red bats don t see well so flowers are white 0 Nectar or honey guides a visual guide for pollinators to locate the reward pansy flower 0 Aromas Animal Pollinators Bees 0 Most important insect 0 Live on the nectar and feed larvae 0 Also eat the pollen 0 Guided by sight and smell 0 See yellow and blue colors also ultraviolet light not red Flowers in Horticulture o Pollination of Crops o Hybridization Flower Four Main Parts 0 Sepals o Petals o Stamens o Pistils Parts of a Complete Flowers Flowers are modified leaves 0 Sepals located at base of flower 0 Protect emerging flower 0 Petals advertise location of the flower 0 Stamens male reproductive structure 0 Filament o Anther produces pollen o Pistol female reproductive parts Diocecious 0 Definition Staminate and pistillate flowers borne on different plants 0 EX Holly ginko date palm wax myrtle Annual versus Perennial 0 Annual completes its life cycle within a single year 0 Perennial completes lifecycle on a track Definition of fruit 0 Ripened ovule or egg 0 Ovule or egg is fertilized by the sperm the pollen and the ovary matures into the fruit 0 Fruit are usually classified Confusion of the term fruit 0 Vegetable is a culinary and trade name 0 Ex Celery asparagus tomato pumpkin 0 Fruit often used as a culinary name 0 Ex Rhubarb blueberry grape 0 Fruit as a professional name 0 Pomology traditional culinary fruit 0 Olericulture traditional culinary vegies 0 Fruit is also a scientific name 0 Ex Pumpkin tomato blueberry grape Fruit llMature ovary 0 Purpose protects seeds dispersal aid Seed versus Fruit 0 Fruit ovary wall mechanism for seed dispersal 0 Seed embryo Development of fruit from flower 0 Simple 1 ovary of a flower 0 Ex Apple cherry soybean 0 Compound multiple ovaries 0 Aggregate of one flower I Ex Raspberry blackberry 0 Multiple of many flowers inflorescence I Ex Pineapple Berries 0 Berry simple fruit and seeds created from a single ovary o Pepo berries skin is hardened cucurbutis o Hesperidium berries with a rind citrus Pome 0 Some or all of the flesh is derived not from the ovary but from some adjacent tissue 0 Ex Apples Pears 0 Outer fleshy part exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh surrounds a shell the pit or stone of hardened endocarp with a seed inside 0 Ex Olives apricot Cones Aggregate Fruits 0 Can be aggregates of o Drupes raspberry or o Achene strawberry Multiple Fruits 0 Fig 0 Pineapple 0 Osage Orange Fruit Dispersal o Explosive fruits o Mistletoe 0 Wind dispersed Sexual Reproduction Juvenile 9 phase change 9 adult 9 floral promoters floral inhibitors lights and temperature 9 flowering Photoperiod manipulation of photoperiod in greenhouses Poinsettia trickery Honey Bees Butterflies Flies and beetles o Flies like flowers that smell like dung or rotten meat Birds 0 Birds have a good sense of color they like yellow or red flowers Bats and Mice o Bats pollinate at night so flowers are white Why do animals pollinate plants 0 Rewardfood o Nectar I Sugarcontent o Pollen I Protein Factors effecting pollination Ex Almonds 0 Weather 0 Honeybees fly when temperature are 55 degrees and higher 0 Flower biology 0 Fruit set differs with variety age of tree 0 Flowers have life span of 35 days 0 Plant competition 0 Honeybees may visit plants other than almonds 0 Bee behavior 0 Behavior differs depending on whether collecting pollen nectar or both o Bees differ in rate of flower visitation varietal preference and frequency of stigma contact Types of pollination o Selfpollination o Pollen transferred from the anther to the stigma on the same flower or 0 From another flower on the same plant of the same variety 0 Selfpollinated plants are said to be selffruitful I Examples strawberries peaches bunch and wine grapes blackberries o Selfunfruitful 0 Many plants cannot produce fruit from their own pollen and are considered self unfruitful o Called selfstride I Require pollen from related cultivar o A plant that will fertilize a selfsterile or selfunfruitful plant is called a pollinizer I Examples apple pear blueberries most muscadine grapes Seed and fruit development 0 Embryo sac and integument become the seed 0 Embryo parts 0 Shoot 0 Root 0 Cotyledons seed leaves which Plant Propagation 0 Definition The reproduction of new plants from seeds or vegetative parts of a plant Sexual Propagation 0 Advantages 0 Large numbers in a short period of time 0 Can handle large numbers easily 0 Produces hybrids o Disadvantages 0 Some plants produce no viable seeds 0 Some seeds difficult or slow to germinate 0 Genetic variability Seed 0 Definition seed is dormant undeveloped plant 0 Seed contains all the genetic material needed for development of mature plant Seed Germination o Embryo absorbs water and bursts seed coat 0 Roots emerge and collect water and minerals 0 Shoot cells elongate pushing stem through soil I Protection of apical membrane Seed Quality Factors 0 Free of diseases 0 Viable able to germinate 0 Pure Seed Purity and collecting your own seeds 0 Know seeds no hybrids or GMO 0 Wind Pollination hard to control Seed Germination Requirements 0 Soil temperature plant for the optimum not too hot or too cold 0 Soil moisture o Planting depth o LIGHT DOESN T REALLY MATI39ER FOR SEED GERMINATION o 34 times the size of the seed Seed Dormancy 0 Many seeds will not germinate right away 0 This solves two problems for the plant 0 Intrinsic to the plant I Developing in the fruit is bad I Developing near other seeds is bad 0 Environmental I May mature during winter I Dormancy Breaking dormancy 0 Cleaning and drying o Helps ensure seed is free from the fruit o Cold STRATIFICATION KEY WORD o Helps ensure seeds germinate after winter is over 0 Disruption of seed coat scarification 0 Seed coat contains barrier to germination which must be removed Asexual Reproduction o Reproduction of new plants of new plants from the stems leaves or roots of parent plant 0 No seeds are used just portions of the parent plant Benefits of vegetative propagation 0 True traits of parents 0 Ne seed 0 Disease free stock 0 Poor germination Genetically identical quotClonesquot 0 Reproductive parts not necessary Vegetative propagation 0 Below GroundDivision o Potatoes are cut into sections with buds eyes and planted o Bulbs or corms are planted multiply and new bulbs are pulled apart and planted separately Where can cutting be taken form 0 Stems 0 Leaves 0 Roots Stem cutting o Softwood cuttings o Herbaceous cuttings o Semihardwood cuttings o Hardwood cuttings Leaf Bud Cuttings 0 Leaf petiole and short piece of stem 0 Well developed Air layering method of propagation rare but happens Enhancing vegetative propagation environmental factors 0 Microclimaticconditions 0 Relative humidity 0 Temperature 0 Light 0 Other factors 0 Growing medium 0 Nutrients o Controlling water Enhancing vegetative propagation plant factors 0 Age of plant younger 0 Location of plant 0 Nutritional condition 0 Diseases 0 Water stress Rooting Hormones Ideal Rootinducing environment Growing Medium 0 Peat moss amp perlite mixture 0 Vermiculite Containers for propagating and growing young liner plants 0 Fiber pots biodegradable 0 Synthetic rooting blocks Grafting o llThe ways or fashions of grafting are legion There are as many ways as there are ways of whittling The operator may fashion the union of the stock and the scion to suit himself if only he apply cambium to cambiumquot Why graft 0 Height control 0 Compatibility 0 Low rooting potential Who gets grafted o Apples 0 Pears 0 Peaches o Cherries 0 Japanese maples o Mango Grafting terms 0 Scion top portion 0 Rootstock bottom portion Tissue Culture 0 Routinely used commercially 0 Not limited by field influences o Diseasefree plants 0 Many plants from few Tissue Culture Principles 0 Totipotency 0 Hormonal effects 0 Clonal asexual reproduction o Sterile environment Asexual Propagation Summary 0 Propagation of plants from stems leaves or roots of a parent plant Water and Plants Why do plants need water 0 Plants need water to maintain turgor pressure 0 Keep the plant erect 0 Plasma membrane pushes against cell wall 0 Water carbon dioxide glucose 0 Cool down the plant through evaporation Two important questions 0 Where does water come from o How does the water get to the leaves 0 From soil to root 0 From root to leaf The CohesionTension Theory 0 Long distance water transport 0 Driving force of transport in transpiration o Evaporation of water from the leaf 0 Water molecules cohere stick together and are pulled Cohesion o Clumping of like molecules together 0 Molecules clump Adhesion o Clumping of unlike molecules 0 Water and cellulose attracted to each other How is water moved into and up through the plant Water potential is the tendency of water to go from one place to the next Transport of Water and Nutrients 0 Plants get water and minerals from roots 0 The path taken is soigt rootsgt stemsgt leaves 0 The minerals travel dissolved in the water 0 lt1 of the water reaching the leaves is used in photosynthesis and plant growth Plant Xylem Transport 0 A Typical adult tree 0 Has 200000 leaves 0 Moves 2001000 gallons day to height of 100m 0 A 1 acre cornfield evaporates 0 350000 gallons in 100day growing period Water movement into root hairs 0 Water diffuses into root hairs 0 Active pumping of salts into xylem 0 Water diffuses into xylem Xylem Transport 0 Water and dissolved inorganic salts nutrients o Direction is from root to leaf 0 Pulled un by transpiration o Relies on coordination between root stem and leaf o COST NO ENERGY Hort 2000 492012 41000 PM April 9th Fruit Growth and Fruit Size Regulation o Fruit Development 0 Pollination and fertilization 0 Fruit set 0 Fruit growth 0 Ripening 0 Fruit Growth vs Fruit Size o Factors Affecting Fruit GrowthSize 0 Post Harvest defoliation o Spur size and position 0 Age of Wood 0 Pre bloom temperature 0 Seed number 0 Light and carbohydrate 0 Water stress 0 Cultivar o Rootstock o Regulating Fruit Size 0 Horticultural practices pruning Thinning 0 Genetic Regulation Pruning n Removal of a portion of tree to correct or maintain tree structure a Prune in late winter or early spring right before bud break 3 step to Pruning n Undercut n Remove most of the limb n Remove stub Thinning n Reducing crop load a Prevents biennial or alternate bearing a Increases fruit size and crop yield Times to thin fruit a Pre season flower bud inhibition n Dormant season bud thinning a Flower thinning n Fruitlet thinning Methods of thinning a Chemical thinning a Mechanical thinning a Manual thinning Genetic Engineering 492012 41000 PM
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